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# ITFT_Semaphores and bounded buffer

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semaphore and bounded buffer method

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### ITFT_Semaphores and bounded buffer

1. 1. Semaphores and Bounded Buffer
2. 2. Semaphores • Semaphore is a type of generalized lock • Defined by Dijkstra in the last 60s • Main synchronization primitives used in UNIX • Consist of a positive integer value • Two operations • P(): an atomic operation that waits for semaphore to become positive, then decrement it by 1 • V(): an atomic operation that increments semaphore by 1 and wakes up a waiting thread at P(), if any.
3. 3. Semaphores vs. Integers • No negative values • Only operations are P() and V() • Cannot read or write semaphore values • Except at the initialization times • Operations are atomic • Two P() calls cannot decrement the value below zero • A sleeping thread at P() cannot miss a wakeup from V()
4. 4. Binary Semaphores • A binary semaphore is initialized to 1 • P() waits until the value is 1 • Then set it to 0 • V() sets the value to 1 • Wakes up a thread waiting at P(), if any
5. 5. Two Uses of Semaphores 1. Mutual exclusion • Lock was designed to do this lock->acquire(); // critical section lock->release();
6. 6. Two Uses of Semaphores 1. Mutual exclusion 1. The lock function can be realized with a binary semaphore: semaphore subsumes lock. • Semaphore has an initial value of 1 • P() is called before a critical section • V() is called after the critical section semaphore litter_box = 1; P(litter_box); // critical section V(litter_box);
7. 7. Two Uses of Semaphores 1. Mutual exclusion • Semaphore has an initial value of 1 • P() is called before a critical section • V() is called after the critical section semaphore litter_box = 1; P(litter_box); // critical section V(litter_box); litter_box = 1
8. 8. Two Uses of Semaphores 1. Mutual exclusion • Semaphore has an initial value of 1 • P() is called before a critical section • V() is called after the critical section semaphore litter_box = 1; P(litter_box); // purrr… // critical section V(litter_box); litter_box = 1  0
9. 9. Producer-Consumer with a Bounded Buffer • A classic problem • A producer put things into a shared buffer • A consumer takes them out
10. 10. Problem Constraints • The solution involves both synchronization and mutual exclusion • Constraints • The consumer must wait if buffers are empty (synchronization constraint) • The producer must wait if buffers are full (synchronization constraint) • Only one thread can manipulate the buffer at a time (mutual exclusion)
11. 11. Implementing Semaphore • How to implement semaphore? • Almost exactly like lock. • Using spinlock or queue • What hardware support is needed? • Interrupt disable • Test-and-set
12. 12. Implementing Semaphore class semaphore { int value; } semaphore::semaphore(int i) { value = i; } semaphore::p() { // disable interrupts while (value == 0) { // enable interrupts // disable interrupts } value --; // enable interrupts } semaphore::v() { // disable interrupts value ++; // enable interrupts }
13. 13. Implementing Semaphore with test and set class semaphore { int value; } semaphore::semaphore(int i) { value = i; } semaphore::p() { while (test_and_set(guard)); while (value == 0) { // queue the thread // guard = 0 and sleep } value --; guard = 0; semaphore::v() { while (test_and_set(guard)); if (anyone waiting) { // wake up one thread // put in on ready queue } else { value ++; } guard = 0; }
14. 14. Semaphore in UNIX • Managing concurrent access to shared memory. • Semaphore system calls • Creation: semget( … ) • Incr/Decr/set : semop(…) • Deletion: semctl(semid, 0, IPC_RMID, 0); • See examples: seminit.c, sema.c semb.c