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Context Based Zoning

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Context Based Zoning

  1. 1. CONTEXT-BASED ZONING AND OTHER INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO PLACEMAKING A Status Report from New England SNEAPA Conference September 20, 2012SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  2. 2. THE WORKSHOP PANEL Ted Brovitz • Howard/Stein-Hudson, Manager of Community Planning and Design • Experience: Urban Planning, Design and Regulations • Recent Projects: W. Springfield Merrick Neighborhood, Amherst Villages FBC, Manchester CT FBC, Buzzards Bay FBC, West Concord Village Center Donald Powers, AIA CNU-A, LEED AP • Principal, Union Studios, Inc. • Experience: Architecture , Urban Design, Planning • Recent Projects: Jamestown, RI , Southfield, MA George Proakis, AICP • Director of Planning, City of Somerville • Experience: Urban Planning , Design and Regulations • Recent Projects: Lowell, MA and CNU FBC Review Committee Matthew Lawlor, CNU-A • Robinson & Cole LLP • Experience: Land Use Lawyer and Urban Planner • Recent Projects: Tri-Town and Lowell, MASNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  3. 3. AGENDA AND SESSION OBJECTIVES• Context-Based Zoning and Placemaking Toolbox• Common Principles and Best Practices• Typical Elements of Context-Based Zoning• Where Form-Based Codes and Other Tools are being Applied in the Region• Advantages & Challenges Going ForwardSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  4. 4. CONTEXT-BASED ZONING/PLACEMAKING TOOLSSome Common Tools• Form-Based Code (Used to Facilitate Other Placemaking Tool)• Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND)• Transit Oriented Development (TOD)• Strip Commercial Corridor Retrofit Planning• Smart Parking Standards• Complete Street Design• Civic Spaces, Livable Streets, the Outdoor Room• Tactical UrbanismSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  5. 5. FORM-BASED CODE AND TND/ The OriginsCongress for the New Urbanism (CNU)• Founded in 1993 and dedicated to promoting traditional mixed-use neighborhood development and healthier living conditions.Seaside Florida and Other Planned Development• 1981 Seaside Development Code first modern day application of FBC.Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND)• Late 1980s/early 1990s several cities in SE US adopted FBC variants:: – Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) ordinances. Mashpee Commons, MA – Early TND – Unified Development Ordinances (UDO) Cavendish Partnership/Cornish Assoc.The SmartCode©• Released by Duany Plater-Zyberk (DPZ) in 2003• Model transect-based development code applied to all scales of planning• SmartCode Version 9.2 - Open source with new modulesFrom “Greenfields” to Existing Built Environments• Over the past 10 years, FBC has been applied city-wide as well as districts targeted for revitalization and redevelopment.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  6. 6. FORM-BASED CODE BASICS/Common PrinciplesContext-Based Zoning• Focus on existing or desired context and spacial patterns of development and the surrounding environment (The Transect).Public-Private Relationships• Address the relationships between buildings and the “public realm” (such as streets, open spaces, and civic buildings and places).Hierarchy of Purpose and Scale• Buildings form, mass and scale• Street types, purpose and treatments• Active civic and open spacesPhysical Form vs. Land Use• Focus on positioning of buildings and spaces rather than separation of usesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  7. 7. FORM-BASED CODE BASICS/ The Transect• System of ordered human habitats in a range from the most natural to the most urban.• Defined by common physical characteristics of place, scale, density and intensity of land use.• FBC is Transect Based Zoning integrating the elements of existing or intended habitats. From the SmartCode© Duany Plater-ZyberkSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  8. 8. FORM-BASED CODE BASICS Differences Between FBC and Conventional Zoning• Integrated (Unified) Development Ordinance vs. separate regulations (zoning, subdivision, site plan)• Uses (Separation vs. Mix of Uses)• Dimensional Standards (Simple numerical vs. calibrated to shape public and private relationships.• Building Placement, Orientation and Frontages• Street Design Standards (to fit the context)• Parking Standards (for shared uses)• Civic and Open Space Standards (for active use)• Design Standards vs. Guidelines TND vs Conventional Development Example - Pittsford, NYSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  9. 9. FORM-BASED CODE CALIBRATION Process of Creating Context-Based ZoningEvaluate Existing/Desirable Development Patterns• Key dimensional, design and use characteristics of existing/desirable development patterns• Parking demand, distribution and occupancy trends• Existing street “livability” characteristics• Potential integration of desired civic and open space• Identify performance standards for desired uses and street activitiesDefine and Translate Community Vision• Visual (Image) Preference Surveys• Public Visioning, Scenario Building, and Design Charrettes• Preparing a Strategic Conceptual Development PlanSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  10. 10. FORM-BASED CODE CALIBRATION Defining the Land Use TransectSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  11. 11. FORM-BASED CODE CALIBRATION Comparing Existing Regulations to Existing/Desired ContextSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  12. 12. FORM-BASED CODE CALIBRATION Visioning, Scenario-Building and Design WorkshopsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  13. 13. FORM-BASED CODE CALIBRATION Visual Preference Surveys Purpose • Public direction and preferences • Range of design and development characteristics for a given district Common VPS Categories • Building Design, Density, and Use • Building Frontage and Façade Treatments • Parks, Open Space and Public Amenities • Streetscape and Pedestrian Treatments • Traffic Circulation and ParkingSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  14. 14. FORM-BASED CODE CALIBRATION Visual Preference Survey Example – Manchester, CT Highest Rated Images - Part 1 - Building Design, Density and Use 1.2 Commercial/Mixed Use Buildings 1.1 Adaptive Building ReuseSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  15. 15. FORM-BASED CODE CALIBRATION Visual Preference Survey Example – Manchester, CT Highest Rated Images Part 3 – Parks, Open Space and Amenities 3.1 Parks and Open Space 3.2 Public Art and Focal PointsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  16. 16. FORM-BASED CODE CALIBRATION Strategic and Illustrative Development PlansSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  17. 17. FORM-BASED CODE ELEMENTS Typical Elements of Form-Based Codes• Regulating Plan (or Zoning District Map)• Building and Lot Types with Character Examples• Frontage Types• Allowable Uses and Functional Standards• Dimensional and Placement Standards• Building Design Standards• Thoroughfare Design Hierarchy• Public and Private Open Space Types• Flexible Parking Standards• Administration and Review Process• Definitions• Optional Components: – Architectural Design Standards – Landscape Design Standards – Signage Standards – Environmental Resource StandardsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  18. 18. FORM-BASED CODE ELEMENTS Regulating PlanCommon Elements Transects or Zoning Subdistricts Street Types by Location Building/Lot Types Civic and Open Space Types and Location Frontage Zones Ground Floor LimitationsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  19. 19. FORM-BASED CODE ELEMENTS Building and Lot TypesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  20. 20. FORM-BASED CODE ELEMENTS Frontage Zones and Ground Floor Limitations Example from Broad Street Area FBC, Manchester, CTSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  21. 21. FORM-BASED CODE ELEMENTS Complete Street Network and Design HierarchySNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  22. 22. FORM-BASED CODE ELEMENTS Smart Parking Standards Common Requirements • Parking Placement (to side and rear of buildings) • Minimum and Maximum Requirements • Public On-Street/Off-Street Off-Sets • Shared Parking/Access Reduction Factors Share Parking Reduction Table, SmartCode© DPZ • Remote/Satellite Parking Allowances • Public Parking Contribution In- Lieu of On-Site • Landscaping and LID StandardsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  23. 23. FORM-BASED CODE ELEMENTS Public and Civic Open Space Types Common Types • Parks and Open Spaces • Greens and Commons • Plazas and Civic Buildings • Playgrounds and Common Gardens • Community Gardens A Public Green, The SmartCode©, DPZSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  24. 24. FORM-BASED CODE AND TND EXAMPLES Historic Downtowns, Village and Neighborhoods Location Description Status Buzzards Bay, MA FBC for older village center Adopted Simsbury Center, CT FBC for historic downtown Adopted Jamestown, RI FBC for Historic small coastal village Adopted Amherst, MA FBC for two small rural centers Pending Newport, VT FBC for historic village center Adopted Dover, NH FBC for historic downtown core Adopted Damariscotta, ME FBC for historic coastal island community Pending Stratham, NH FBC for historic downtown Area Adopted W. Springfield, MA. FBC for historic Merrick Neighborhood Under ReviewSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  25. 25. FORM-BASED CODE AND TND EXAMPLES Targeted Redevelopment Areas and Greenfields Targeted Redevelopment AreasLocation Description StatusNorth Eastham, MA New village center on major arterial (Rt. 6) Under ReviewManchester, CT Strip development redeveloped to mixed use AdoptedHamden, CT Commercial highway corridor overlay AdoptedLowell, MA Older mill redevelopment district AdoptedNewport, VT Older village center AdoptedTri-Town Area I-93 Interchange Initiative with 3 towns Under ReviewMalta, NY Replace strip development with new Town Center PendingMashpee, MA Mashpee Commons – TND on 1970s strip shopping plaza Phased GreenfieldsLocation Description StatusS. Weymouth/Southfield MA Mixed use TND on former Naval Air station AdoptedWindsor, CT Great Pond mixed use TND AdoptedLondonderry, NH Woodmont Commons TND Under ReviewSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  26. 26. FORM-BASED CODE AND TND EXAMPLES New FBC and TND is the Works Location Description Status York, ME FBC for corridor redevelopment In process Tiverton, RI FBC for corridor redevelopment In process Dover, NH FBC for corridor redevelopment In process Shelburne, VT FBC for corridor redevelopment In process S. Burlington, VT FBC for new Town Center and corridor In process redevelopment St. Albans, VT FBC for historic downtown In process Claremont, NH FBC for historic downtown In process Goffstown, NH FBC for Pinardville village center In processSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  27. 27. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MATraditional Settlement PatternsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  28. 28. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MAHistoric Mill NeighborhoodSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  29. 29. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MAExisting Land and Building UseSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  30. 30. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MAExisting Character ExamplesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  31. 31. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MACurrent Zoning Compared toExisting Settlement PatternsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  32. 32. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MA Development Scenarios Under Current Zoning Residential C Zoning DistrictSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  33. 33. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MA Development Scenarios Under Current Zoning Residential C Zoning DistrictSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  34. 34. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MA Development Scenarios Under Current Zoning Neighborhood Business Zoning DistrictSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  35. 35. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MA Development Scenarios Under Current Zoning Neighborhood Business Zoning DistrictSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  36. 36. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MA Illustrative Conceptual Master PlansSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  37. 37. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MARedevelopment and Reuse Scenarios UnderIllustrative Master Plan and New Regulating Plan Existing Apartment Building Cottage Court at Same DensitySNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  38. 38. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MAProposed Regulating Plan Merrick Neighborhood Residential Zone (MNRZ) To replace portions of: • Residence A-1 (RA-1) • Residence B (RB) • Residence C (RC) Merrick Neighborhood Business Zone (MNBZ) To replace portions of: • Neighborhood Business (NB) • Business A (BA) • Business A-1 (BA-1) • Business B (BB) Mixed Use Employment Zone (MUEZ) To replace portions of: • Industrial (I) Merrick Natural and Civic Zone (MNCZ) To replace portions of: • Recreation (REC)SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  39. 39. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MAComplete Street Design HierarchySNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  40. 40. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MAComplete Streets Hierarchy Design and StandardsStreet and Thoroughfare Types• Neighborhood Business Street• Mixed Use Street• Neighborhood Residential Street A and B• Business Park Street• Access Street and Alley• Multi-Purpose PathwayDesign and Development Standards• Description• Zone Applications• Street Design Standards • Movement, Traffic Flow, Design Speed • ROW and Pavement Width • Travel Lane and Parking Lane • Curb Radius and Type • Bike and Pedestrian Facilities • Transit Facilities• Streetscape CharacteristicsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  41. 41. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MASNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  42. 42. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MABuilding and Lot Design StandardsBuilding Types• Detached Home• Cottage Court, Carriage House Unit,• Multi-Family Building• Live/Work Unit and Rowhouse• Multi-Use Building (Small to Large)• Flex Commercial Building• Civic Building and SpaceDesign and Development Standards• Description• Character Examples• Lot Standards (Frontage, Depth Area)• Building Placement on Lot (Setback and BTZ)• Parking Placement on Lot• Open Space Types on Lot• Building and Street Activation StandardsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  43. 43. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MAResidential Building and Lot TypesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  44. 44. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MAResidential Building and Lot TypesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  45. 45. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MAMixed Use and Commercial Building and Lot TypesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  46. 46. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MAMixed Use and Commercial Building and Lot TypesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  47. 47. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MAResidential, Mixed Use and Commercial Lot TypesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  48. 48. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Merrick Neighborhood, W. Springfield MAOpen Space Types (Public and Private) 1. Lawn 2. Garden 3. Terrace/Outdoor Dining Area 4. Pocket Park 5. Playground 6. Plaza or Square 7. Park 8. Common or Green 9. Ballfields 10. Community GardenSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  49. 49. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Broad Street Redevelopment Area, Manchester CT Existing Conditions AnalysisSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  50. 50. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Broad Street Redevelopment Area, Manchester CT Conceptual Redevelopment Plan Regulating (Zoning District) PlanSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  51. 51. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Broad Street Redevelopment Area, Manchester CT Building Placement/Frontage Types Building and Lot TypesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  52. 52. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Broad Street Redevelopment Area, Manchester CTBuilding and Lot TypesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  53. 53. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Broad Street Redevelopment Area, Manchester CT Street Design Types Civic and Open Space TypesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  54. 54. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Great Pond TND, Windsor CT 653 Acres Total Site 365 Acres in Open Space 4,010 Residential Units 85,000 SF Neighborhood Comm. 640,00 SF Comm. Office 128,000 SF Civic and InstitutionalSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  55. 55. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Great Pond TND, Windsor CT Regulating PlanSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  56. 56. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Great Pond TND, Windsor CT Complete Street Network and Design HierarchySNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  57. 57. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Great Pond TND, Windsor CT Parks, Open Space and Conservation PlanSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  58. 58. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Great Pond TND, Windsor CT Phasing Plan – 8 stages over several yearsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  59. 59. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Village Centers, Amherst, MAProcess• Existing Zoning Evaluation• Stakeholder Interviews• Visioning Workshops• Conceptual Master Plans• Preparation of Form-Based Zoning• Integration into Existing RegulationsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  60. 60. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Village Centers, Amherst, MANorth Amherst VillageCenter• Graphics prepared by The Cecil GroupSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  61. 61. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Village Centers, Amherst, MA Amherst Village Center Conceptual Development and Circulation Plans Graphics prepared by The Cecil GroupSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  62. 62. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Village Centers, Amherst, MA FBC Residential Building Concepts for Amherst Village Center Graphics prepared by The Cecil GroupSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  63. 63. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Village Centers, Amherst, MA FBC Mixed Use Buildng Concepts for Amherst Village Center Graphics prepared by The Cecil GroupSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  64. 64. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Village Centers, Amherst, MA FBC for Amherst Village Centers Graphics prepared by The Cecil GroupSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  65. 65. CONTEXT-BASED ZONING/PLACEMAKING TOOLS The Form-Based Code vs. “Hybrid” ApproachChallenges of Blending Conventional Zoning and FBC• Calibration - Meshing New and Existing Development Patterns Accurately.• Zoning Map/Districts vs. Regulating Plan/Transects.• Dimensional Standards vs. Building Form Standards (Minimum and Maximum Requirements).• Strict Use Regulations and Flexible Performance Standards.• Design Guidelines vs. Design Standards.• Incorporating Public Space and Infrastructure Design Standards.• Streamlined Review Process – Facilitating administrative review.• Public Education - Initial Confusion and time needed for understanding.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  66. 66. TRADITIONAL NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT (TOD) LEED Neighborhood Development Rating System• LEED-ND Version 9.0 Adopted 2009, Updated 2011• Collaboration of USGBC, CNU and NRDC• Rating system prerequisites/credits address 5 topics: – Smart Location and Linkage (27 possible points) – Neighborhood Pattern and Design (44 possible points) – Green Infrastructure and Buildings (29 possible points) – Innovation and Design Process (6 possible points) – Regional Priority Credit (4 possible points)SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  67. 67. TRADITIONAL NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT (TOD) LEED Neighborhood Development Rating SystemNeighborhood Development and Design Criteria (44 possible points) Number Criteria Credits prerequisite 1 Walkable Streets Required prerequisite 2 Compact Development Required prerequisite 3 Connected and open Community Required ¨ Credit 1 Walkable Streets 12 ¨ Credit 2 Compact Development 6 ¨ Credit 3 Mixed-Use Neighborhood Centers 4 ¨ Credit 4 Mixed-income Diverse Communities 7 ¨ Credit 5 Reduced parking footprint 1 ¨ Credit 6 Street Network 2 ¨ Credit 7 Transit facilities 1 ¨ Credit 8 Transportation Demand management 2 ¨ Credit 9 Access to Civic and public Spaces 1 ¨ Credit 10 Access to recreation facilities 1 ¨ Credit 11 Visitability and Universal Design 1 ¨ Credit 12 Community outreach and involvement 2 ¨ Credit 13 Local food production 1 ¨ Credit 14 Tree-Lined and Shaded Streets 2 ¨ Credit 15 Neighborhood Schools 1SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  68. 68. TRADITIONAL NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT (TOD) LEED Neighborhood Development Rating System Smart Location and Linkage (27 possible points) Number Criteria Credits prerequisite 1 Smart Location Required prerequisite 2 Imperiled Species and Ecological Communities Required prerequisite 3 Wetland and Water body Conservation Required prerequisite 4 Agricultural Land Conservation Required prerequisite 5 Floodplain Avoidance Required ¨ Credit 1 Preferred Locations 10 ¨ Credit 2 Brownfield redevelopment 2 ¨ Credit 3 Locations with reduced Automobile Dependence 7 ¨ Credit 4 Bicycle Network and Storage 1 ¨ Credit 5 Housing and Jobs proximity 3 ¨ Credit 6 Steep Slope protection 1 ¨ Credit 7 Site Design for habitat or Wetland and Water body Conservation 1 ¨ Credit 8 Restoration of habitat or Wetlands and Water bodies 1 ¨ Credit 9 Long-term Conservation management of habitat or Wetlands 1 and Water bodiesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  69. 69. CORRIDOR RETROFIT PLANNING AND ZONING Changing Patterns of DevelopmentCommon Characteristics• Expanding the Mix of Uses• Infill Development, Redevelopment, Re-purposing Buildings and Sites (Higher Density)• Improving Connectivity with Surrounding Area• Internal Circulation and Shared Access• Complete Street Design (Improve pedestrian, bicycle and transit facilities) State Highway Poses Challenges to Creating Supportive Public Realm for New• Reduced and Shared Parking Standards Town Center, Route 9, Malta, NY• Integrating Civic and Open SpacesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  70. 70. CORRIDOR RETROFIT PLANNING AND ZONING Changing Patterns of Development Alternative Development ScenariosSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  71. 71. LIVABLE STREETS Common Techniques• Implement a Community Vision• Achieve Traditional Development Patterns• Supportive Public-Private Relationships• Facilitate Diversity and Mixed Uses• Create an “Outdoor Room” and Attractive Street Enclosure Ratio Standard 1:25 Pedestrian Environment (Height to Width) Rochester, NY• Facilitate Intermodal Transportation with “Complete Streets”• Create Vibrant Civic Spaces• Improve Property Values• Create/Enhance a “Sense of Place” The “Outdoor Room” - Hyannis, MASNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  72. 72. COMPLETE STREETS Hierarchy and Design StandardsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  73. 73. TACTICAL URBANISM Common Tactics• Open Streets and Play Streets• Build a Better Block• Guerilla Gardening• Pop-Up Retail and Cafes Pop Up Cafe• PARK(ing) Day PARKing Day• Food Carts and Trucks• Mobile Venders• Chair Bombing• Pavement to Plazas Mobile Vendors• Street Fairs Solar Powered Kiosk/Pop Up Store• ETCSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  74. 74. CONTEXT-BASED ZONING/PLACEMAKING TOOLSSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  75. 75. FORM-BASED CODE Case Studies - Narragansett Avenue, Jamestown, RIJamestown Vision: Team: DPA – Lead. Cornish Associates, (Buff Chace, Russ Preston) – Financial / Market Analysis Sandy Sorlien-Smart Code Specialist. New Commons- Community Outreach Asked by Town to help preserve the character, scale, walkability, and affordability of the Village through charrette, FBC, and Design Guidelines Restore and protect the character of the village.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  76. 76. Step 1: Establish Community Vision – Online Surveys “walking to shops and restaurants and keeping East Ferry waterfront accessible“ “don’t want to loose the small town character”“Affordable housing for those whose families were born here.”“That it is an island with open space, active farms and easy access to water”SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  77. 77. Step 1: Establish Community Vision – Dotting Exercises / Visual Preference surveySNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  78. 78. Community Preference came down to choice between this:SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  79. 79. And This:SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  80. 80. Demonstrated to community that development will come and is already happening. (Inventoried current development proposals) Can’t avoid development altogether. Question is what type and form?SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  81. 81. Much more potential for development than they realized Used simple, rapid visualization techniques.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  82. 82. Showed that despite a single “village commercial” zone, character of Narragansett Ave varied greatly from one end to the other.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  83. 83. “East Ferry” characterized by 2 to 3 stories, with retail frontage on the 1st floorSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  84. 84. West end of Narragansett distinctly more residential and loose. No retail frontage.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  85. 85. “Four Corners” area much more auto- scaled. “Working” retail.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  86. 86. Observed and measured existing conditions. Presented this back to the community to better understand what they wanted to preserve.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  87. 87. Observed and measured existing conditions. Presented this back to the community to better understand what they wanted to preserve.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  88. 88. Observed and measured existing conditions. Presented this back to the community to better understand what they wanted to preserve. • Predominant 2-1/2 story form • Primarily retail or office at first floor • Second and third floor more residential in character • Third floor primarily in dormersSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  89. 89. Observed and measured existing conditions. Presented this back to the community to better understand what they wanted to preserve. • Lot parking at side or rear • Variety of frontage • Limited front setbackSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  90. 90. Repeated the exercise for each distinct area of the village. Made explicit what community understood intuitively.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  91. 91. West end of Narragansett has a different pattern from East end • Predominantly 2 – 2-1/2 story form • Residential character at first floor. •Looser spacing, hedging instead of fencing, etc. •Third floor primarily in dormersSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  92. 92. West end of Narragansett has a different pattern from East end • Driveways predominantly at front or side • Deeper front setbacks • Still maintains strong street edgeSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  93. 93. “Four Corners” exhibits a post war, auto-centric pattern.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  94. 94. “Four Corners” exhibits a post war, auto-centric pattern. •Very deep setbacks. •Parking in front •Contemporary architectural stylesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  95. 95. STEP 2: Demonstrated how the current ordinance does not do enough to protect what they have or ensure more of it.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  96. 96. Showed that Village was vulnerable to development along patterns of stuff they said they didn’t like Present ConditionsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  97. 97. Showed that Village was vulnerable to development along patterns of stuff they said they didn’t like What if Hurricane of ‘38 struck again??SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  98. 98. CURRENT ZONING ALLOWS (MANDATES!) VERY DIFFERENT KINDS OF DEVELOPMENTResidents were shocked!SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  99. 99. For key sites demonstrated “risk” posed by current ordinance and alternative vision which could be encouraged by FBCSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  100. 100. Residents very anxious about future of 1 acre lot, zoned commercial, in residentially scaled end of Narrgansett AveSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  101. 101. Gave specific design proposals to illustrate importance of “form” as opposed to lot coverage, use, or setback alone.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  102. 102. Nothing in ordinance to prevent Self Storage units, for example.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  103. 103. With proper form and placement commercial could be fineSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  104. 104. Showed how without “down zoning” currently permitted intensity of use could be accommodated in sympathy with the neighborhood.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  105. 105. Showed how, without “down zoning,” currently permitted intensity of use could be accommodated in sympathy with the neighborhood.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  106. 106. Showed how “most hated site” could be repaired over time by incremental development guided by FBCSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  107. 107. Showed how “most hated site” could be repaired over time by incremental development guided by FBCSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  108. 108. Different development scenarios explored to help community – and owner – understand how it might build-out.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  109. 109. Different development scenarios explored to help community – and owner – understand how it might build-out.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  110. 110. Different development scenarios explored to help community – and owner – understand how it might build-out over time.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  111. 111. Different development scenarios explored to help community – and owner – understand how it might build-out.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  112. 112. Different development scenarios explored to help community – and owner – understand how it might build-out.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  113. 113. Very simple controls on form could transform this:SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  114. 114. To this:SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  115. 115. Had immediate effect. Town and local developer teamed up to flesh out a master plan.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  116. 116. Had immediate effect. Town and local developer teamed up to flesh out a master plan.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  117. 117. Had immediate effect. Town and local developer teamed up to flesh out a master plan.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  118. 118. For key sites demonstrated “risk” posed by current ordinance and alternative vision which could be encouraged by FBCSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  119. 119. For key sites demonstrated “risk” posed by current ordinance and alternative vision which could be encouraged by FBCSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  120. 120. Advocated for different “visions” for different “zones”. One size does NOT fit all. Not all of village, can or should be residentially scaled.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  121. 121. Needed a “working retail” location convenient to autos, but deferring to pedestrians.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  122. 122. Proposal leveraged planned improvements (new post office, funded streetscape work, branch bank relocation) to create “real” shopping.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  123. 123. Goals discovered by study, design, and community outreach translated back into regulating plan.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  124. 124. A Single Commercial Downtown Zone redrawn as 3 “T-zones” reflecting differing visions for each.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  125. 125. Civic buildings, civic spaces, recommended retail frontage, view corridors terminated vistas, street and walkway types all identified.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  126. 126. Model “SmartCode” calibrated for each T-Zone.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  127. 127. Ordinance changes supplemented with Design Guidelines.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  128. 128. “Soft Ordinance” Serves to guide the willing (95%) without forcing the unwilling (5%). “Objective” - wont change with changing personnel.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  129. 129. Adoption within Comprehensive Plan gives it legal standing… of a sort. Since most projects require relief, it becomes effective bargaining chip.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  130. 130. Form Based diagrams can supplement conventional ordinance to great effect.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  131. 131. Form Based diagrams can supplement conventional ordinance to great effect.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  132. 132. Form Based diagrams can supplement conventional ordinance to great effect.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  133. 133. Form Based diagrams can supplement conventional ordinance to great effect.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  134. 134. CONTEXT-BASED ZONING/PLACEMAKING TOOLSSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  135. 135. Somerville by Design: TheNext Generation of Land Use Regulation Presented by:George J. Proakis, AICP September 20, 2012
  136. 136. Somerville, MA• 4.5 sq miles• 70,000+ population• North of Cambridge, MA• Densest city in New England• A city of squares
  137. 137. Questions?
  138. 138. Questions?
  139. 139. . . . And the community is preparing for it . . .
  140. 140. . . . And the community is preparing for it . . .
  141. 141. The Code:Three Challenges of the SZO
  142. 142. The Code: Three Challenges of the SZO1. Code structure is unworkable: • Language is unreadable and subject to wide interpretation • Attempts to describe physical form through words • Answers to basic questions are scattered across sections • Additional districts are cobbled onto code structure
  143. 143. The Code: Three Challenges of the SZO1. Code structure is unworkable: • Language is unreadable and subject to wide interpretation • Attempts to describe physical form through words • Answers to basic questions are scattered across sections • Additional districts are cobbled onto code structure2. RA/RB Districts don’t provide a predictable outcome: • Nonconformity is used as a proxy for design review • Large by-right lots have no design review • Wide ranges of possible outcomes by special permit • Larger mixed-income projects require much negotiation
  144. 144. The Code: Three Challenges of the SZO1. Code structure is unworkable: • Language is unreadable and subject to wide interpretation • Attempts to describe physical form through words • Answers to basic questions are scattered across sections • Additional districts are cobbled onto code structure2. RA/RB Districts don’t provide a predictable outcome: • Nonconformity is used as a proxy for design review • Large by-right lots have no design review • Wide ranges of possible outcomes by special permit • Larger mixed-income projects require much negotiation3. Transit station zoning is misapplied on the map • Innerbelt and Brickbottom are in old industrial zones • Gilman, Magoun and Ball Square have limited options • Porter and Davis have select areas that are underzoned • New Union Square and Broadway zoning need clarity
  145. 145. The Code: Three Challenges of the SZO1. Code structure is unworkable: • Language is unreadable and subject to wide interpretation • Attempts to describe physical form through words • Answers to basic questions are scattered across sections • Additional districts are cobbled onto code structure2. RA/RB Districts don’t provide a predictable outcome: • Nonconformity is used as a proxy for design review • Large by-right lots have no design review • Wide ranges of possible outcomes by special permit • Larger mixed-income projects require much negotiation3. Transit station zoning is misapplied on the map • Innerbelt and Brickbottom are in old industrial zones • Gilman, Magoun and Ball Square have limited options • Porter and Davis have select areas that are underzoned • New Union Square and Broadway zoning need clarity4. Problems #2 and #3 cannot be fixed until we fix #1
  146. 146. The Appliance and The Grid“If we know what the appliance is . . . . - Christopher Alexander
  147. 147. The Appliance and The Grid“If we know what the appliance is . . . . We need to find the plugs to connect it to the existing power grids.” - Christopher Alexander
  148. 148. The Appliance and The Grid • Board of Aldermen • Zoning Board of Appeals Goals of the • Planning Board SomerVision Plan • Conservation Commissions • DPW • Fire Department • State Regulators • Etc.“If we know what the appliance is . . . . We need to find the plugs to connect it to the existing power grids.” - Christopher Alexander
  149. 149. The Appliance and The Grid • Board of Aldermen The • Zoning Board of Appeals Goals of the • Planning Board Future SomerVision Plan • Conservation Commissions Somerville • DPW Zoning • Fire Department Ordinance • State Regulators • Etc.“If we know what the appliance is . . . . We need to find the plugs to connect it to the existing power grids.” - Christopher Alexander
  150. 150. The Appliance and The Grid Form Based Codes • Board of Aldermen • Zoning Board of Appeals Transfer of • Planning Board Goals of the Development SomerVision Plan Rights • Conservation Commissions • DPW Performance • Fire Department Zoning • State Regulators • Etc. Pre-Permitted Sites Special Districts“If we know what the appliance is . . . . We need to find the plugs to connect it to the existing power grids.” - Christopher Alexander
  151. 151. The Appliance and The Grid The • Board of Aldermen Future • Zoning Board of Appeals Goals of the Somerville • Planning Board SomerVision Plan Zoning • Conservation Commissions Ordinance • DPW • Fire Department Organized • State Regulators Around a • Etc. FBC strategy“If we know what the appliance is . . . . We need to find the plugs to connect it to the existing power grids.” - Christopher Alexander
  152. 152. The Lesson ofOrganization
  153. 153. The Somerville Zoning Ordinance (SZO):1. Built on a conventional code from 19252. Additions have been cobbled on for many years3. Definitions in text / regulation in definitions (lacks performance standards for specific uses)4. Many cross-reference sections5. 90+% of lots nonconforming – nonconformity used for design review6. New additions for Assembly Square, Union Square and BroadwayLike many local codes: The results are good – but the process is not
  154. 154. Conventional Zoning“To say (conventional zoning) is cookie-cutter is unfair to the cookie industry . . . . . . there is actually some thought toalternative forms of cookies” - Strong Towns Blog
  155. 155. Zoning Tools: Regulation of Allowed UsesPaul Crawford, AICP
  156. 156. Zoning Tools: Regulation of Allowed Uses 19. Baths, TurkishPaul Crawford, AICP
  157. 157. Zoning Tools: Regulation of Allowed Uses 19. Baths, Turkish 25. Boxing arenaPaul Crawford, AICP
  158. 158. Zoning Tools: Regulation of Allowed Uses 19. Baths, Turkish 25. Boxing arena 28. Chinchillas, retail salesPaul Crawford, AICP
  159. 159. Zoning Tools: Regulation of Allowed Uses 19. Baths, Turkish 25. Boxing arena 28. Chinchillas, retail sales 41. Eleemosynary institutionsPaul Crawford, AICP
  160. 160. Zoning Tools: Regulation of Allowed Uses 19. Baths, Turkish 25. Boxing arena 28. Chinchillas, retail sales 41. Eleemosynary institutions 42. Embalming businessPaul Crawford, AICP
  161. 161. Zoning Tools: Regulation of Allowed Uses 19. Baths, Turkish 25. Boxing arena 28. Chinchillas, retail sales 41. Eleemosynary institutions 42. Embalming business 95. Physical culture institutionPaul Crawford, AICP
  162. 162. Zoning Tools: Regulation of Allowed Uses 19. Baths, Turkish 25. Boxing arena 28. Chinchillas, retail sales 41. Eleemosynary institutions 42. Embalming business 95. Physical culture institution 109. Potato chip manufacturingPaul Crawford, AICP
  163. 163. Zoning Tools: Regulation of Allowed Uses 19. Baths, Turkish 25. Boxing arena 28. Chinchillas, retail sales 41. Eleemosynary institutions 42. Embalming business 95. Physical culture institution 109. Potato chip manufacturing 127. Tombstones, retail salesPaul Crawford, AICP
  164. 164. Zoning Tools: Regulation of Allowed Uses 19. Baths, Turkish 25. Boxing arena 28. Chinchillas, retail sales 41. Eleemosynary institutions 42. Embalming business 95. Physical culture institution 109. Potato chip manufacturing 127. Tombstones, retail sales 135. Turkish BathsPaul Crawford, AICP
  165. 165. Zoning Tools: Regulation of Allowed UsesSomerville: 291 use categories:7.11.4.e Home Occupation (not including below)7.11.4.f Office, within a primary residence, of an architect, attorney, physician or dentist7.11.8.6 Photocopying or commercial printing7.11.8.10 Newspaper distribution agency7.11.9.5 Store selling or renting goods such as books, stationary, drugs, sporting goods including bicycles and accessories, jewelry, photographic equipment and supplies, flowers, novelties, cards, footwear, apparel, fabrics, accessories, and the like that are typically of a size a customer can carry by hand7.11.9.6 Store selling or renting video tapes7.11.8.8 Store selling hardware, paint, wallpaper, lawn and garden supplies7.11.11.11 Limousine rental and minor servicing7.11.11.12 Bus and taxi rental
  166. 166. Zoning Tools: Setbacks
  167. 167. Zoning Tools: Open SpaceBaconsrebellion.com
  168. 168. Zoning Tools: Parking Requirementsmaps.live.com
  169. 169. Zoning Tools:Parking Requirements
  170. 170. Zoning Tools: Special Permits• “designed in a manner that is compatible with the existing natural features of the site and is compatible with the characteristics of the built and unbuilt surrounding areas.”• “consistent with the general purpose of this ordinance”• “where practical, new or infill building construction should share the same orientation to the street as is common in the neighborhood”• “will not create adverse environmental impacts”
  171. 171. Zoning Tools: Lots in Two Districts Land in a more restrictive zoning districtmay supply space for a use permitted in aless restricted zoning district if the use of the land in the more restrictive district satisfies space and passive use requirements (such as setbacks, landscaping or parking) that are notprohibited in the more restrictive district.
  172. 172. Zoning Tools: Lots Abutting Other Districts Where a lot in a business or industrial district abuts a lot or district line in a RA, RB, or RC district, no building in the business or industrial district shall be erected closer to the residential line than one-third (1/3) the height of the saidbuilding, but not less than fifteen (15) feet.
  173. 173. The Form Based Code: Document StructureTools of Traditional Zoning: Tools of the Form-Based Code:• Regulation of uses • Regulating plan• Setbacks • Open Space Standards• Open space • Thoroughfare Standards• Parking requirements • Public Open Space Standards• Subdivision standards • Private Open Space Standards• Density • Functional Design Standards• Site plan review • Building Form Standards• Special permits • Site Configuration• Design guidelines • Building Configuration • Building Elements • Uses • Administrative Process • Architectural standards (optional)
  174. 174. Livermore Development Code: Hybrid ModelTransect Zones have their own development regulation section
  175. 175. Livermore Development CodeThe rest of the code is separate
  176. 176. Livermore Development CodeUse specific requirements are intheir own section, not afootnote or definition
  177. 177. The Form Based Code: Document StructureStructure of the SZO: Somerville By Design Code:• Definitions • Definitions• Process • Process• Districts • SP Process • Define some districts • Design review process • Standards for others • Subdivision process• Uses • PUD Process • Table • Linkage and Inclusionary Rules • Footnotes • Districts • Clusters • Form Districts• Dimensions • Allowed building forms and • Table uses for each district • Footnotes • Parking for each district• Landscape • Landscaping for each district• Parking • Special Districts• PUD • Copy provisions of ASMD,• Linkage Tufts and existing PUDs• Inclusionary • Performance standards for specific uses• Map • Map / Regulating Plan
  178. 178. The Form Based Code: Document Structure• Districts • Neighborhood Residential (RA/RB) • Urban corridor (RC) • Urban Square (future for Davis) • Neighborhood Mixed Retail (NB etc.) • Corridor Commercial • Transit Oriented • Brickbottom • Reserved Sections for future station areas• Special districts • ASMD • Tufts • Approved PUDs • Powder house school
  179. 179. The Form Based Code: What doesn’t change?• All RA/RB stays in a neighborhood residential district• Important procedural and legal language remains• Special districts (ASMD, Tufts, approved PUDs) remain as is• CCD and TOD districts remain, with graphical standards added• Roles of Special Permit Granting Authorities remain
  180. 180. ConservingNeighborhood Character
  181. 181. Zoning tools in Somerville, MA
  182. 182. A conforming house:
  183. 183. A non-conforming house:
  184. 184. The Form Based Code: The RA/RB problemStructure of the SZO: Somerville by Design Code:• Nonconformity is used as • Base home additions on a a proxy for design review pattern book of Somerville homes• Large by-right lots have no design review • Establish streamlined design• Wide ranges of possible review outcomes by special permit • Reduce total units in mixed- income projects to match• Larger mixed-income existing neighborhood density, projects require much SomerVision goals, and allow negotiation buyouts for less than one unit
  185. 185. One District, or Many: The Denver Question
  186. 186. Building Type Codes: Livermore
  187. 187. Building Type Codes: Livermore
  188. 188. Building Type Codes: Woodbury NJ
  189. 189. Building Type Codes: Denver
  190. 190. Building Type Codes: Denver
  191. 191. Streamlining Permitting ForTransit-Oriented Districts
  192. 192. Transit-Oriented Strategies:• Assembly Square • Existing rules to remain• Union Square and Broadway • Conventional TOD and Corridor districts• Brickbottom • Streamlined FBC• Innerbelt Industrial Park • FBC based planned areas• Gilman / Lowell / Ball • The ‘Somerville by Design’ charrette
  193. 193. Transit-Oriented Strategies:• Assembly Square • Existing rules to remain• Union Square and Broadway • Conventional TOD and Corridor districts• Brickbottom • Streamlined FBC• Innerbelt Industrial Park • FBC based planned areas• Gilman / Lowell / Ball • The ‘Somerville by Design’ charrette
  194. 194. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Union Square
  195. 195. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Union Square
  196. 196. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Union Square
  197. 197. Transit-Oriented Strategies:• Assembly Square • Existing rules to remain• Union Square and Broadway • Conventional TOD and Corridor districts• Brickbottom • Streamlined FBC• Innerbelt Industrial Park • FBC based planned areas• Gilman / Lowell / Ball • The ‘Somerville by Design’ charrette
  198. 198. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Brickbottom
  199. 199. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Brickbottom
  200. 200. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Brickbottom
  201. 201. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Brickbottom
  202. 202. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Brickbottom
  203. 203. Codes for Innovative Districts: Nashville
  204. 204. Codes for Innovative Districts: Nashville
  205. 205. Transit-Oriented Strategies:• Assembly Square • Existing rules to remain• Union Square and Broadway • Conventional TOD and Corridor districts• Brickbottom • Streamlined FBC• Innerbelt Industrial Park • FBC based planned areas• Gilman / Lowell / Ball • The ‘Somerville by Design’ charrette
  206. 206. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Innerbelt
  207. 207. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Innerbelt
  208. 208. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Innerbelt
  209. 209. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Innerbelt
  210. 210. Transit-Oriented Strategies: Innerbelt High-value commercial and New connections to housing Washington Station, development Brickbottom Park creating distinct sense of place
  211. 211. Codes for Master Planning: Lee County
  212. 212. Codes for Master Planning: Lee County
  213. 213. Transit-Oriented Strategies:• Assembly Square • Existing rules to remain• Union Square and Broadway • Conventional TOD and Corridor districts• Brickbottom • Streamlined FBC• Innerbelt Industrial Park • FBC based planned areas• Gilman / Lowell / Ball • The ‘Somerville by Design’ charrette
  214. 214. Transit-Oriented Strategies:Gilman Sq / Lowell Street / Ball Sq
  215. 215. Transit-Oriented Strategies:Gilman Sq / Lowell Street / Ball Sq
  216. 216. Transit-Oriented Strategies:Gilman Sq / Lowell Street / Ball Sq
  217. 217. Transit-Oriented Strategies:Gilman Sq / Lowell Street / Ball Sq
  218. 218. Transit-Oriented Strategies:Gilman Sq / Lowell Street / Ball Sq
  219. 219. Transit-Oriented Strategies:Gilman Sq / Lowell Street / Ball Sq
  220. 220. Transit-Oriented Strategies:Gilman Sq / Lowell Street / Ball Sq
  221. 221. Transit-Oriented Strategies:Gilman Sq / Lowell Street / Ball Sq
  222. 222. The Extended Charrette: Lowell Standard Charrette Phases: • Research, Education and Preparation • Charrette • Plan Implementation
  223. 223. The Extended Charrette: Lowell NCI Charrette • At least four consecutive days • Allowing for at least three design feedback loops • Open process including all interested parties • Creates a feasible product with minimal work
  224. 224. The Extended Charrette: Lowell• Lowell Charrette • Same preparation and implementation steps • Four days of design and public participation spread over four months • Feedback loops
  225. 225. The Extended Charrette: Lowell• Lowell Charrette • Months of outreach before first session • Early listening sessions • Cross functional collaborative team • Feasible outcome that is embedded in the code • Design as the basis for the shared vision • No opposition to FBC and universal political support for the plan
  226. 226. Conclusion
  227. 227. The Form Based Code: Benefits of the Somerville by Design Code• Establishes Somerville as ‘open for development’ in transit areas• Conserves the character of core residential neighborhoods• Continues our tradition of using best practices in municipal government• Implements over 100 recommendations of the SomerVision plan in a regulatory structure that will produce long-term impacts• Provides predictable high quality outcomes
  228. 228. The Form Based Code: A new solution to the SZO?Structure of the SZO: The SZO as a FBC:• ddd • ddd
  229. 229. FORM-BASED CODE APPLICATIONS The Legal Landscape in New England Matthew Lawlor, CNU-A Robinson & Cole LLPSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  230. 230. FORM-BASED CODE APPLICATIONS The Legal Landscape in New England • Legal authorization of FBCs has not been seriously challenged • REPEAT: Legal authorization of FBCs has not been seriously challenged • Multiple authors (Emerson, Sitkowski, Slone) have confirmed this reading • Enabling statutes are not the problem • Still need to confirm jurisdiction’s case law not a bar… • …And beware of issues of application as followsSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  231. 231. FORM-BASED CODE APPLICATIONS The Legal Landscape in New England• First things first• Plan and vision before drafting the FBC• Otherwise, the FBC has no vision to which it is coding• The overall goal: Plan, vision, and code to the maximum extent possible• Seek diminishing discretion: Plan for the code, not each individual project.SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  232. 232. FORM-BASED CODE APPLICATIONS The Legal Landscape in New England• Specific implementation issues: – Appreciate the potential for plan-based inverse condemnation (if you lay down too many streets you don’t intend to take) [Tri-Town Example] – Watch for regulatory schemes outside of zoning (state-mandated multi- family/commercial site plan review, for example) [Dover Example] – Sticking within the statutory scheme for zoning and building code review and permit issuance (create a new scheme at your own peril) [Lowell Example]SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  233. 233. CONTEXT-BASED ZONING/PLACEMAKING TOOLS Advantages • Stronger Connections Between Development Plans, The Community’s Vision and Land Use Regulations • Can be Calibrated to Existing Desirable Conditions • Predictable Physical Outcomes of Development • Encourages Diversity • Higher Quality Development • Effectively Replaces Design Guidelines • Creates a Supportive Relationships between Private Development and The Public RealmSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  234. 234. DISCUSSIONSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  235. 235. OTHER CASE STUDIESSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  236. 236. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Buzzards Bay Village, Bourne MAThe Process• Design Charrette and Visioning Workshops• Existing Conditions Analysis• Downtown Master Plan• Form-Based Code• Design GuidelinesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  237. 237. FORM-BASED CODE/CASE STUDIES Buzzards Bay Village, Bourne MA Existing Conditions Proposed Under New FBCSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  238. 238. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Hamilton Canal District, Lowell MASNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  239. 239. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Hamilton Canal District, Lowell MA Advantages to the Charrette & Form Based Codes Process Risk Reduction Site Value Feasibility Cohesiveness Collaboration Efficiency Balance Certainty Achievement of ObjectivesSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  240. 240. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Hamilton Canal District, Lowell MASNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  241. 241. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Hamilton Canal District, Lowell MASNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  242. 242. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Hamilton Canal District, Lowell MASNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  243. 243. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Hamilton Canal District, Lowell MASNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  244. 244. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Hamilton Canal District, Lowell MASNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  245. 245. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Hamilton Canal District, Lowell MASNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  246. 246. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Hamilton Canal District, Lowell MASNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  247. 247. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Downtown Core Area, Dover NH Code Development Process: • Charrette followed by additional public review Project Review Process: • Varies: most projects require Planning Board Site Plan Review Interesting details: • Won Plan NH 2010 Merit Award and NH Planners Association 2009 Project of the Year AwardSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  248. 248. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Downtown Core Area, Dover NHSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  249. 249. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Downtown Core Area, Dover NHSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  250. 250. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Downtown Area, Newport, VT Code Development Process: • 2009 Rural Urban Design Assistance Team (RUDAT) from AIA led the initial community discussions about future of downtown • Town planner used local students to catalog existing conditions and draft information for standards Project Review Process: • Code administrative process still being developed Interesting details: • Local planner is seeking to complete the form based code on a $15,000 consulting budget • Vermont state government seeking to replicate the model if it is successful in NewportSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  251. 251. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Downtown Area, Newport, VTSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  252. 252. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Downtown Area, Newport, VTSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  253. 253. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Historic Town Center, Simsbury CT Site: Historic town center & adjacent land Size: Community of 23,000, 34 sq miles Project: Town center and new development Developed by: Consulting team hired by town Type of code: Mandatory – Street Based Attached to traditional town code Project approval body: Zoning Commission Adopted: April 5, 2011SNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  254. 254. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Historic Town Center, Simsbury CTSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  255. 255. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Historic Town Center, Simsbury CTSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  256. 256. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES Historic Town Center, Simsbury CTSNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools
  257. 257. FORM-BASED CODES/CASE STUDIES TND Plan, Southfield MA The Process • BRAC Project Involving 3 Towns • Former Naval Air Station • Master Plan Prepared • Greenfield Development • Regulating Plan and FBC Adopted • Residential Construction UnderwaySNEAPA Conference – September 20, 2012 Context-Based Zoning and Other Placemaking Tools

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