Ch12 ppt


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  • Courtesy of FEMA
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  • © Beth Keiser/AP Photos
  • Ch12 ppt

    1. 1. 12 Collapse
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the various types of collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Apply risk analysis to fire-ground safety </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the specific basic competencies all fire fighters should have to perform at a structural collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the essential elements of the collapse of the World Trade Center twin towers on September 11, 2001 </li></ul>12
    3. 3. Collapse: The Greatest Threat on the Fire Ground (1 of 2) <ul><li>How fire fighters die </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart attacks (the greatest killer today) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke inhalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building collapse </li></ul></ul>12
    4. 4. Collapse: The Greatest Threat on the Fire Ground (2 of 2) <ul><li>Building collapse represents the greatest threat to kill in number </li></ul>12
    5. 5. Anticipating Collapse <ul><li>Responsibility of the incident commander, the operations chief, and the safety officer </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility of each fire fighter </li></ul>12
    6. 6. Risk Analysis (1 of 2) <ul><li>After fire fatalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions are asked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Were fatalities caused by antiquated macho attitude? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxpayers saddled with unnecessary expenses </li></ul></ul>12
    7. 7. Risk Analysis (2 of 2) <ul><li>Professional fire services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze the relationship between risk incurred and benefits obtained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are well informed about construction features of buildings that have been available for study for many years </li></ul></ul>12
    8. 8. Types of Collapse (1 of 2) <ul><li>Global </li></ul><ul><li>Partial collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Pancake collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Lean-to-floor collapse </li></ul>12
    9. 9. Types of Collapse (2 of 2) <ul><li>V-shaped floor collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Cantilever floor collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Frame floor collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Inward outward collapse </li></ul><ul><li>90-degree wall collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Lean over collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Curtain fall wall collapse </li></ul>12
    10. 10. Establish Collapse Zones <ul><li>Fire fighters and fire apparatus must be kept out of collapse zones </li></ul><ul><li>“ Staying back one third the height of the wall is safe” is untrue </li></ul><ul><li>Fire fighters must remain at least the full height of the wall away </li></ul>12
    11. 11. Minimum Collapse Competencies for Fire Fighters <ul><li>Identified by National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1670: Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Higher competency levels require higher training </li></ul>12
    12. 12. Our Worst Collapse Tragedy <ul><li>History of the World Trade Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two of the tallest and largest buildings ever built </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each tower was 110 stories high and each floor was 40,000 square feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each side of the building measured 210 feet in length </li></ul></ul>12
    13. 13. Major Structural Components of the Towers <ul><li>Exterior walls </li></ul><ul><li>A series of columns in the center core </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight steel floor trusses forming a composite floor </li></ul><ul><li>Hat truss </li></ul>12
    14. 14. Mechanism of Collapse <ul><li>Studied by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) </li></ul><ul><li>Used visual evidence of the exterior damage and computer modeling </li></ul>12
    15. 15. The North Tower (Tower 1) <ul><li>Structural damage from the planes </li></ul><ul><li>Jet fuel and dislodged fireproofing </li></ul><ul><li>Open paths for fire spread </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened core columns </li></ul><ul><li>Sagging of the “south floors” </li></ul><ul><li>Bowed south perimeter columns </li></ul>12
    16. 16. The South Tower (Tower 2) <ul><li>Damage to the center core columns </li></ul><ul><li>Jet fuel and dislodged fireproofing </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained fires had an ample air supply </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened core columns </li></ul><ul><li>Sagging of the “east floors” </li></ul><ul><li>Bowed east perimeter columns </li></ul>12
    17. 17. Questions <ul><li>How many trusses were destroyed in the initial impact? </li></ul><ul><li>How many failed in the subsequent fires? </li></ul><ul><li>How much fireproofing was knocked off by the plane impact? </li></ul>12
    18. 18. Questions for the Future <ul><li>Should lightweight trusses be used in high-rises? </li></ul><ul><li>Should spray-on fireproofing come under more scrutiny? </li></ul><ul><li>What role should fire services have in construction and regulation? </li></ul>12
    19. 19. In the End <ul><li>Be proactive role in securing your safety and the safety of others </li></ul><ul><li>Get involved in the construction of a new building </li></ul><ul><li>Get involved in the code development and adoption process </li></ul>12
    20. 20. Summary <ul><li>All fire fighters have the responsibility to know the conditions for collapse in different types of buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Fire fighters and fire apparatus should be kept out of collapse zones </li></ul>12