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최유진
Managing currents of work: Multi-tasking
among multiple collaborations
Victor M.Gonzalez, Gloria Mark
ECSCW 2005
UX Lab-me...
Introduction CSCW Perspective
● Q.
?
“How people manage
transitions among activities
and how they maintain
continuity when...
Related Work Increase of multiple collaboration in workspace
● , ,
( DiMaggio,2001)
● , , ,
top-level
( Mintzberg,1973)
●
...
Related Concept Collaborations and working sphere
● Definition. of
working sphere
● Working sphere
& Collaboration
(Working...
Research Method In situ Systematic Observation
● Objective
:
● Interest
: ,
( ),
( )
,
● 36 , 2 ,
1 26 ( 920 )
ITS
JEB (14...
Method In situ direct observation
● Observation
Technique
● Shadowing & Interview
3 .
1) ,
( , , , ...)
1
Worker
2
Researc...
Scenario Characteristic of multi-tasking
● Work Fragmentation
Constant switch his plans
or WS with changing
circumstances
...
Scenario Characteristic of multi-tasking
ITS David : 2)
● Each WS
= ∑ Brief segments of
chains of actions
● WS : avg 6mins...
Result Characteristic of multi-tasking
●
.
● .
● .
Some collaboration with same people more than one WS.
David Phil
WS .
W...
Result Continual switching of WS
● Summary
- avg. 12 WS/Day
- avg. Time of WS = 10.29
- “Along the stream”
* Avg. number o...
Result Fundamental processes involved in multi-tasking
●Continual renewal of
overview
WS
.
WS .
WS
past Present Futuretime...
Strat. 1 Continual renewal of overviews
●
WS Overview
.
● Overview : WS , , ,
.
: “a state of preparedness”
. .
●
1) , (se...
Strat. 1 Continual renewal of overviews
● Local vs. Global
perspectives
● The level of aggregation of WS : Local vs. Globa...
Strat. 2 Maintaining a flexible window of focus
● Active vs. Potential
WS
● WS WS
. WS
.
● flexible window
,
.
Active WS:
Po...
Strat. 3 Management of Transition
● Natural vs. Forced
transitions
● WS WS
● 1)
2)
.
Natural Transition : WS
( .)
Forced t...
Discussions
● Using different
strategies by individual
● Challenges to support
multi-tasking in WS
● 1) , 2) , 3)
.
(eg.1)...
Questions
●
, ?
● ,
>>
●
?
‘~ ’ ?
● ,
.
Thursday, April 12, 12
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(발제) Managing currents of work:Multi-tasking among multiple collaborations +ECSCW 2005 - Victor M.Gonzalez/최유진 x 2012 spring

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(발제) Managing currents of work:Multi-tasking among multiple collaborations +ECSCW 2005 - Victor M.Gonzalez/최유진 x 2012 spring

  1. 1. 최유진
  2. 2. Managing currents of work: Multi-tasking among multiple collaborations Victor M.Gonzalez, Gloria Mark ECSCW 2005 UX Lab-meeting 2012.04.12 Thursday, April 12, 12
  3. 3. Introduction CSCW Perspective ● Q. ? “How people manage transitions among activities and how they maintain continuity when their activities are fragmented.” ● (Sole Collab.) (Colloc/Distribute) (Multiple Collab.) (Simultaneously) Collaboration = , = Ongoing stream of multiple activities ● : . Thursday, April 12, 12
  4. 4. Related Work Increase of multiple collaboration in workspace ● , , ( DiMaggio,2001) ● , , , top-level ( Mintzberg,1973) ● ( , ) ( Conaill and Frohlich 1995) ● - , , , .(Belloti et al,2003) - . Thursday, April 12, 12
  5. 5. Related Concept Collaborations and working sphere ● Definition. of working sphere ● Working sphere & Collaboration (Working Sphere) ? 1) , , 2) , . (Gonzales and Mark,2004) ( , , ..) / ( ) Collaboration = ∑Working spheres W.S1 W.S2 W.S3 W.S4 1) , 2) 3) ( ) . ● Not just managing the track of WS. but also the collaborations related to WS. Thursday, April 12, 12
  6. 6. Research Method In situ Systematic Observation ● Objective : ● Interest : , ( ), ( ) , ● 36 , 2 , 1 26 ( 920 ) ITS JEB (14) ITS AUG (10) Venture (12) SW ● , ( 36 ) ● ( 36 ) (11) S.W. (8) (3) S.W. (3) (9) (2) Thursday, April 12, 12
  7. 7. Method In situ direct observation ● Observation Technique ● Shadowing & Interview 3 . 1) , ( , , , ...) 1 Worker 2 Researcher Worker WS2WS1 2) , : , , , , Thursday, April 12, 12
  8. 8. Scenario Characteristic of multi-tasking ● Work Fragmentation Constant switch his plans or WS with changing circumstances ITS David : 1) , (Degree of fragmentation and constant transitioning) ●Normal : Urgent Central : Peripheral Normal(11) Urgent(3) Central(9) Peripheral(5) 14 WS Thursday, April 12, 12
  9. 9. Scenario Characteristic of multi-tasking ITS David : 2) ● Each WS = ∑ Brief segments of chains of actions ● WS : avg 6mins 32 sec BS : avg 1min 29sec ) W.S1 W.S2 W.S3 W.S4 Act 1 Act 2 Act 3 Act 4 WSJob task Actions Thursday, April 12, 12
  10. 10. Result Characteristic of multi-tasking ● . ● . ● . Some collaboration with same people more than one WS. David Phil WS . W.S2 W.S3 on-going agenda unexpected agenda 1 12 , , . = f (level of involvement, time frame, outcome, collaboration structure) WS ●Three characteristics of multi-tasking 1) defined by collaboration with others 2) spontaneity 3) process evolve ∞ the level of maturation Thursday, April 12, 12
  11. 11. Result Continual switching of WS ● Summary - avg. 12 WS/Day - avg. Time of WS = 10.29 - “Along the stream” * Avg. number of WS and segment durations (Bold=Means, Normal=SD) ● “ Along the stream” analogy : Stream of WS . : Stream of WS awareness ( , WS ) W.S1 W.S2 W.S3 W.S4 12 WS Central : 9 Peripheral : 3 Normal : 11 Urgent : 1~2 Thursday, April 12, 12
  12. 12. Result Fundamental processes involved in multi-tasking ●Continual renewal of overview WS . WS . WS past Present Futuretime level of development ●Maintaining flexible window of focus ●Managing of transition Thursday, April 12, 12
  13. 13. Strat. 1 Continual renewal of overviews ● WS Overview . ● Overview : WS , , , . : “a state of preparedness” . . ● 1) , (self-report) 2) (face-to-face) 3) (online communication) , WS , WS “ ” . Thursday, April 12, 12
  14. 14. Strat. 1 Continual renewal of overviews ● Local vs. Global perspectives ● The level of aggregation of WS : Local vs. Global 1) Local : day-to-day things (to-do list,calendar) ( , ...) .. 2) Global : “The big picture of things I’m supposed to be working on” . ● The role of collaboration ● overview . (to-do list , ) , . Meeting “on the same page” both with formal and informal way. Thursday, April 12, 12
  15. 15. Strat. 2 Maintaining a flexible window of focus ● Active vs. Potential WS ● WS WS . WS . ● flexible window , . Active WS: Potential WS: , Thursday, April 12, 12
  16. 16. Strat. 3 Management of Transition ● Natural vs. Forced transitions ● WS WS ● 1) 2) . Natural Transition : WS ( .) Forced transitions: . ( , WS...) Thursday, April 12, 12
  17. 17. Discussions ● Using different strategies by individual ● Challenges to support multi-tasking in WS ● 1) , 2) , 3) . (eg.1) to-do vs. (eg.2) (eg.3) IM vs. . ● WS Overview Local/Global . Local(to-do, vs. Global perspective( ) , ● Flexible window of focus over different WS . ● Make transitions beneficial for users. WS . Pending Thursday, April 12, 12
  18. 18. Questions ● , ? ● , >> ● ? ‘~ ’ ? ● , . Thursday, April 12, 12

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