The Impact of Cyberbullying on Its Victims and Perpetrators Erick Paulus Argosy University
Cyberbullying <ul><li>Why do people cyberbully? </li></ul><ul><li>Who does it? </li></ul><ul><li>How it affects both victi...
The Impact of Cyberbullying on Its Victims and Perpetrators  <ul><li>The new way to bully. </li></ul><ul><li>More damaging...
The Impact of Cyberbullying on Its Victims and Perpetrators  <ul><li>What is a cyberbully? </li></ul><ul><li>Different fro...
The Impact of Cyberbullying on Its Victims and Perpetrators  <ul><li>Completely Impersonal (Walker, 2010).  </li></ul><ul>...
Effects on Self-Esteem and Self-Concept <ul><li>Amplified Effects (Walker, 2010).  </li></ul><ul><li>Helplessness. </li></...
Effects on Self-Esteem and Self-Concept <ul><li>Victims=rejection by peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Less likely to have friends,...
Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses <ul><li>Lack of consensus on definition and testing. </li></ul><ul><li>Most agree: Cybe...
Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Raskauskas & Stoltz (2007)  <ul><li>Only eighty-four adolescents (small sample size). <...
Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Walker (2010)  <ul><li>Comprehensive review of other articles. </li></ul><ul><li>Recomm...
Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses  Spears et al. (2009)  <ul><li>Qualitative Study. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater impact of c...
Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses  Dooley, Pyzalski, & Cross (2009)  <ul><li>Combine other’s works with their own. </li><...
Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses  Smith (2009)  <ul><li>Points out the similarities and differences between cyber vs. tr...
Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses  Smith (2009)
Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Katzer, Fetchenhauer, & Belschak (2009)  <ul><li>A very large sample size. </li></ul><u...
Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Twyman et al. (2010)  <ul><li>Discusses the limitations of current research on cyberbul...
Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Brubacher et al. (2009)  <ul><li>Very large sample size. </li></ul><ul><li>Sixth to eig...
Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Gradinger, Strohmeier, & Spiel (2009)  <ul><li>Large survey. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-occur...
Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Coyne, Chesney, Logan, & Madden (2009)  <ul><li>Online survey. </li></ul><ul><li>Eighty...
Support or Refute  <ul><li>Differences of opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>No clear and agreed upon definition. </li></ul><ul><l...
Conclusion <ul><li>Relatively new concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Came with the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Many questions rema...
References  <ul><li>Brubacher, M. R., Fondacaro, M. R., Brank, E. M., Brown, V. E., & Miller, S. A. (2009). Procedural jus...
References <ul><li>Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., & Spiel, C. (2009). Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying: Identificati...
References <ul><li>Spears, B., Slee, P., Owens, L., & Johnson, B. (2009). Behind the scenes and screens: insights into the...
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The Impact Of Cyberbullying On Its Victims And

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The Impact Of Cyberbullying On Its Victims And

  1. 1. The Impact of Cyberbullying on Its Victims and Perpetrators Erick Paulus Argosy University
  2. 2. Cyberbullying <ul><li>Why do people cyberbully? </li></ul><ul><li>Who does it? </li></ul><ul><li>How it affects both victim and bully. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare & Contrast with traditional bully. </li></ul><ul><li>Review of current empirical research. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Impact of Cyberbullying on Its Victims and Perpetrators <ul><li>The new way to bully. </li></ul><ul><li>More damaging than traditional bullying. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple ways to attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in technology=new and more ways to attack (Walker, 2010; Twyman et al., 2009; Katzer et al., 2009; Dooley et al., 2009; Spears et al., 2009; Coyne et al., 2009; Raskauskas & Stoltz, 2007). </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Impact of Cyberbullying on Its Victims and Perpetrators <ul><li>What is a cyberbully? </li></ul><ul><li>Different from traditional bullying (Spears et al., 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Why it is more harmful. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Impact of Cyberbullying on Its Victims and Perpetrators <ul><li>Completely Impersonal (Walker, 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Great detachment from victim. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased remorse=increased frequency and potency. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Effects on Self-Esteem and Self-Concept <ul><li>Amplified Effects (Walker, 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Helplessness. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor outcomes for both bully and victim. Nansel et al. (2001) (as cited by Walker, 2010). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Effects on Self-Esteem and Self-Concept <ul><li>Victims=rejection by peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Less likely to have friends, Hodges et al. (1999) (as cited in Raskauskas & Stoltz, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption of emotional and social development. </li></ul><ul><li>Profound and long-lasting effect. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses <ul><li>Lack of consensus on definition and testing. </li></ul><ul><li>Most agree: Cyberbullying is more damaging (Walker, 2010; Twyman et al., 2009; Katzer et al., 2009; Dooley et al., 2009; Spears et al., 2009; Coyne et al., 2009; Raskauskas & Stoltz, 2007). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Raskauskas & Stoltz (2007) <ul><li>Only eighty-four adolescents (small sample size). </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire=easy to lie. </li></ul><ul><li>Hawthorne Effect? (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Ages thirteen to eighteen. </li></ul><ul><li>Caucasions only. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Walker (2010) <ul><li>Comprehensive review of other articles. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations for future studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Critiques. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in potency and frequency of cyberbullying. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a new study. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Spears et al. (2009) <ul><li>Qualitative Study. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater impact of cyberbullying than traditional. </li></ul><ul><li>Group sessions give victims a ‘voice’. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative study does not offer statistical relevance. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Dooley, Pyzalski, & Cross (2009) <ul><li>Combine other’s works with their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Single voice perspective AND group voice perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Not an actual study or naturalistic observation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Smith (2009) <ul><li>Points out the similarities and differences between cyber vs. traditional bullying. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple avenues for attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing number of attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional impact on the victim. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness=Summary of information already obtained. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Smith (2009)
  15. 15. Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Katzer, Fetchenhauer, & Belschak (2009) <ul><li>A very large sample size. </li></ul><ul><li>Located in Germany only. </li></ul><ul><li>Validity reduced (only focuses on internet chatrooms). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Twyman et al. (2010) <ul><li>Discusses the limitations of current research on cyberbullying vs. traditional bullying. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased potential for damage over traditional bullying. </li></ul><ul><li>Low number of participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire only. </li></ul><ul><li>Raffle incentive? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Brubacher et al. (2009) <ul><li>Very large sample size. </li></ul><ul><li>Sixth to eighth graders only. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-report survey. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Gradinger, Strohmeier, & Spiel (2009) <ul><li>Large survey. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-occurrence of cyberbullying and cyberbullying study. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Lit Review: Strengths & Weaknesses Coyne, Chesney, Logan, & Madden (2009) <ul><li>Online survey. </li></ul><ul><li>Eighty-six residents of a virtual online community of Second Life. </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive focus only on this new form. </li></ul><ul><li>Postulating the impact of cyberbullying is more psychological than traditional. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Support or Refute <ul><li>Differences of opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>No clear and agreed upon definition. </li></ul><ul><li>Power imbalance exclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Merely the electronic form of face-to-face bullying? </li></ul><ul><li>No need for repetition? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>Relatively new concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Came with the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Many questions remain. </li></ul><ul><li>Further research is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Is cyberbullying more damaging than traditional? </li></ul><ul><li>Only a single incident can be considered cyberbullying. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear definition is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-occurrence of both cyber and traditional bullying needs to be studied more. </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal studies conducted on cyberbullies and their victims need to be addressed to assess psychological damage. </li></ul>
  22. 22. References <ul><li>Brubacher, M. R., Fondacaro, M. R., Brank, E. M., Brown, V. E., & Miller, S. A. (2009). Procedural justice in resolving family disputes: Implications for childhood bullying. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 15 (3), 149-167. Retrieved online, May 14, 2011, from http://search.proquest.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org/docview/614506692/fulltextPDF?source=fedsrch&accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Coyne, I., Chesney, T., Logan, B., & Madden, N. (2009). Griefing in a virtual community: An exploratory survey of second life residents. Journal of Psychology, 217.4 , 214-221. Retrieved online, May 14, 2011, from http://search.proquest.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org/docview/614512150/fulltextPDF?source=fedsrch&accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Dooley, J. J., Pyzalski, J., & Cross, D. (2009). Cyberbullying versus face-to-face bullying: A theoretical and conceptual review. Journal of Psychology, 217.4 , 182-188. Retrieved online, May 14, 2011, from http://search.proquest.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org/docview/614512058/fulltextPDF?source=fedsrch&accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Gerrig, R. J., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2009).  An overview of psychology:  Its past and present, your future (Custom ed.).  Boston:  Pearson Education. Retrieved from:   http://digitalbookshelf.argosy.edu/#/books/055831743X/pages/12419811 </li></ul>
  23. 23. References <ul><li>Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., & Spiel, C. (2009). Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying: Identification of risk groups for adjustment problems. Journal of Psychology, 217.4, 205-213. Retrieved online, May 14, 2011, from http://search.proquest.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org/docview/614510162/fulltextPDF?source=fedsrch&accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Katzer, C., Fetchenhauer, D., & Belschak, F. (2009). Cyberbullying: Who are the victims? Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications, 21 (1), 25-36. Retrieved online, May 14, 2011, from http://search.proquest.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org/docview/614504294/fulltextPDF?source=fedsrch&accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Raskauskas, J. & Stoltz, A. D. (2007). Involvement in traditional and electronic bullying among adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 43.3 , 564-575. Retrieved online, may 14, 2011, from http://search.proquest.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org/docview/614463488/fulltextPDF?source=fedsrch&accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, P. K. (2009). Cyberbullying: Abusive relationships in cyberspace. Journal of Psychology, 217.4 , 180-181. Retrieved online, May 14, 2011, from http://search.proquest.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org/docview/614509193/fulltextPDF?source=fedsrch&accountid=34899 </li></ul>
  24. 24. References <ul><li>Spears, B., Slee, P., Owens, L., & Johnson, B. (2009). Behind the scenes and screens: insights into the human dimension of covert and cyberbullying. Journal of Psychology, 217.4 , 189-196. Retrieved online, May 14, 2011, from http://search.proquest.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org/docview/614512091/fulltextPDF?source=fedsrch&accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Twyman, K., Saylor, C., Taylor, L. A., & Comeaux, C. (2010). Comparing children and adolescents engaged in cyberbullying to matched peers. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking , 13 (2). Retrieved online, May 14, 2011, from: http://content.ebscohost.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org/pdf25_26/pdf/2010/BABN/01Apr10/57656510.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=57656510&S=R&D=pbh&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7I4y9f3OLCmr0meqK5Ssqy4TbGWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrsU2vp65KuePfgeyx44Hy7fEA </li></ul><ul><li>Waslker, H. M. (2010). Relational aggression in schools: Implications for future research on screening intervention and Prevention. School Psychology Review, 39 (4), 594-600. Retrieved online, May 14, 2011, from http://content.ebscohost.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org/pdf25_26/pdf/2010/SPZ/01Dec10/56581075.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=56581075&S=R&D=pbh&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7I4y9f3OLCmr0meqK9Ssae4S7WWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrsU2vp65KuePfgeyx44Hy7fEA </li></ul>

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