Ethics and technology


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Ethics and technology

  1. 1. Ethics and Technology of Images <ul><li>Lesson Module 3 </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>In your opinion, how would you define ethics? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do ethical values come from? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Ethic: the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation. </li></ul><ul><li>An issue does not have a right or wrong answer, ethics are not black and white. Rather put an issue on a scale from acceptable to unacceptable. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Your values are important! Ethical values may come from your background and life experiences. They may come from family, friends, teachers, coaches, TV, books, the media. They can also come from religion or spirituality. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>In the Society of Professional Journalist’s Code of Ethics there are four main obligations: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Seek the Truth and Report It: “Journalists should be honest, fair and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information.” </li></ul><ul><li>2) Minimize Harm: “Ethical journalists treat sources, subjects and colleagues as human beings deserving of respect.” </li></ul><ul><li>3) Act Independently: “Journalists should be free of obligation to any interest other than the public's right to know.” </li></ul><ul><li>4) Be Accountable: “Journalists are accountable to their readers, listeners, viewers and each other.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Please read the following article on the National Press Photographers Association’s (NPPA) Code of Ethics. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>What do you like? What would you take out? What would you add, if anything? </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>How do you think you would go about deciding on what course of action you would take about an ethical issue in journalism? Let’s use the photo to the right as an example. Does the image seem unethical? Why or why not? What steps would you take in deciding to publish this photo or not? </li></ul>“ Falling Man” by Richard Drew. Image of a man falling out of the North Tower of the World Trade Center on 9/11.
  8. 8. Photojournalism Checklist <ul><li>Questions to ask before taking a photo or recording on videotape: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Am I invading someone’s privacy? If so, is it for an appropriate reason? </li></ul><ul><li>2) Is this a private moment of pain and suffering that needs to be seen by our readers or viewers? </li></ul><ul><li>3) Does this photo tell the story I want? Would another photo be more appropriate? </li></ul><ul><li>4) Am I shooting at a distance that is not obtrusive or potentially re-victimizing individuals? </li></ul><ul><li>5) Am I acting with compassion and sensitivity? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Photojournalism Checklist <ul><li>Questions to ask prior to publication/broadcast: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Do I need more information about facts or context? </li></ul><ul><li>2) Is there information missing from the content of the photo? </li></ul><ul><li>3) What is the news value or the photo? </li></ul><ul><li>4) What is the motivation for publishing the photo or using the video image? </li></ul><ul><li>5) What are the ethical and legal concerns? </li></ul><ul><li>6) Who will be offended? Does such offense outweigh the value or presenting the image? </li></ul><ul><li>7) What are the possible consequences of using the photo? </li></ul><ul><li>8) How would I react if I were in the photo? </li></ul><ul><li>9) Are there any alternative ways to present the information to minimize harm while still telling the story in a clear way? </li></ul><ul><li>10) Will we be able to justify our actions? </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Use these steps if you come across and ethical conflict: </li></ul><ul><li>Collect information </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze and focus on the central issues </li></ul><ul><li>Weigh all the options in light of your goals and values </li></ul><ul><li>Solicit advice and involve others (ask around) </li></ul><ul><li>Decide and specify your reasoning for the decision </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and carry out the decision </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up later when appropriate </li></ul>A Framework for Making Decisions
  11. 11. Photoshop <ul><li>Journalists must be very careful with Photoshop. It is in the code of ethics that images cannot be changed or altered in any way that would deceive the public. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Never distort the content of news photos or video. Image enhancement for technical clarity is always permissible.” SPJ Code of Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Are pictures still credible if they were photoshopped? </li></ul><ul><li>News organizations and journalists can get into a lot of trouble and stain their reputation by falsifying images they publish. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Examples of Unethical Photoshopped Images TIME Magazine manipulated this image of OJ Simpson’s mug shot so that he would look more dark and menacing. When Newsweek published the unaltered image, TIME was criticized.
  13. 13. After 58 tourists were killed in a terrorist attack at the temple of Hatshepsut in Luxor Egypt, a Swiss tabloid called Blick digitally distorted and colored a puddle of water to appear as blood flowing from the temple.
  14. 14. Oprah Winfrey was on the August 1989 cover of TV Guide .This image was created by stacking Oprah’s head onto the body of actress Ann-Margret, taken from a publicity shot in 1979. The cover was done without Oprah or Ann-Margaret’s permission. The slip up was noticed by Ann-Margret’s fashion designer, who recognized the dress.
  15. 15. Brian Walski, staff reporter at the Los Angeles Times wanted to make a better picture, so he combined the two bottom images to make the top one, which was published.
  16. 16. Have a discussion: What would you have done with these photos if you were put in charge?