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# Understanding Injectors And Fertilizer Ratios

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Presentation from ProGreen EXP, Denver, CO given on Thursday 11 February 2010

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### Understanding Injectors And Fertilizer Ratios

1. 1. Understanding Injectors and Fertilizer Ratios<br />Steven E. Newman, Ph.D., A.A.F.<br />Greenhouse Crops Extension Specialist and Professor of Floriculture<br />Colorado State University Extension<br />
2. 2. How Fertilizer Injectors Work<br /><ul><li>Injectors are mechanical devices that take a small amount of a concentrated chemical from a stock tank and introduce it to a water line for delivery
3. 3. Injectors are ideal for applying
4. 4. Water soluble fertilizers,
5. 5. Pesticides,
6. 6. Plant growth regulators,
7. 7. Wetting agents,
8. 8. Disinfectants, and
9. 9. Mineral Acids</li></ul>2<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Clear water<br />Diluted fertilizer<br />To plants<br />Fertilizer Concentrate<br />
10. 10. How Fertilizer Injectors Work<br />One part of stock solution is mixed with “x” parts of water in the waterline, where “x” is determined by the injector ratio.<br />The size of the stock tank can vary from as small as 5 gallons to as large as 2,000 gallons.<br />A 5-gallon stock tank used with a 1:100 injector ratio will yield 500 gallons of final solution.<br />Often, injector ratios are expressed as a percentage.<br />Injector ratios expressed as percentages<br />1:50 = 2%<br />1:100 = 1%<br />1:200 = 0.5%<br />1:500 = 0.2%<br />3<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
11. 11. How Fertilizer Injectors Work<br />4<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Clear water<br />Diluted fertilizer<br />Injector ratio<br />1:100<br />100 parts to<br />plants<br />99 parts water<br />Fertilizer Concentrate<br />1 part fertilizer concentrate<br />
12. 12. How Fertilizer Injectors Work<br />Types of Injectors<br />Venturi Injectors<br />Hozon and Syphonex<br />Positive Displacement Injectors<br />Dosotron<br />DosMatic<br />Anderson<br />Smith<br />Gewa<br />5<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
13. 13. Venturi Injectors<br />6<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br /><ul><li>Simplistic
14. 14. No moving parts
15. 15. Inject at a constant rate
16. 16. Inexpensive
17. 17. Uses pressure created between the waterline and the stock tank to draw concentrated fertilizer into the hose connection from the vacuum line</li></li></ul><li>Venturi Injectors<br />7<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
18. 18. Venturi Injectors<br />Venturi designs<br />Simplistic<br />No moving parts<br />Inject at a constant rate<br />Inexpensive<br />Siphon Hose<br />16:1 Ratio <br />Dispenses fertilizers as well as other pesticides<br />8<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
19. 19. Venturi Fertilizer Injectors<br />Pros<br />Simple with no moving parts<br />Inexpensive<br />Flexible for many chemicals including wettable powders<br />Portable<br />Cons<br />Back pressure can stop siphon (check valve)<br />Unit should not be further than 50 feet from hose end<br />Reduction in water pressure and flow<br />Minimum 35 psi water pressure<br />9<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
20. 20. Positive Displacement Injectors<br />Consistent injector ratios over a wide range of water pressures and flow rates<br />Many models use water pressure as the power source<br />Injector ratios can often be adjusted while in use<br />The limiting factor is the minimum and maximum flow rates permissible<br />10<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
21. 21. Positive Displacement Injectors<br />Smith Measuremix<br />Water driven pump<br />Cast metal and stainless steel construction<br />Injector ratios are factory set at 1:100, or 1:200<br />11<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
22. 22. Positive Displacement Injectors<br />Smith Measuremix<br />Water driven pump<br />Cast metal and stainless steel construction<br />Injector ratios are factory set at 1:100, or 1:200<br />Some models have dual heads for simultaneous injection of different chemicals<br />Repairs are expensive and the units are heavy<br />12<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
23. 23. Positive Displacement Injectors<br />Dosatron / DosMatic<br />Water driven<br />Polymer construction<br />Typically installed directly in the water line<br />13<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
24. 24. Positive Displacement Injectors<br />Dosatron / DosMatic<br />Water driven<br />Polymer construction<br />Typically installed directly in the water line<br />Multiple units for dual injection of different chemicals<br />14<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
25. 25. Positive Displacement Injectors<br />Dosatron / DosMatic<br />Simultaneously inject products that may not be compatible in a stock solution<br />May be easier to install inexpensive injectors in-line<br />Multi-head systems for greater volumes of water<br />15<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
26. 26. Positive Displacement Injectors<br />Anderson Ratio:Feeder<br />water driven<br />cast metal construction<br />polymer construction<br />module injection heads<br />16<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
27. 27. Positive Displacement Injectors<br />Positive Displacement Pump Proportioner<br />water driven<br />cast metal construction<br />polymer construction<br />module injection heads<br />metering device<br />17<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
28. 28. Positive Displacement Injectors<br />18<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Anderson Ratio:Feeders can be automated with <br />sensors and a computer to regulate fertilizer ratios.<br />InjectorHead<br />Water Motor<br />Water flow in<br />Mixing Tank<br />FertilizerStockTank<br />Water/Fertilizerflow out<br />pH and EC electrodes<br />
29. 29. Positive Displacement Injectors<br />Positive Displacement Pump Proportioner<br />water driven<br />cast metal construction<br />polymer construction<br />module injection heads<br />metering device<br />electronic control<br />19<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
30. 30. Positive Displacement Injectors<br />Gewa Injector<br />20<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Flow in<br />Flow out<br />Water pressure<br />Water pressure<br />PolybutyleneBladder with<br />Fertilizer<br />Concentrate<br />
31. 31. Which injector is best for you?<br />Size of your operation<br />Greenhouses up to 10,000 square feet are easily serviced with small units<br />Larger greenhouses may want to consider a more permanent installation<br />Types of fertility programs<br />Different crops may have different fertility regimens<br />Consider future expansion<br />Water flow rates<br />Injector ratios<br />Fixed ratio injectors<br />Variable ratio injectors<br />Water pressure<br />Water quality<br />Stock tank size<br />At least large enough to satisfy daily irrigation needs<br />May need two separate tanks<br />Opaque to sunlight<br />Make sure that the stock tank is lower than the injector to prevent back siphoning <br />Chemicals being injected<br />Portable or stationary<br />Ease of repair, parts availability, longevity<br />Manufacturer’s support<br />21<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
32. 32. Positive Displacement Injectors<br />Bypass<br />Permanently installed injectors may be plumbed off the main water line in several configurations.<br />open/closed<br />Check valve<br />closed/open<br />Parallel<br />Series<br />
33. 33. 23<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
34. 34. Chemicals to be injected<br />Acid injection<br />Backflow protection<br />24<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
35. 35. Filtration<br />25<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
36. 36. Water hammer<br />Many injectors are made of ABS plastic<br />Over time these may become brittle<br />¼ - turn valves increase water hammer<br />Water hammer arrestors will prolong the life of your injector<br />Place the arrestor between your valve and your injector (outlet side)<br />26<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Water hammer is the energy that is in water traveling in one direction. When a valve abruptly closes, the ricocheting water increases up to four times the original pressure.<br />
37. 37. Calibrating an Injector<br />Injectors are mechanical devices that require periodic checks and adjustments. <br />There are two means of checking the calibration of an injector<br />Volume ratio method<br />Electrical conductivity<br />27<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
38. 38. Volume Ratio Calibration Method<br />Equipment<br />Graduated cylinder<br />One or two liter is best<br />Large container with a known volume<br />Five gallon bucket<br />Injector with hoses and tubes<br />Procedure<br />Place the siphon tube into the graduated cylinder and operate the water and injector at a normal pressure<br />Allow the system to empty one volume of the graduated cylinder to charge the system<br />Refill the graduated cylinder and run the injector until the cylinder is half empty<br />Discharge the water from the injector into the large bucket.<br />Measure the uptake volume and the discharge volume<br />The injector equals the output volume divided by the input volume<br />28<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
39. 39. 29<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Injector ratio = output volume ÷ input volume<br />
40. 40. 30<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Injector ratio = output volume ÷ input volume<br />5 gallonsor<br />18,925 ml<br />1:50<br />18,925 ÷ 370 = 51<br />1:51<br />370 ml<br />
41. 41. Calculating Parts per Million<br />Most greenhouse fertilization recommendations are based on parts per million or ppm<br />Most manufacturers provide tables for easy reference, but they are not necessary.<br />With a little knowledge, a calculator, and some patience, you can do this on your own.<br />31<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
42. 42. Calculating Parts per Million<br />Most greenhouse fertilization recommendations are based on parts per million or ppm<br />Most manufacturers provide tables for easy reference, but they are not necessary.<br />With a little knowledge, a calculator, and some patience, you can do this on your own.<br />Quick 75 Formula<br />To calculate the amount of fertilizer required,<br />divide the desired ppm by 75 and <br />then divide by the decimal fraction of the desired nutrient (such as nitrogen, potassium or phosphorous) contained in the fertilizer.<br />32<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
43. 43. Calculating Parts per Million<br />Most greenhouse fertilization recommendations are based on parts per million or ppm<br />Most manufacturers provide tables for easy reference, but they are not necessary.<br />With a little knowledge, a calculator, and some patience, you can do this on your own.<br />Quick 75 Formula<br />To calculate the amount of fertilizer required,<br />divide the desired ppm by 75 and <br />then divide by the decimal fraction of the desired nutrient (such as nitrogen, potassium or phosphorous) contained in the fertilizer.<br />This results in the number of ounces of fertilizer to use in 100 gallons of water.<br />33<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
44. 44. Confused?<br />Some examples of what one part per million represents under various conditions are:<br /><ul><li>1 crystal of salt in 5 lbs.,
45. 45. 1 drop in 16 gallons,
46. 46. 1 inch in 158 miles,
47. 47. 1 minute in 1.9 years,
48. 48. 1 pound in 500 tons, and
49. 49. 1 cent in \$10,000.</li></ul>34<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
50. 50. Confused?<br />Some examples of what one part per million represents under various conditions are:<br /><ul><li>1 crystal of salt in 5 lbs.,
51. 51. 1 drop in 16 gallons,
52. 52. 1 inch in 158 miles,
53. 53. 1 minute in 1.9 years,
54. 54. 1 pound in 500 tons, and
55. 55. 1 cent in \$10,000.</li></ul>To calculate ppm in 100 gallons of water,<br />First multiply 100 gallons by 8.34 pounds per gallon which equals 834 pounds. <br />Multiply 834 pounds by 16 ounces per pound which equals 13,344 ounces per 100 gallons. <br />Therefore, 13,344 ounces per 13,344,000,000 ounces equals 1 part per million, <br />or more simply 0.013344 ounces per 100 gallons of water equals 1 PPM.<br />35<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
56. 56. ppm Revealed<br />100 gal. * 8.34 lbs./gal. = 834 lbs. <br />834 lbs. * 16 oz/lb. = 13,344 oz. <br />3,344 oz/100 gal. <br />13,344 oz./13,344,000,000 oz. = 1 PPM <br />0.013344 oz./100 gal. = 1 PPM <br />36<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
57. 57. ppm Revealed<br />100 gal. * 8.34 lbs./gal. = 834 lbs. <br />834 lbs. * 16 oz/lb. = 13,344 oz. <br />3,344 oz/100 gal. <br />13,344 oz./13,344,000,000 oz. = 1 PPM <br />0.013344 oz./100 gal. = 1 PPM <br />The next step is to multiply the desired PPM by 0.013344, which is 74.94.<br />37<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
58. 58. ppm Revealed<br />100 gal. * 8.34 lbs./gal. = 834 lbs. <br />834 lbs. * 16 oz/lb. = 13,344 oz. <br />3,344 oz/100 gal. <br />13,344 oz./13,344,000,000 oz. = 1 PPM <br />0.013344 oz./100 gal. = 1 PPM <br />The next step is to multiply the desired PPM by 0.013344, which is 74.94.<br />38<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
59. 59. Putting the Formula to Use<br />Assume that the fertilizer recommendation calls for 200 ppm of nitrogen from ammonium nitrate (33% N)<br />Using the Quick 75 equation, <br />divide 200 ppm by 75 resulting in 2.67,<br />and then divide by 0.33. <br />The answer is 8.09 ounces of ammonium nitrate which dissolved in 100 gallons of water will yield 200 ppm nitrogen. <br />39<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
60. 60. Putting the Formula to Use<br />Assume that the fertilizer recommendation calls for 200 ppm of nitrogen from ammonium nitrate (33% N)<br />Using the Quick 75 equation, <br />divide 200 ppm by 75 resulting in 2.67,<br />and then divide by 0.33. <br />The answer is 8.09 ounces of ammonium nitrate which dissolved in 100 gallons of water will yield 200 ppm nitrogen. <br />40<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
61. 61. Relate the Quick 75 to an Injector<br />41<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Clear water<br />Diluted fertilizer<br />Injector ratio<br />1:100<br />100 parts to<br />plants<br />99 parts water<br />Fertilizer Concentrate<br />1 part fertilizer concentrate<br />
62. 62. Relate the Quick 75 to an Injector<br />42<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Clear water<br />Diluted fertilizer<br />Injector ratio<br />1:100<br />Fertilizer Concentrate<br />50 gallons<br />
63. 63. Relate the Quick 75 to an Injector<br />43<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Clear water<br />Diluted fertilizer<br />Injector ratio<br />1:100<br />99 parts water<br />X 50 gallons<br />4,950 gallons of water<br />Fertilizer Concentrate<br />1 part fertilizer concentrate<br />X 50 gallons<br />50 gallons of concentrate delivered<br />
64. 64. Relate the Quick 75 to an Injector<br />44<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Clear water<br />Diluted fertilizer<br />Injector ratio<br />1:100<br />4,950 + 50 = 5,000 gallons<br />99 parts water<br />X 50 gallons<br />4,950 gallons of water<br />Fertilizer Concentrate<br />1 part fertilizer concentrate<br />X 50 gallons<br />50 gallons of concentrate delivered<br />
65. 65. Relate the Quick 75 to an Injector<br />45<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Clear water<br />Diluted fertilizer<br />Injector ratio<br />1:100<br />100 parts to<br />plants<br />99 parts water<br />Fertilizer Concentrate<br />1 part fertilizer concentrate<br />
66. 66. Relate the Quick 75 to an Injector<br />46<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />Clear water<br />Diluted fertilizer<br />Injector ratio<br />1:100<br />5,000 gallons to plants<br />4,950 gallonswater<br />50 gallons<br />Fertilizer Concentrate<br />404.5 ounces or 25.3 pounds <br />of ammonium nitrate <br />dissolved in 50 gallons of water<br />
67. 67. Still want a table?<br />47<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
68. 68. 48<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
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70. 70. Shameless Commerce<br />50<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />
71. 71. Shameless Commerce<br />51<br />11 February 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO 2010<br />ProGreen EXPO Special Price<br />\$120<br />