Chapter 09

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Chapter 09

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Reading Hazardous Energy
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Define hazardous energy and list four ways to categorize its status </li></ul><ul><li>List common electrical equipment and their associated hazards </li></ul><ul><li>List the chemical properties of common utility gases </li></ul><ul><li>List the hazards associated with utility water and storm sewer systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Give examples of mechanical hazardous energy </li></ul><ul><li>List the hazardous energy sources in vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss weather as hazardous energy and itemize the warning signs that extreme weather is approaching </li></ul><ul><li>Describe why water is a form of hazardous energy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Defining Hazardous Energy <ul><li>Hazardous energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored potential energy that causes harm if suddenly released </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISO functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze energy form and determine degree of impact </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Defining Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>ISO functions (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Categorize the status of hazardous energy form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stable – not likely to change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stable – may change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable – may require attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable – requires immediate attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervene appropriately </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 9-1 The ISO should be comfortable with electrical terms and be able to communicate hazards accurately. Forms of Hazardous Energy
  7. 7. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity of systems based on proper grounding, insulation, and circuit protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local power company usually assists firefighters at incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO must understand electrical systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take no-cost seminars and workshops at local power company </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 9-2 ISOs must be able to recognize the components of a typical municipal grid.
  9. 9. Figure 9-3 Electrical components can present hazards to firefighters.
  10. 10. Figure 9-4 This typical power pole arrangement is just one of the many possible.
  11. 11. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Electricity (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks path of least resistance to ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical energy that has established a path to the ground through the earth and continues to energize the earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: downed power line can energize the earth in a concentric ring of up to 30 feet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Table 9-1 Minimum distance requirements when working around electrical equipment.
  13. 13. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Electricity (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISOs should evaluate the proximity and integrity of electrical systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise particular caution in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Battery rooms: energized DC, wet batteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substation fires: transformer oil, pooled water, “reel coil” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Utility gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate integrity of gas fuel supply and containment vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess pressure in components can cause pressure relief device to release expanding gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trauma can cause holes, pipe separation, or container failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escaped gas can accelerate fire, release toxins, and present explosion hazard </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Figure 9-5 The ISO who knows gas properties can more effectively assess risks associated with utilities.
  16. 16. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Utility water and storm sewer systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled water flow can cause initial and secondary collapse in structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged drain system can leak and undermine ground support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pooled water in structures can extinguish pilot lights and release raw gas into water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash floods cause localize flooding and may trap victims into debris and grates </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Mechanical energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes pulleys, cables, counterweights, and springs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden release of mechanical systems can be caused by heat, trauma, and /or overloading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steel cable and “guy” wires can recoil with amazing force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freestanding truss structures are weakened quickly when exposed to heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal forces can accelerate collapse </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Pressurized systems and vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use hydraulics or pneumatics as a medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat may increase pressure beyond design limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure relief system failure may result in component explosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Component may act as a missile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The stronger the component, the more explosive it becomes when it fails </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Hazardous energy in vehicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability/position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rolling weight, instability, collapse, ground support failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel types, storage, pumps, fuel lines, pressurization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Batteries, converters, high-voltage wires </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Hazardous energy in vehicles (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power generation systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulleys, belts, heat, noise, thrust, exhaust gases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspension/door systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Springs, shocks, gas or pneumatic struts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive/brake systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure vessels, heat, springs, torsion, exotic metal fumes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Hazardous energy in vehicles (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restraint safety systems (air bags) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger systems, chemicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delayed or unpredicted deployment can cause injury to rescuers (c-spine trauma, muscle sprain, contusions, and lacerations) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative fuels and fuel systems have few standards and may resist fire control measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-voltage systems have large battery packs </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective ISOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study weather and understand weather patterns in their geographical regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep abreast of daily forecasts of weather observations as a matter of habit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Weather (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most important consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong or changing winds can affect firefighting operations in outside or structural fires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower humidity means increased fire speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High humidity affects firefighter health and smoke dissipation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Weather (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate relative to its effect on firefighter exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acclimation is key! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for change/storms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watch the sky </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note 180-degree changes in wind direction for a short period of time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be mindful of the potential for a flash flood </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Weather (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for change/storms (con’t.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing thunderstorms can produce rapid changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At night, use lightning flashes to define cloud formations that may be tornadic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate lightning distance: seconds between lightning flash and thunder divided by five </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep snow makes travel difficult and can hide hazards </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Figure 9-6 Erratic wind shifts are common during thunderstorms. The ISO needs to watch weather influences during incidents.
  27. 27. Forms of Hazardous Energy (con’t.) <ul><li>Miscellaneous hazard energy forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthen materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowing water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evacuation of penned, fire-threatened animals is amazingly dangerous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-tech medical devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: MRI equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Summary <ul><li>Hazardous energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored potential that can cause harm if suddenly released </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISOs functions at hazardous energy incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify hazardous energy forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categorize potential impact on firefighters </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>Forms of hazardous energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water and storm systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressurized vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle components </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>Forms of hazardous energy (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for storms and rapid change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul></ul>

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