ICT4D2.0 과 한국의 ICT4D
SeonUck Paek
paeksu@smu.ac.kr
* Dept. of Computer Software Engineering &
Center for International Dev...
Contents
• Understanding of ICT4D 2.0
• Richard Heeks, “The ICT4D 2.0 Manifesto: Where Next for ICTs and
International Dev...
ICT4D 0.0, ICT4D 1.0 & ICT4D 2.0
• ICT4D 0.0
– the Indian Institute of Statistics, Kolkata , 1956
– 2 key applications
• G...
ICT4D 0.0, ICT4D 1.0 & ICT4D 2.0
• What Happened During 1990-2000?
– Internet + MDG
“MDG: improving the lives of “BOP” – 3...
ICT4D 0.0, ICT4D 1.0 & ICT4D 2.0
• What Happened During ICT4D1.0?
– Copycat project of off-the-shelf solution
(northern ru...
• The Shock of the Old, David Edgerton
– “We have been too obsessed with technology-as-
invention, and too little focused ...
ICT4D 0.0, ICT4D 1.0 & ICT4D 2.0
• What Happened During ICT4D1.0?
– Sustainability
– Scalability
– Evaluation
⇒ a rolling ...
Infrastructure
Hardware
Software
Interface
Data
Communication &
Processing
User Processes
Business Model
User-Produced
Ser...
ICT4D 2.0's New Technological
Priorities
• ICT4D 2.0’s direction:
– Less emphasis on what might be used (the Internet and
...
ICT4D 2.0's New Technological Priorities:
How to deliver the Internet to 5 billions?
• New Hardware 1: Internet connected ...
• New Hardware 2: Leverage of Mobile Phones?
– iPhone-Apps device + netbook device
⇒Blackberry-for-Development?
• New Hard...
+ New Interface
– Audio-visual interface
– Local language support
ICT4D 2.0's New Technological Priorities:
How to deliver...
• New Applications
– Content :
• Local data contents : health, education,
agriculture, and rights(ex: Open Knowledge
Netwo...
• New Applications
– Interaction :
• No interaction via email at first
• Local/small SNS
• Rural-to-urban, international S...
• New Applications
– Services:
• In Web: Informational => interactional =>
transactional(service)
• E-government service =...
New Applications
– Productions:
• Authors of data contents
–In community radio, participatory video prj
–Even Web2.0 mind:...
ICT4D 2.0's New Innovation Models
• How to Innovate? :
– "Laboratory" (pro-poor) innovation
• Telecenter model & OLPC on b...
ICT4D 2.0's New Innovation Models
• How to Innovate? :
– "Collaborative" (para-poor) innovation :
• participative, user-en...
ICT4D 2.0's New Innovation Models
• How to Innovate? :
– "Grassroots" (per-poor) innovation :
• New processes: Beeping
• N...
ICT4D 2.0's New Innovation Models
• How to Innovate? :
– Paradigm shift : Pro=>para=>per
in parallel with:
• Appropriate T...
2.0's New Implementation Models
• Implementing ICT4D 2.0
– New Actors
• Private firms(CSR)
• Partnerships(PPP)
• Virtual o...
Design—Reality Gaps in ICT4D Projects
Information
Technology
Processes
Objectives and
values
Staffing and
skills
Managemen...
Good Practice for ICT4D 2.0 Implementation
Actors and Governance:
- Multi-stakeholder partnerships
- An open and competiti...
Creating ICT4D 2.0 Champions
Information
Systems
Computer
Science
Development
Studies
ICT4D
Champions
What is possible wit...
Changing strategic views on
ICT and Development
Perceived
Contribution of ICTs
to Development
Views on ICTs
and
Developmen...
Changing ICT4D issues over time
Level of
ICT4D
Activity
Time
Readiness
- Awareness
- Infrastructure
- Digital Divide
Uptak...
Summary of ICT4D Phases
Issue / Phase ICT4D 0.0
(1960s – mid-1990s)
ICT4D 1.0
(mid-1990s – mid-/late-
2000s)
ICT4D 2.0
(mi...
Summary of ICT4D Phases
• key differences between ICT4D 1.0 & 2.0
– ICT4D 2.0 is about the world's "long tail”.
– “Don't f...
Summary of ICT4D Phases
• 3 questions for ICT4D2.0
– How can the poor be producers of digital
content and services?
– How ...
한국의 ICT4D
• ODA 차원
– KOICA
• ICT 훈련기관 / 시설 건립 , 공공행정 ( 전자정부 ), 인적자원개발
( 초청연수 , 전문가 / 봉사단 파견 ), ICT 제도구축 자문
– EDCF
• 공공행정 (...
한국의 ICT4D
• N-ODA 차원
– 서울대 융복합대학원 (Shadia 팀 )
– CT4D (KAIDEC)
– ICT Hope
– 공학교육인증 수행대학의 설계교과목
• 부산대 공학봉사팀의 태양광 가로등 구축 사업
–...
한국의 ICT4D
• PPP
– KOICA
• 대학과의 파트너쉽을 활용한 국제개발협력 사업
• 대학과의 파트너쉽을 활용한 사후관리 사업
– 한국산업기술평가원
• 따듯한 기술 아이디어 공모전
– KOTRA
• 적정기술 사...
ICT Hope
• PPP 사업 참여 및 민간주도 수요발굴 참여
• 타 NGO 에 대한 ICT 솔루션 제공
• 사회적 공헌 활동 참여자를 위한 플랫폼 구축
– ICT Connect, Kopernik.info
• ICT4...
0 사회공헌 프로젝트 참여자를 위한 플랫폼 구축
0 Frontline SMS 플랫폼 구축
- 교육 , 의료 등 분야에서 정보 제공 , 학습 플랫폼 , 커뮤
니케이션 , 데이터 수집 등 프로젝트 추진
0 Mobile applications
- 2G Phone-base
- Android / iOS 용 applications 및 스마트 디바이스를
활용한 데이터 수집 , Field Staff 교육 및 커뮤니케이션
0 Raspberry Pi & Arduino
- ICT Community Center, 소상공인 , 가정용 컴퓨터 등의
모델링 및 관련 프로젝트
- 교육 분야 솔루션 및 서비스 개발 및 보급
- 다양한 분야에서 NGO ...
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ICT4D 2차포럼 Keynote Speech 백선욱 - ICT4D 2.0과 한국의 ICT4D

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ICT4D 2차포럼 Keynote Speech 백선욱 - ICT4D 2.0과 한국의 ICT4D

  1. 1. ICT4D2.0 과 한국의 ICT4D SeonUck Paek paeksu@smu.ac.kr * Dept. of Computer Software Engineering & Center for International Development Cooperation Sangmyung University * ICT Hope(www.icthope.or.kr )
  2. 2. Contents • Understanding of ICT4D 2.0 • Richard Heeks, “The ICT4D 2.0 Manifesto: Where Next for ICTs and International Development?” Development Informatics Group, 2009. www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/research/publications/wp/di/index.htm • 한국의 ICT4D
  3. 3. ICT4D 0.0, ICT4D 1.0 & ICT4D 2.0 • ICT4D 0.0 – the Indian Institute of Statistics, Kolkata , 1956 – 2 key applications • Government : internal administrative function of public sectors • Multi-naionals & firms: seen as a tool for economic growth in the private sector
  4. 4. ICT4D 0.0, ICT4D 1.0 & ICT4D 2.0 • What Happened During 1990-2000? – Internet + MDG “MDG: improving the lives of “BOP” – 3 bill. On less than 2 $s/ pay – Initiatives: • World Development Report from the World Bank, 1998 • Digital Opportunities Task Force by G8 in 2000 • World Summits on the Information Society , Geneva in 2003, Tunis in 2005 – Actors • International Development Org. such as World Bank • NGO
  5. 5. ICT4D 0.0, ICT4D 1.0 & ICT4D 2.0 • What Happened During ICT4D1.0? – Copycat project of off-the-shelf solution (northern rural village project model) • Telecenter project: landline+PC’s • Ex: – InforCauca in Colombia – CLICs in Mali – Gyandoot in India.
  6. 6. • The Shock of the Old, David Edgerton – “We have been too obsessed with technology-as- invention, and too little focused on technology-in- use” – ICT4D1.0’s approach • Failure of traditional North model(a PC via a landline) – New innovation required! ICT4D 0.0, ICT4D 1.0 & ICT4D 2.0
  7. 7. ICT4D 0.0, ICT4D 1.0 & ICT4D 2.0 • What Happened During ICT4D1.0? – Sustainability – Scalability – Evaluation ⇒ a rolling re-appraisal of priorities, processes and purposes
  8. 8. Infrastructure Hardware Software Interface Data Communication & Processing User Processes Business Model User-Produced Services User-Consumed Services Context Access ModelInnovation Feasibility The Technologies and Processes of ICT4D
  9. 9. ICT4D 2.0's New Technological Priorities • ICT4D 2.0’s direction: – Less emphasis on what might be used (the Internet and PCs), and more emphasis on what is actually used (mobiles, radio, television). – Less emphasis on fundamental technical innovation; and more emphasis on application and business model innovation. – Less emphasis on piloting and sustaining new applications, and more emphasis on assessing and scaling existing applications.
  10. 10. ICT4D 2.0's New Technological Priorities: How to deliver the Internet to 5 billions? • New Hardware 1: Internet connected PCs? – Terminals • OPLC, XO, PixelQi, Intel Classmate, Linutop, InkMedia, Elonex ONE, Asus Eee, "People's PC“, the Simputer – Telecommunications • VSAT -> landline • WiFi ->Wimax – Power • Only 15% of sub-sahara can access electricity
  11. 11. • New Hardware 2: Leverage of Mobile Phones? – iPhone-Apps device + netbook device ⇒Blackberry-for-Development? • New Hardware 3: Older technologies as ICT? – SMS&Call-only Mobile Phone/ – Radio/Television Pilot projects: hub-and-spoke model : to hub: via email, Web, CP to customers: broadcast • Community Radio - Kothmale in Sri Lanka • Community Television – Telecentre DB + SMS gateway in Warana in India ICT4D 2.0's New Technological Priorities: How to deliver the Internet to 5 billions?
  12. 12. + New Interface – Audio-visual interface – Local language support ICT4D 2.0's New Technological Priorities: How to deliver the Internet to 5 billions?
  13. 13. • New Applications – Content : • Local data contents : health, education, agriculture, and rights(ex: Open Knowledge Network project) • Adapting to community radio & TV • Participatory video for KIVA an/or Treatment Action Campaign ICT4D 2.0's New Technological Priorities: How to deliver the Internet to 5 billions?
  14. 14. • New Applications – Interaction : • No interaction via email at first • Local/small SNS • Rural-to-urban, international SNS (In 2008 more than 50% lives in urban area) ICT4D 2.0's New Technological Priorities: How to deliver the Internet to 5 billions?
  15. 15. • New Applications – Services: • In Web: Informational => interactional => transactional(service) • E-government service => m-development Service –E-Gov: bill-payment, issuing certificates –M-dev(with SMS-only): reminding of anti-AIDS pils’ taking, monitoring elections , even banking ICT4D 2.0's New Technological Priorities: How to deliver the Internet to 5 billions?
  16. 16. New Applications – Productions: • Authors of data contents –In community radio, participatory video prj –Even Web2.0 mind: blogger, mashers, wiki- writers. • Income/employment –Around technology: Selling accessaries, pre-paid cards, selling & taking calls –ICT-based microenterprise: Social IT outsourcing in India ICT4D 2.0's New Technological Priorities: How to deliver the Internet to 5 billions?
  17. 17. ICT4D 2.0's New Innovation Models • How to Innovate? : – "Laboratory" (pro-poor) innovation • Telecenter model & OLPC on behalf of the poor ⇒Design-Reality Gap! ⇒Failure of sustainability & success of telecenter project • Pro-poor pricing model is still valid! –Pre-paid card –Microsoft's US$3 Student Innovation Suite software package
  18. 18. ICT4D 2.0's New Innovation Models • How to Innovate? : – "Collaborative" (para-poor) innovation : • participative, user-engaged design processes
  19. 19. ICT4D 2.0's New Innovation Models • How to Innovate? : – "Grassroots" (per-poor) innovation : • New processes: Beeping • New business models: MP owners can serve payment & remittance for others w/o MP • New products : Re-chipping of Mobile Phones(high-end-body-w-low-end-organs)
  20. 20. ICT4D 2.0's New Innovation Models • How to Innovate? : – Paradigm shift : Pro=>para=>per in parallel with: • Appropriate Technology movement • Web2.0 movement • Open source movement
  21. 21. 2.0's New Implementation Models • Implementing ICT4D 2.0 – New Actors • Private firms(CSR) • Partnerships(PPP) • Virtual organisations – KIVA – New Approaches • From Blueprint to Process. – New Techniques • Closing Design—Reality Gaps.
  22. 22. Design—Reality Gaps in ICT4D Projects Information Technology Processes Objectives and values Staffing and skills Management systems and structures Other resources Information Technology Processes Objectives and values Staffing and skills Management systems and structures Other resources DesignReality Gap
  23. 23. Good Practice for ICT4D 2.0 Implementation Actors and Governance: - Multi-stakeholder partnerships - An open and competitive environment Aligned and Contingent Design Techniques: - Participation of local users - Appropriate technology mix to match local realities - Align to local development goals - Consideration of project risks Sustainable Projects: - Financial and social sustainability - Development of local capacities and use of local institutions - Local ownership Successful ICT4D Project
  24. 24. Creating ICT4D 2.0 Champions Information Systems Computer Science Development Studies ICT4D Champions What is possible with ICT? What is desirable with ICT? What is feasible with ICT?
  25. 25. Changing strategic views on ICT and Development Perceived Contribution of ICTs to Development Views on ICTs and Development Ignore Isolate Idolise Integrate ICT4D 0.0 ICT4D 1.0 Innovate ICT4D 2.0 “Jobs not computers!” graffiti in India ICT myth! ICT mainistreaming “a tool not an end”
  26. 26. Changing ICT4D issues over time Level of ICT4D Activity Time Readiness - Awareness - Infrastructure - Digital Divide Uptake - Demand - Usage - Use Divide Impact - Economic Development Goals - Social Development Goals Availability - Supply ICT4D 1.0 ICT4D 2.0
  27. 27. Summary of ICT4D Phases Issue / Phase ICT4D 0.0 (1960s – mid-1990s) ICT4D 1.0 (mid-1990s – mid-/late- 2000s) ICT4D 2.0 (mid-/late-2000s onwards) Iconic Technology PC Database Telecentre Mobile Phone Key Application Data Processing Content (& Interaction) Services & Production The Poor Who? Consumers Innovators & Producers Key Goal Organisational Efficiency MDGs ?Growth & Development? Key Issue Technology's Potential Readiness & Availability Uptake & Impact Key Actor Government Donors & NGOs All Sectors Attitude Ignore --> Isolate Idolise --> Integrate Integrate --> Innovate Innovation Model Northern Pro-Poor --> Para-Poor Para-Poor --> Per-Poor Dominant Discipline Information Systems Informatics / Development Studies Tribrid of CS, IS and DS Development Paradigm Modernisation Human Development ?Development 2.0?
  28. 28. Summary of ICT4D Phases • key differences between ICT4D 1.0 & 2.0 – ICT4D 2.0 is about the world's "long tail”. – “Don't fight the poor". Where 1.0 imposed pre- existing designs and expected the poor to adapt to them, 2.0 designs around the specific resources, capacities and demands of the poor. – “The network is the platform”
  29. 29. Summary of ICT4D Phases • 3 questions for ICT4D2.0 – How can the poor be producers of digital content and services? – How can they create new incomes and job through ICTs? – And how can we recognise and scale the ICT- based innovations they produce?
  30. 30. 한국의 ICT4D • ODA 차원 – KOICA • ICT 훈련기관 / 시설 건립 , 공공행정 ( 전자정부 ), 인적자원개발 ( 초청연수 , 전문가 / 봉사단 파견 ), ICT 제도구축 자문 – EDCF • 공공행정 ( 전자정부 ) – KISA • 정보접근센터 구축 , 인적자원개발 ( 초청연수 , 전문가 / 봉사단 파 견 , 정책자문 ), 중고 PC 지원 – MEST • 이러닝 세계화 , 첨단교실 구축지원 , 교원 초청 연수 , 중고 PC 지 원 , ICT4E 컨설팅 , TPC 파견
  31. 31. 한국의 ICT4D • N-ODA 차원 – 서울대 융복합대학원 (Shadia 팀 ) – CT4D (KAIDEC) – ICT Hope – 공학교육인증 수행대학의 설계교과목 • 부산대 공학봉사팀의 태양광 가로등 구축 사업 – 기업의 CSR 활동 • SK 행복나눔재단 /KOTRA: 적정기술 시회적 기업 페스티 벌 – HOE, 미래기술적정포럼 등의 NGO
  32. 32. 한국의 ICT4D • PPP – KOICA • 대학과의 파트너쉽을 활용한 국제개발협력 사업 • 대학과의 파트너쉽을 활용한 사후관리 사업 – 한국산업기술평가원 • 따듯한 기술 아이디어 공모전 – KOTRA • 적정기술 사회적 기업 페스티벌
  33. 33. ICT Hope • PPP 사업 참여 및 민간주도 수요발굴 참여 • 타 NGO 에 대한 ICT 솔루션 제공 • 사회적 공헌 활동 참여자를 위한 플랫폼 구축 – ICT Connect, Kopernik.info • ICT4D 인지확산 – ICT4D Academy, ICT4D 도서 번역 • Mobileactive.org 와 같은 archive 운영 – Mobile Phone 을 이용한 ICT4D 작품 개발 및 보급 – FrontlineSMS, RapidSMS 개발 환경 구축 • Raspberry Pi, Arduino 를 활용한 ICT4D, ICT4E 개발 / 보 급
  34. 34. 0 사회공헌 프로젝트 참여자를 위한 플랫폼 구축
  35. 35. 0 Frontline SMS 플랫폼 구축 - 교육 , 의료 등 분야에서 정보 제공 , 학습 플랫폼 , 커뮤 니케이션 , 데이터 수집 등 프로젝트 추진
  36. 36. 0 Mobile applications - 2G Phone-base - Android / iOS 용 applications 및 스마트 디바이스를 활용한 데이터 수집 , Field Staff 교육 및 커뮤니케이션
  37. 37. 0 Raspberry Pi & Arduino - ICT Community Center, 소상공인 , 가정용 컴퓨터 등의 모델링 및 관련 프로젝트 - 교육 분야 솔루션 및 서비스 개발 및 보급 - 다양한 분야에서 NGO 들의 현장 실습을 위한 kit 및 매뉴 얼 제작

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