Ch 03 Methods and Materials of Construction, Renovation, and Demolition

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  • Ch 03 Methods and Materials of Construction, Renovation, and Demolition

    1. 1. 3 Methods and Materials of Construction, Renovation, and Demolition
    2. 2. Objectives (1 of 2) <ul><li>Identify and describe the basic regulations that apply to building construction projects </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and describe the role of the typical members of a building design team </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and describe the roles of the various members of the construction team </li></ul>
    3. 3. Objectives (2 of 2) <ul><li>Identify and describe the hazards to fire fighters during the construction, renovation, and demolition of a building </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and describe the hazards to fire fighters of the different types of materials used in the construction of buildings </li></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Inherent dangers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings under construction, renovation, and demolition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building materials interaction in fire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buildings in Your Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built under different codes </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Construction Regulations (1 of 2) <ul><li>Building code </li></ul><ul><li>Fire code </li></ul><ul><li>Plumbing, mechanical, and electrical codes </li></ul><ul><li>Zoning regulations </li></ul>
    6. 6. Construction Regulations (2 of 2) <ul><li>The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Construction safety regulations </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Building Design and Construction Process (1 of 2) <ul><li>Professionals in the design process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire protection engineer </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The Building Design and Construction Process (2 of 2) <ul><li>Professionals in the design process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General contractor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcontractors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fireproofing contractors </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Site Preparation (1 of 3) <ul><li>Preliminary soil testing </li></ul><ul><li>Deep foundations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piles  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caissons </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Site Preparation (2 of 3) <ul><li>Foundation structural components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superstructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substructure Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Site Preparation (3 of 3) <ul><li>Excavation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dewatering pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crosslot bracing  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rakers  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiebacks  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slurry wall </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The Hazards of a Building Under Construction (1 of 4) <ul><li>Before a fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit buildings under construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videotape the construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test private fire prevention mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for hazards </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The Hazards of a Building Under Construction (2 of 4) <ul><li>Fire dangers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welding and cutting operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arson </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The Hazards of a Building Under Construction (3 of 4) <ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Wallboard </li></ul><ul><li>Falsework </li></ul><ul><li>Standpipe systems </li></ul>
    15. 15. The Hazards of a Building Under Construction (4 of 4) <ul><li>Issues during a construction fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse of a structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive collapse  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosives stored on-site </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. The Hazards of a Building Under Renovation <ul><li>May be occupied by people </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in use </li></ul><ul><li>Altered or disabled fire protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cut-off egress paths </li></ul><ul><li>“Do-it-yourself” renovators </li></ul>
    17. 17. The Hazards of a Building Under Demolition <ul><li>Disabled or removed safety systems </li></ul><ul><li>Torch cutting operations </li></ul><ul><li>Unsupported, freestanding walls </li></ul><ul><li>Fractured utilities </li></ul>
    18. 18. The Characteristics of Materials <ul><li>Reaction to forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good against compressive forces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good against tensile forces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong in tension and weak or unsuitable in compression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All damaged by fire </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Wood (1 of 3) <ul><li>Types of woods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Softwoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conifers (pines) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardwoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oak </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Wood (2 of 3) <ul><li>Board: greater than 2&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensional lumber: 2&quot;– 4&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Timber: greater than or equal to 5 &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insect resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire resistance </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Wood (3 of 3) <ul><li>Compressive strength can vary </li></ul><ul><li>Material and structural components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plywood  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oriented strand board (OSB)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight wood truss  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wooden I-joist  </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Masonry and Stone <ul><li>Brick  </li></ul><ul><li>Spall  </li></ul><ul><li>Portland cement mortar  </li></ul><ul><li>Sand-lime mortar  </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete masonry </li></ul><ul><li>Quarried stone  </li></ul>
    23. 23. Concrete <ul><li>Mixture of portland cement, water, and aggregates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregate  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admixture  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composite materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtually no tensile strength </li></ul>
    24. 24. Metal (1 of 4) <ul><li>Wrought Iron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercially pure iron of fibrous nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malleable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cast iron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brittle </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Metal (2 of 4) <ul><li>Structural steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rolled in a variety of shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducts heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elongates when heated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fails at approximately 1000°–1100° F </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Metal (3 of 4) <ul><li>Cold-drawn steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in the construction of cables used to brace failing buildings or as tendons in tensioned concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also used as cables to brace failing buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fails at 800° F </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Metal (4 of 4) <ul><li>Aluminum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malleable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmagnetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melts at ordinary fire temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum roofs are hazardous </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Glass <ul><li>Little resistance to heat or pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal pane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blast-resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed sashes of double-pane glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminated “hurricane-resistant” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wired glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass fiber insulation </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Asbestos <ul><li>Fireproofing agent for steel </li></ul><ul><li>Often unknown usage </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinogen when inhaled </li></ul>
    30. 30. Synthetic Materials <ul><li>Thermoplastics </li></ul><ul><li>Thermosets  </li></ul><ul><li>Interior finish  </li></ul><ul><li>Foam core panels </li></ul><ul><li>Resin plastics </li></ul>
    31. 31. Gypsum <ul><li>Natural mineral </li></ul><ul><li>Used in the manufacture of drywall and plaster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically wallboard </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. The Effects of Shape <ul><li>Affects resistance to a compressive load </li></ul><ul><li>Not a consideration in tensile loads </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance related to the cross-section makeup of a material </li></ul>
    33. 33. Summary <ul><li>Variety of regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Many different professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing a site </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings under renovation </li></ul><ul><li>Demolition structures </li></ul>

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