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Importance of fungi in industries


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Importance of fungi in industries

  1. 1. contents  Introduction Production of alcohol Bread making Fungi In drug production Antibiotics Immune suppressants Ergot alkaloids Statins Food processesing Blue cheese Soya sauce Colours and flavours
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Fungi are used in Industries for manufacturing large varieties of useful materials for mankind such as Metabolites,enzymes and food.  The Filamentous fungi are used in many different process in food Industry for manufacture of different metabolites and variety of other processes. Few are listed in following table
  3. 3. FOOD APPLICATION USEFUL PRODUCTS OTHER PROCESSES Baking Alkaloids Bioleaching Brewing Antibiotics Biological control agents Cheese making Ethanol Bioremediation of soils Mushroom Cultivation Enzymes Coal Solubilisation Oriental food fermentations Gibberellins Dyes Quorn-Mycoprotiens Immuno modulators Microencapsulation Organic acids Mycorrhizal inoculants Polysaccharides Waste Treatments Vitamins
  4. 4. 1.Alcohol production 2.Drug(Medicine) industries 3.Food Processing
  5. 5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae presence of excess glucose represses respiration. In principle, materials rich in sugars (or starches) are then fermented resulting In the production of alcohol. PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL Mainly three products I. Beer II. Wine III.Sake
  6. 6. Species(used) Name  Saccharomyces cerevisiae  Saccharomyces carlsbergensis  Saccharomyces uvarum The yeast hydrolises sugar, commonly sucrose, to pyruvic acid via the EMP pathway, and then acetaldehyde to ethanol. The reaction is exothermic, and unless the heat is dispersed, the reaction is slowed. Further, though up to 50% of sugar can yield alcohol, by weight, the solution rarely goes beyond 15% ethanol, because the fungus is sensitive to high concentrations of ethanol.
  7. 7.  Ales and lager use cereal grains, commonly barley, as the basis of fermentation. Grain is dried, then germinated synchronously.  The germination process involves release of amylases within the grain. These enzymes are then used to digest the starch of a batch of ground cereals mixed into a mash, resulting in the release of hexoses. The resulting wort is drained off.  After various treatments, including addition of hops, the liquid is inoculated with specific yeasts and the mixture fermented for a short period.
  8. 8. Organism Used - Aspergillus oryzae  Sake is a Japanese beverage made from rice. Steamed rice is inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae to produce koji.  Further rice mash is lactic acid fermented using bacteria and yeasts. The mash and koji are mixed and fermented for around 20 days, when the alcohol concentration has reached around 18%.  The product is filtered, pasteurized and stored before consumption.
  9. 9.  Bread consists of a mixture of flour (usually from cereals especially wheat), with water, salt and sugar, leavened by yeast. Flour is mixed with the remaining ingredients and incubated at about 25 C.  The yeast ferments the sugar forming carbon dioxide and alcohol. The released gas causes bubbles to form by elastic extension of gluten (a protein) in the flour. On baking, the alcohol evaporates. The length of leavening, the quantity of gluten in the flour, the constituents of the grain, and the temperature determine the texture and flavor of the bread.  Flour from wheat can be mixed with starch from a variety of sources. For instance, potato and pumpkin have been used successfully mixed with wheat flour to make a different style and flavored bread.
  10. 10. Uses & Importance
  11. 11.  At the beginning of the 21st century, Fungi were involved in the industrial processing of more than 10 of the 20 most profitable products used in medicine.  Two anti-cholesterol statins, the antibiotic penicillin and the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A are among the top 10.  Each of these has a turn over in excess of $1 billion annually
  12. 12. They also only act on gram positive bacteria. Ex.Cefixime,Ceftriaxone etc  Penicillin 1. Derived from Penicillium chrysogenum was first used successfully to treat an infection caused by a bacterium. 2. The natural penicillin's have a number of disadvantages. They are destroyed in the acid stomach, and so cannot be used orally.  Cephalosporin's 1. The original fungus found to produce the compounds was a Cephalosporium, hence the name 2. Basidiomycetes, especially from tropical regions, produce an enormous diversity of these compounds.
  13. 13.  The only broadly useful antifungal agent from fungi is griseofulvin.  The original source was Penicillium griseofulvin.  Griseofulvin is fungi static, rather than fungicidal. It is used for the treatment of dermatophytes, as it accumulates in the hair and skin following topical application.
  14. 14.  Cyclosporin A 1. It is a primary metabolite of several fungi, including Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindrocarpon lucidum. 2. Cyclosporin A is a cyclic peptide consisting of 11 mainly hydrophobic amino acids. It acts by inhibition of lymphocytes 3. The inhibition of T cells proliferation results in the suppression of the activation process associated with invasion by foreign bodies.  Gliotoxins 1. Belong to a class of compounds called Epi-poly-thiodioxo- piperazines 2. Produced by many fungi including Aspergillus fumigatus
  15. 15.  They act on the sympathetic nervous system resulting in the inhibition of noradrenaline and sclerotin, causing dilation of blood vessels. They also act directly on the smooth muscles of the uterus causing contractions, thus their early use to induce abortion  Alkaloids are now produced in culture by strains of Calviceps fusiformis and Calviceps paspalii.
  16. 16.  Fungi used- Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus Phoma  Aspergillus terreus a soil- borne fungus, produces a secondary metabolite called lovastatin  Aspergillus Phoma produces squalestatin both has been used to reduce or remove low density lipoproteins from blood vessels in humans  Statins have been implicated in attracting stem cells to damaged tissues. The stem cells then appear to regenerate the tissue
  17. 17.  A wide range of other compounds with antibiotic activity are also known. They have been rejected for use in medicine because of unwanted side effects, or instability of the active compound.
  18. 18. PHARMACODYNAMIC COMPONENT SPECIES Antibiotics Beta Methoxy Acrelate Oudemanasilla radicata Antiviral Protein Polysaccharide Lentinula edodes Cardio tonic Volvatoxin Flammutoxin Polyporaceae volvariella Decrease Cholesterol Eritadinine Collubia vellutipes Reduce Blood Pressure Triterpene Ganoderma Lucidum Anti Thrombus 5-GMP Psolliata hartensis Increase Bile secretion Armillarisia A Armillariella Tobescens Analgesic/Sedative Marasmic Acid Maramius androsaceus
  19. 19. •Soya Sauce •Blue Cheese •Colours •Flavours
  20. 20. Introduction  Fungi may be the food, or may make the food edible following processing. Processing may make it possible to consume the foodstuff by adding, modifying or removing components, including flavours, nutritional elements such as vitamins or colours to enhance the appeal of the food  Their use dates back to the start of the civilisation, when breads and wines were first made deliberately
  21. 21.  Fungi used Aspergillus oryzae Saccharomyces rouxii  Soya beans are soaked, cooked to remove contaminants, and then mixed with roasted wheat.  The fungus Aspergillus oryzae is added to the mix, and the amended mix kept aerobically for 20 to 40 hours at 25 C. The fungus produces invertases, amylases and cellulases, which degrade the soya paste.
  22. 22.  Fungi used- Penicillium roquefortii  Various cheeses are sold that have been stab- inoculated with a strain of Penicillium roquefortii. The result is a blue streak or vein through the cheese. The fungus imparts a strong, pungent flavour due to the aerobic production of methyl ketones. Famous blue cheeses include: Roquefort, Gorgonzola, Stilton, and Danish Blue.
  23. 23. Flavours and Colours  fungi are responsible for a range of flavours including terpenes, menthol and lactones. Fungi produce a range of compounds that alter the colour of food. Ex-Monoascus purpureus has been traditionally used for the production of red wine
  24. 24. Industrial process using fungi are of great economic importance. The products are unique and usually no other economic way to manufacture these products.
  25. 25.  Beg, Q.K., M. Kapoor, L. Mahajan, G.S. Hoondal. 2004. Microbial xylanases and their industrial applications: a review. Appl. Microbiol. and Biotech.SpringerBerlin/Heidelberg.  Alexopoulos, C.J., C.W. Mims, M. Blackwell. 1996. Introductory Mycology.JohnWiley&Sons,USA.  O.P.Sharma .1989 the textbook of fungi. Tata Mc Graw hill, Newdelhi  R.S.Mehrotra K.R.Aneja 1990 An Introduction to mycology , new age international