Ch 04 Building and Fire Codes


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  • Courtesy of Anatoly Myaskovsky
  • © Robert Elias/ShutterStock, Inc.
  • ASTM E 84 testing-Images provided by Marcelo M. Hirschler-GBH International-Mill Valley, CA.
  • Ch 04 Building and Fire Codes

    1. 1. 4 Building and Fire Codes
    2. 2. Objectives (1 of 2) <ul><li>Explain the history and basis for building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the differences between fire and building codes </li></ul>
    3. 3. Objectives (2 of 2) <ul><li>Identify other construction codes and standards that have an impact on the fire service </li></ul><ul><li>Identify important fire protection features of building codes </li></ul>
    4. 4. History of Building Codes <ul><li>Based on local experience until the late 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>National Association of Fire Engineers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight fire protection concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insurance industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Building Code in 1906 </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Model Codes <ul><li>Complete regulatory documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early model codes developed regionally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Building Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform Building Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Building Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Code Council’s (ICC’s) International Building Code </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Legacy Codes <ul><li>Older regionally adopted codes </li></ul><ul><li>No longer produced </li></ul>
    7. 7. Fire Codes and Standards (1 of 3) <ul><li>Building Codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate the construction of a building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not applied retroactively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually updated every three years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on standards </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Fire Codes and Standards (2 of 3) <ul><li>Fire Codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate the use of the building after it is built </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to structures and conditions within structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually updated every three years </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Fire Codes and Standards (3 of 3) <ul><li>Test standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) E-119; “Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM E-84; “Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials” </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Types of Construction <ul><li>International Building Code </li></ul><ul><li>National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 5000 </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid buildings </li></ul>
    11. 11. Occupancy Classifications <ul><li>Building codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More restrictive on institutional and hazardous material uses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occupancy classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relates hazards to specific regulations </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. International Building Code Occupancy Types <ul><li>A-1 through A-4 </li></ul><ul><li>B and E </li></ul><ul><li>F-1 and F-2 </li></ul><ul><li>H-1 through H-5 </li></ul>
    13. 13. NFPA 5000 Occupancy Types (1 of 2) <ul><li>Assembly Occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>Business Occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>Board and Care Occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>Day-Care Occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>Detention and Correctional Occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Occupancy </li></ul>
    14. 14. NFPA 5000 Occupancy Types (2 of 2) <ul><li>Health Care Occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>High Hazard Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>Mercantile Occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>Residential Occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Occupancy </li></ul>
    15. 15. Area and Height (1 of 3) <ul><li>Size and height determined by building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation based on construction classification and occupancy type </li></ul>
    16. 16. Area and Height (2 of 3) <ul><li>Changes can be made to the values in Table 4-2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic sprinkler systems lessen other requirements </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Area and Height (3 of 3) <ul><li>Fire fighter perceptions and concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased size and height values without fire service input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Original intent of the area and height limitations </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Special Hazards <ul><li>Atria structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large open space within a structure connecting two or more floors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High-rise structures </li></ul>
    19. 19. Egress (1 of 2) <ul><li>Requirements set by building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The exit access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The exit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The exit discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occupant load </li></ul>
    20. 20. Egress (2 of 2) <ul><li>Number of exit paths/doors </li></ul><ul><li>Safe path of travel </li></ul><ul><li>Door hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping rooms in “R” occupancies </li></ul>
    21. 21. Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Regulated by building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Covered in detail in Chapter 5 of the book </li></ul>
    22. 22. Disabled Occupants <ul><li>Model building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Area of refuge </li></ul>
    23. 23. Interior Finish <ul><li>Contribute to fire spread </li></ul><ul><li>Steiner Tunnel Test </li></ul><ul><li>Ratings </li></ul>
    24. 24. Elevators (1 of 3) <ul><li>Electric cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power controls on the top floor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic piston </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power controls on the first floor </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Elevators (2 of 3) <ul><li>Phase I operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevators are recalled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase II operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire fighter selects one elevators to access the upper floors </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Elevators (3 of 3) <ul><li>Elevator door restrictors </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to open each type of restrictor found in your area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal bars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevator keys </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Code Implications <ul><li>Participate in code development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For your safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The safety of others </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Summary <ul><li>The ICC and NFPA </li></ul><ul><li>Building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Fire codes </li></ul><ul><li>Code development process </li></ul>