IT and the smart grid, Peter Will,Information Sciences Institute, USC'


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IT and the smart grid, Peter Will,Information Sciences Institute, USC'

  1. 1. IT and the Smart Grid Peter Will USC Information Sciences Institute [email_address] Sources: Wikipedia, US DoE, EPRI, SCE, PG&E etc
  2. 2. Electrical Energy The Grid Switchgear Transformers Power lines Command and Control Every country has one, Many countries are interconnectd generators consumers
  3. 3. The US Ideal Grid
  4. 4. The Actual 3 US Grids plus Canada and Mexico connections
  5. 5. Grid Statistics <ul><li>There are more than 3,100 electric utilities : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>213 stockholder-owned utilities provide power to about 73% of the customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,000 public utilities run by state and local government agencies provide power to about 15% of the customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>930 electric cooperatives provide power to about 12% of the customers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>America has about 10,000 power plants . </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;handoff&quot; from electric transmission to electric distribution usually occurs at the substation. There are hundreds of thousands of substations </li></ul><ul><li>The distribution system is generally considered to begin at the substation and end at the customer's meter. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, in 2,000 localities across the country, state and local government agencies operate their own distribution utilities, as do over 900 rural electric cooperative utilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually all of the distribution systems operate as franchise monopolies as established by state law. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Power and Grid Control Area Control Operators Major power plants “ For an ac power grid to remain stable, the frequency and phase of all power generation units must remain synchronous within narrow limits. A generator that drops 2 Hz below 60 Hz will rapidly build up enough heat in its bearings to destroy itself. So circuit breakers trip a generator out of the system when the frequency varies too much. But much smaller frequency changes can indicate instability in the grid. In the Eastern Interconnect, a 30-milli-Hz drop in frequency reduces power delivered by 1 GW. If certain parts of the grid are carrying electricity at near capacity, a small shift of power flows can trip circuit breakers, which sends larger flows onto neighboring lines to start a chain-reaction failure . ” from
  7. 7. Historic Catastrophic Failures <ul><li>1965 NE blackout </li></ul><ul><li>2003 Ohio Failure </li></ul><ul><li>International failures </li></ul><ul><li>Typical causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees falling on wires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice build up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aerodynamic clashes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short to ground </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in load </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Operators had only telephone connection to other operators </li></ul><ul><li>no sensors, </li></ul><ul><li>no real time control </li></ul><ul><li>No modern IT </li></ul><ul><li>So controllable local faults escalated to bring down half of the USA </li></ul>
  8. 8. Grid Control <ul><li>Today manual </li></ul><ul><li>Dispatching is human oriented in control rooms, Phone connected, protection relays blow automatically. A few seconds can avoid a grid collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of Architecture work still going on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network simulation, non-linear + narrow stability regime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real time data, command and control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCADA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Grid Computing in Electrical Grid Control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed Sensing --- Measure everything </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-phase-angle measurement correlated with GPS position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Line sag, temperature, moisture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And AUTOMATE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Grid Failure Mechanisms <ul><li>Power factor and compensation needed </li></ul><ul><li>Switchgear, protection relays fail </li></ul><ul><li>Transformers, lines overheat, get ice-coated </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: line capacity including thermal limits, line sag, wind induced oscillations, flashover, corona, solar flares (~7% loss --- better cables? superconductor cable?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to now, it has been almost impossible to foresee the temperature distribution along the cable route, so that the maximum applicable current load was usually set as a compromise between understanding of operation conditions and risk minimization. The availability of industrial Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems that measure in real time temperatures all along the cable is a first step in monitoring the transmission system capacity. This monitoring solution is based on using passive optical fibers as temperature sensors, either integrated directly inside a high voltage cable or mounted externally on the cable insulation. Source Wikipedia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harmonics and Phase unbalance </li></ul><ul><li>Command and Control; sense, reconnect, </li></ul><ul><li>Hackers and security </li></ul>
  10. 10. Grid Stability <ul><li>All generators must be in synchronism </li></ul><ul><li>All generators must be in phase </li></ul><ul><li>All generators should supply the same voltage </li></ul><ul><li>In practice these conditions do not always apply </li></ul>Synchronous motors operate at low phase shift Voltage and power drawn are interrelated too much power drain can cause failure Multi-phase lines may have differential unbalance due to phase angle loading Apply capacitors to give a leading power angle Requires high speed sensor acquisition and a high speed real-time system to close the loop esp. near instability: greater operating margin without hurting the safety factor. Operating point
  11. 11. Timing (from Amin) <ul><li>1-hour-ahead Assure adequacy of resources Identify system bottlenecks </li></ul><ul><li>5-minute Assure reliability, efficiency Update control parameters and limits. Look-ahead (about 10 to 20 minutes) Alert system operator and/or hour-ahead cycle </li></ul><ul><li>1-minute Maintain efficiency and reliability, as per the 5-minute cycle. Adapt the more recent models </li></ul><ul><li>2-second Collect/validate data for use by control area or interconnection including data acquired in the 10-millisecond cycle (PMUs). Perform closed loop controls (Area Generation Control, etc.) Adapt control parameters and limits for faster cycles </li></ul><ul><li>1-second Control extended transients (secondary voltage control, etc.) Adapt control parameters and limits for faster cycles </li></ul><ul><li>100-millisecond Control imminent system instabilities including execution of intelligent Special Protection Schemes (iSPS) based on adaptive models or criteria identified by slower cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>10-millisecond Perform faster intelligent protection actions (load shedding, generation rejection, system separation) </li></ul>
  12. 12. IT and the Smart Grid: two views Smart Energy Delivery Smart use of electricity Few players Huge capital investment All “Silicon Valley” playing Smart Grid = old grid + Internet Smart Grid = AI embedded into the Grid Supply Demand
  13. 13. <ul><li>Principles of a New Electricity Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Require Fundamentally Higher Distribution Reliability Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Compensate Utilities Based on their Reliability, Efficiency and Customer Service Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Enable Municipalities to Control Their Electricity Distribution Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate Restrictions on Smart Microgrids </li></ul><ul><li>Provide all Consumers with Time-of-Use Electricity Rates </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Truly Competitive Retail Electricity Service Markets </li></ul>The Goal of the New Grid Dept of Energy
  14. 14. A high altitude view: The Open Smart Grid <ul><li>We are not designing a technical system, primarily </li></ul><ul><li>We are designing a new cyber-physical economy (or “a new playing field”) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple players </li></ul><ul><li>Competing interests </li></ul><ul><li>No central control </li></ul><ul><li>The problem with economies is they sometimes go screwy </li></ul><ul><li>We do not understand systems of this complexity at theoretical level </li></ul><ul><li>This one needs to work. (nice if the other ones did too..) </li></ul><ul><li>( from J WroclawskI, ISI) </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Target Smart Grid <ul><li>Steve Pullins, Team Leader for the Modern Grid Initiative at NETL (National Energy Technology Laboratory) notes that there are seven characteristics to a smart grid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivates and incorporates consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodates a wide variety of generation and storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodates competitive markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resists attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matches power quality to needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimize assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is self-healing </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Bumps on the road to a Smart-Grid <ul><li>from Clark Gellings, VP of Technology Innovation at EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Load is growing about twice as fast as transmission capacity, and has been for over 10 years. Lots of congestion. We’ve modernized virtually every industry in the U.S. except this one – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is mechanically controlled, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No sensors, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No information technology, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No digitization, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can’t heal itself, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We get information about problems too late. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And that is just the beginning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the IT/Smart Grid Research Agenda. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Smart Grid Summary <ul><li>Sense Conditions/Overloads anywhere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Load distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Line-balance in a multi-phase supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase angle control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-current </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of harmonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing: e.g. transformer oil temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local outage control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict the daily and seasonal loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>short term prediction e.g. tomorrow’s weather, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildfires, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice-storms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take action </li></ul>
  18. 18. Digital Grid <ul><li>The digital grid does not refer to the electrical current . It refers instead to an essentially a self-diagnosing grid infrastructure consisting of intelligent digital sensors. </li></ul><ul><li>The architecture also includes real-time decision support for customers and utilities. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, this often includes smart appliances and thermostats that can automatically throttle energy consumption during peak load periods to avoid the necessity of rolling blackouts, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities will generally also move towards demand-response pricing models, so that variable rates apply to energy depending on the overall load on the grid (e.g., it will be cheaper to do a load of wash at night during low demand periods). </li></ul><ul><li>It is also possible to build better security into such a grid than currently exists. </li></ul><ul><li>But some want to transmit pulses of energy -- if we had storage </li></ul>
  19. 19. New Functions <ul><li>Remote meter reading </li></ul><ul><li>New meters and switches for selective “shutouts” down to within the home or office </li></ul><ul><li>Functions enabled by ubiquitous sensing </li></ul><ul><li>New appliances with power cost functions </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive control by the utility eg It turns up/down the thermostat via “Zigbee” </li></ul><ul><li>Fault detection, repair and recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Two way power eg use your Prius for storage </li></ul>
  20. 20. Smart Meter <ul><li>Olden days: a person read the meter monthly </li></ul><ul><li>Now, smart meters can be read much more often </li></ul><ul><li>What can you find out if you mine this data? A great deal </li></ul><ul><li>The Honeywell research on the instrumented house </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mats by each bed, measure when coffee is made, take showers etc to get a load profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility could do experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What if such data were widely available? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older people would say no </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young people, the Google generation, may not care about privacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the data in social networking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drive for the common good </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Block parties to celebrate the biggest energy saver in the neighborhood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finding marijuana farms by monitoring 24/7 electricity usage? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Is this all good? </li></ul>
  21. 21. What is tomorrow’s meter <ul><li>The meter is multi-functional: </li></ul><ul><li>A power measurer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a LAN controller probably </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A tarriff indicator </li></ul><ul><li>A c e ll phone for calling home and for remotely loading software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a secure cell phone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An ad hoc network router </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on a broadcast wireless r.f. band </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A security system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with security detection rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with security mitigation rules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The meter is a now a very complex device and the key to Utilities entering the home, business. </li></ul>See http://
  22. 22. Energy dashboards for your home <ul><li> </li></ul>
  23. 23. Google <ul><li> </li></ul>
  24. 24. Information Technology <ul><li>In the beginning, there were serially reused big expensive computers that held “corporate” information </li></ul><ul><li>Then multi-terminal time shared computers to give access to corporate information </li></ul><ul><li>Then small real-time computers </li></ul><ul><li>Then non-TCP/IP networked computers for business, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM in 1974 mantra was DB/DC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Then the IBM Personal Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Then Internetted PCs </li></ul><ul><li>Then Cloud Computing that comprises blocks of computers holding “corporate” information </li></ul><ul><li>Moore’s Law has reduced the cost of hardware by a factor of 2 every 18 months for~40 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Throwing hardware at a problem is a good thing </li></ul></ul>Software costs have risen. The lines of code per day has remained the same while the cost of a programmer has risen A suite of VLSI CAD tools is $1 million per user + maintenance Clouds: single clouds and clouds of clouds
  25. 25. All new applications always use the latest version of IT’s hot topics <ul><li>Hot Topics Today </li></ul><ul><li>The Web </li></ul><ul><li>Federated Services </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Cybersecurity </li></ul><ul><li>Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Systems of Systems </li></ul><ul><li>SOA </li></ul><ul><li>SAAS </li></ul><ul><li>JAVA  AJAX </li></ul><ul><li>XML  DAML </li></ul><ul><li>RTOS </li></ul>
  26. 26. The World Wide Web <ul><ul><li>Everything is stored, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything is available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--- if you can get the URL to it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The WWW has changed everything in IT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The WWW has, by design, Redundant Multi-Path Routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Web is built on the voice based phone system that was designed for the minimal # of switches between subscribers, therefore it has a high physical internal connectivity </li></ul></ul>Webearth from
  27. 27. The Redundant Web from CIA website
  28. 28. The US Grid
  29. 29. Grid and Internet Networks <ul><li>The Grid and the Internet are networks. The Grid is partially a graph, partially tree-structured </li></ul><ul><li>Node connectivity, k = ~2.7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The distribution of k is a power law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both Grid and Internet are “small world” networks “by design” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Path length is about the log of the number of nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociology showed 6 nodes from anyone in the US to anyone else </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In both :--- </li></ul><ul><li>Failures occur when a node is overloaded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This causes the load to be taken up by other nodes that get overloaded and fail etc., etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failures can be caused by taking physical action </li></ul><ul><li>Failures can be induced by software </li></ul>
  30. 30. A Top Level Issue <ul><li>The Grid grew incrementally around big ac power stations that were not too far apart geographically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big users relocated near big sources of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1900 Carborundum to Niagara Falls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000 Google to Bonneville </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>You have just seen the Grid and the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not best for fault isolation, recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is the Grid topology the best one? </li></ul>
  31. 31. IT: Scaled, Layered Architecture Get sensor data from Grid and from Residences Put commands for control Store User data, usage history, fiduciary, Serbanes-Oxley Billing through Google Smart two-way Meters Generators, substations, line state, switchgear, connections to businesses, homes Application Layer Middleware Layer Physical Layer The Electrical Grid The Internet The Grid Grid and Cloud Computing Apps Faster response Slower response
  32. 32. Smart Energy Web Vision Energy infrastructure 1 Communications infrastructure 2 Computing / information technology 3 Business applications – “ Smart Energy Web” 4 Security Energy information network Cap banks Reclosers Switches Sensors Transformers Meters Storage Substation Wires Customers Servers Data storage Web presentment Transactions Modeling Smart agents Intelligence Generation / supply Solar monitoring & dispatch Backup generation Grid 2 Vehicle / Vehicle to Grid Distributed generation Distributed storage T&D SCADA T&D Automation Load limiting Fault prediction Outage management Micro-grid Usage / demand Interval billing Load control Prepay In home displays Energy mgmt systems Power quality management Grid appliances Fiber/MPL RF Mesh Home Area Network (HAN) Broadband WWAN 3G Cellular
  33. 33. SCADA <ul><li>SCADA stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition . It generally refers to an industrial control system: a computer system monitoring and controlling a process. The process can be industrial, infrastructure or facility based industrial processes include those of manufacturing , production , power generation , fabrication , and refining , and may run in continuous, batch, repetitive, or discrete modes source Wikipedia: SCADA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real time control, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real time operating systems, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technically the technology is real-time programming of embedded processors, interrupt processors, with time critical programs in very low level languages including as low as Assembler and even in native instruction language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally task switching in Windows and MacOS are not fast enough, nor is Linux or UNIX. Use proprietary RTOS eg from robotics or write your own monitor </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Grid Problems IT and the SMART GRID <ul><li>Supplying enough clean power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast reacting power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributing the power to the user </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizing outages </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth recovery methods </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed Control </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Micro and Mini-grids </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Power Metering </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic control of power usage by consumers--really local brown-outs </li></ul><ul><li>Measure Everything </li></ul><ul><li>The Grid fails when there is a current overload --- sense the voltage amplitude and current phase everywhere, GPS located, in real time </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of cascading faults --- AI, modeling and real time prediction, million element simulation, non-linear d.e.’s </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent too much reactive power --- add in the right sense, replace capacitors </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent Instability when the solar and/or wind farm percentage exceed 10 to 15% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solar and wind are harmonically impure and have large amplitude fluctuations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>added power must be locally phased and synchronized to milli-degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connect the Grid for Data. Connect via Internet or via the power lines? Guaranteed delivery? </li></ul><ul><li>Security Once connected, the Grid becomes the Ideal Target for Terrorists so there are immense Security problems </li></ul>
  35. 35. Agents <ul><li>Old idea going back to Actor ideas in the ’70’s </li></ul><ul><li>More and more popular, many conferences today </li></ul><ul><li>Not used in a big system as far as I know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg WWMCCS, Air Traffic Control … yet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can you guarantee stability of a network of agents?? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the recent Wall Street crash due to Agents going unstable? </li></ul><ul><li>Azimov’s Laws for Agents, anyone? </li></ul>
  36. 36. IT Research-Smart Meters <ul><ul><li>Design your own meter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extend the AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure) protocol, 15 minute to 15 second meter-reading, prioritization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliverer’s side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Brown out” --- but not too brown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of Appliances that can accept a degree of browning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smart thermostat, smart everything </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help with tariffs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time of day tariffs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meter becomes a mini-command center inside a house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-modality Data Mining to augment smart metering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tough business to enter </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. IT Research-Comm, Networks <ul><li>Carriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Internet or use data over wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need an alternate path if using Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If power grid goes down, the Internet goes down!!! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But the Grid wires stay up, perhaps a bit disconnected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade-off, merge? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Is Internet fast enough? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe have to have reserved capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reservation Protocol see ISI web site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hacker-proof? </li></ul>
  38. 38. IT Research-Security <ul><li>Internetting VASTLY increases the security risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Enterprise vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So does the use of cloud computing </li></ul><ul><li>The Hacker and terrorist problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of service attacks, malware of all kinds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed-Secure kernel? Not Windows, not even Unix, not even Linux! Maybe VM </li></ul><ul><li>Data Detect via normal security mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Add additional authorization layer based on defined policies </li></ul><ul><li>AI: Use the intent of the message bearing in mind the current state to do security?? </li></ul>
  39. 39. IT Research Areas - Faults <ul><li>Look at the Network Flow of current </li></ul><ul><li>Detect incipient fault using a fast simulator </li></ul><ul><li>Predict its extent and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Build protective isolation ring </li></ul><ul><li>Selective shut down based on the prediction </li></ul><ul><li>Some assets cannot easily be shut down e.g. a nuclear plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KEY ISSUE: Fault propagation time vs Internet time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Detection of multiple synchronous faults (the Al Queda attack problem ) </li></ul>
  40. 40. IT Research-Recovery <ul><li>Smart Autonomous Restoration of Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart for user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bring up critical first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart for supplier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on type of asset </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>40-minutes to bring base station on line </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0-time for solar if the sun is shining </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t overload while restoring </li></ul><ul><li>Done today largely by human control </li></ul>
  41. 41. IT Research-Decision Support <ul><li>Decision Support Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automation supervision eg dispatching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisory function on operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Visualization of data for decision makers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchies of Decisions; some automated some human </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Useful Decision Support tools do not make decisions – people do </li></ul><ul><li>Tools assist with four functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying/assembling promising alternative courses of action </li></ul><ul><li>Determining detailed case-specific requirements and implications of competing alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing relative tradeoffs (e.g., costs, benefits, risks...) of alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Formulating personalized metrics and triggers for future “continue vs. revise” decisions regarding adopted choices </li></ul>
  42. 42. Generate all feasible solutions Roll out implications of standard rules and procedures Explain reasons and constraints Explore alternative options Drill down into alternatives Explore spatio-temporal data <ul><li>Understand... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What happened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why it happened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to affect it </li></ul></ul>Choose or create good visualizations Manage, query, mine streaming data from >10M live or simulated entities <ul><li>Fast, accurate adaptation; less user load, more quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart alerting of changed situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple options consider ripple effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand who’s affected, notify accordingly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapidly resynchronize </li></ul></ul>Recognize models stray from reality Analyze risk; avoid blunders Leverage the intelligence of users Outperformed competition in gov’t tests by 60-80% on 98% of test suite Collaboratively share and publish results and comments Attach machine-interpretable annotations to views and data Find others with relevant knowledge
  43. 43. Cloud Computing <ul><li>The cost of building maintaining and running your own computational/business facility is too high and getting higher. </li></ul><ul><li>Revert to a new version of the original computing model now called “The Cloud” containing a network of thousands of computers, Unix boxes, PCs and Macs. </li></ul><ul><li>You rent a piece of it </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds can be networked to give clouds of clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Major Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability and loading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Sun’s </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. IT Research- Demographics <ul><li>How will people respond to the system? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore after a few weeks? …(the 1960’s experience in the UK) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embrace the technology? (today’s web savvy population, social networking?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How will Utilities respond? </li></ul>
  45. 45. IT Research-Option Trading <ul><li>Utilities buy and sell power </li></ul><ul><li>New players entering especially renewables </li></ul><ul><li>Formerly regulated now more and more de-regulated </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers will game the system </li></ul><ul><li>New ENRONs will arise </li></ul><ul><li>Energy hedge funds </li></ul><ul><li>Fortunes to be made --- and lost </li></ul>