Production of alcohol
Fungi In drug production
Colours and flavours
Fungi are used in Industries for manufacturing
large varieties of useful materials for mankind such
as Metabolites,enzymes and food.
The Filamentous fungi are used in many different
process in food Industry for manufacture of different
metabolites and variety of other processes.
Few are listed in following table
Saccharomyces cerevisiae presence of excess
glucose represses respiration. In principle, materials
rich in sugars (or starches) are then fermented
resulting In the production of alcohol.
PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL
Mainly three products
The yeast hydrolises sugar,
commonly sucrose, to
pyruvic acid via the EMP
pathway, and then
acetaldehyde to ethanol. The
reaction is exothermic, and
unless the heat is dispersed,
the reaction is slowed.
Further, though up to 50% of
sugar can yield alcohol, by
weight, the solution rarely
goes beyond 15% ethanol,
because the fungus is
sensitive to high
concentrations of ethanol.
Ales and lager use cereal grains, commonly
barley, as the basis of fermentation. Grain is dried,
then germinated synchronously.
The germination process involves release of
amylases within the grain. These enzymes are then
used to digest the starch of a batch of ground
cereals mixed into a mash, resulting in the release
of hexoses. The resulting wort is drained off.
After various treatments, including addition of
hops, the liquid is inoculated with specific yeasts
and the mixture fermented for a short period.
Organism Used - Aspergillus oryzae
Sake is a Japanese beverage made from
rice. Steamed rice is inoculated with
Aspergillus oryzae to produce koji.
Further rice mash is lactic acid fermented
using bacteria and yeasts. The mash and
koji are mixed and fermented for around
20 days, when the alcohol concentration
has reached around 18%.
The product is filtered, pasteurized and
stored before consumption.
Bread consists of a mixture of flour (usually from
cereals especially wheat), with water, salt and sugar,
leavened by yeast. Flour is mixed with the remaining
ingredients and incubated at about 25 C.
The yeast ferments the sugar forming carbon dioxide
and alcohol. The released gas causes bubbles to form
by elastic extension of gluten (a protein) in the flour.
On baking, the alcohol evaporates. The length of
leavening, the quantity of gluten in the flour, the
constituents of the grain, and the temperature
determine the texture and flavor of the bread.
Flour from wheat can be mixed with starch from a
variety of sources. For instance, potato and pumpkin
have been used successfully mixed with wheat flour
to make a different style and flavored bread.
At the beginning of the 21st century, Fungi
were involved in the industrial processing of
more than 10 of the 20 most profitable
products used in medicine.
Two anti-cholesterol statins, the antibiotic
penicillin and the immunosuppressant
cyclosporin A are among the top 10.
Each of these has a turn over in excess of $1
They also only act on gram
positive bacteria. Ex.Cefixime,Ceftriaxone etc
1. Derived from Penicillium
chrysogenum was first
used successfully to
treat an infection caused
by a bacterium.
2. The natural penicillin's
have a number of
disadvantages. They are
destroyed in the acid
stomach, and so cannot
be used orally.
1. The original fungus
found to produce the
compounds was a
especially from tropical
regions, produce an
enormous diversity of
The only broadly useful
antifungal agent from fungi is
The original source was
Griseofulvin is fungi static,
rather than fungicidal. It is used
for the treatment of
dermatophytes, as it accumulates
in the hair and skin following
1. It is a primary metabolite
of several fungi, including
2. Cyclosporin A is a cyclic
peptide consisting of 11
mainly hydrophobic amino
acids. It acts by inhibition
3. The inhibition of T cells
proliferation results in the
suppression of the
associated with invasion
by foreign bodies.
1. Belong to a class of
2. Produced by many
They act on the sympathetic nervous system
resulting in the inhibition of noradrenaline and
sclerotin, causing dilation of blood vessels. They
also act directly on the smooth muscles of the
uterus causing contractions, thus their early use
to induce abortion
Alkaloids are now produced in culture by strains
of Calviceps fusiformis and Calviceps paspalii.
Aspergillus terreus a soil-
borne fungus, produces a
Aspergillus Phoma produces
squalestatin both has been
used to reduce or remove low
density lipoproteins from
blood vessels in humans
Statins have been implicated
in attracting stem cells to
damaged tissues. The stem
cells then appear to
regenerate the tissue
A wide range of other
compounds with antibiotic
activity are also known.
They have been rejected for
use in medicine because of
unwanted side effects, or
instability of the active
PHARMACODYNAMIC COMPONENT SPECIES
Antibiotics Beta Methoxy
Cardio tonic Volvatoxin
Decrease Cholesterol Eritadinine Collubia vellutipes
Triterpene Ganoderma Lucidum
Anti Thrombus 5-GMP Psolliata hartensis
Armillarisia A Armillariella
Analgesic/Sedative Marasmic Acid Maramius
Fungi may be the food, or may make the food
edible following processing. Processing may make
it possible to consume the foodstuff by adding,
modifying or removing components, including
flavours, nutritional elements such as vitamins or
colours to enhance the appeal of the food
Their use dates back to the start of the
civilisation, when breads and wines were first
Soya beans are
soaked, cooked to
and then mixed with
The fungus Aspergillus
oryzae is added to the
mix, and the
amended mix kept
aerobically for 20 to
40 hours at 25 C. The
and cellulases, which
degrade the soya
Various cheeses are sold
that have been stab-
inoculated with a strain
roquefortii. The result is
a blue streak or vein
through the cheese. The
fungus imparts a strong,
pungent flavour due to
the aerobic production of
methyl ketones. Famous
blue cheeses include:
Stilton, and Danish Blue.
Flavours and Colours
fungi are responsible for a range of flavours
including terpenes, menthol and lactones.
Fungi produce a range of compounds that alter
the colour of food.
Ex-Monoascus purpureus has been traditionally
used for the production of red wine
Industrial process using fungi
are of great economic
importance. The products
are unique and usually no
other economic way to
manufacture these products.
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Alexopoulos, C.J., C.W. Mims, M. Blackwell. 1996. Introductory
O.P.Sharma .1989 the textbook of fungi. Tata Mc Graw hill,
R.S.Mehrotra K.R.Aneja 1990 An Introduction to mycology , new