WelcomeWho We AreWhat theSession isAboutWho’s in theRoom?
How the Climate Has ChangedTemperature Since 1970, avg. temperature increased by 2° winter temperatures rising 2x as much F; More frequent days with temperatures above 90° F A longer growing season
JAC3 How the Climate Has Changed Precipitation/Drought Increased heavy precipitation Less winter precipitation falling as snow and more as rain Reduced snowpack Earlier breakup of winter ice on lakes and rivers Earlier spring snowmelt resulting in earlier peak river flows
Slide 4JAC3 Kep, Martin...can you please help me build this slide? Julie Conroy, 9/12/2012
How the Climate Has Changed Seas Rising sea surface temperatures Rising sea level
Where the Climate Could be headed,and what that means>>> Temperature 2000 - 2100Winter Warm: HE 8 to 12°F / LE 5 to 7.5°F More precipitation as rain Reduction of snow seasonSummer Hot: HE 5 to 7.5°F / LE 3 to 7°F More heat waves Increased periods of droughtWarmer Avg. Temperature Changing Habitats: Wildlife and Vegetation Changing conditions for insects and pathogens
Where the Climate Could be headed,and what that means>>>Precipitation Extremes More frequent extreme rainfall and flooding Changes in flow regimes of rivers and streams Changes in groundwater recharge patterns
JAC7 Where the Climate Could be headed, and what that means >>> Seas Higher Sea Levels, Mean as well as High Tides Increased Storm Surges Coastal Wetlands looking to move
Slide 9JAC7 Kep, Martin...can you please help me build this slide? Julie Conroy, 9/12/2012
JAC8 Where the Climate Could be headed, and what that means >>> Our Increased Vulnerabilities Key Infrastructure Buildings, Utilities, Roadways, Mass Transit, Water Systems, Solid Waste Systems, Protection Structures Human Health and Welfare Public Health, Air Quality, Water Quality, Agriculture, Vulnerable Populations Local Economy and Government Employment and Commerce, Cultural Resources, Levels of Governance Natural Resources and Habitat Wildlife, Forests, Wetlands, Lakes and Ponds, Waterways
Slide 10JAC8 Kep, Martin...can you please help me build this slide? Julie Conroy, 9/12/2012
AdaptationLocal Tools – Built Environment1. Land/Building Acquisition: Undeveloped lands, vulnerable properties that have sustained significant damage, etc.2. Regulation: Setback requirements, floodplain zoning, planning consistency review, etc. Source: Georgetown Law; Harrison Inst. For Public Law Source: Subdivision Design in Floodplain Areas.
AdaptationLocal Tools – Built Environment3. Redevelopment/Building Guidelines: Elevation of the lowest floor two feet above the Base Flood Elevation (BFE). Walls that are “substantially impermeable to the passage of water” (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Flood Proofing Regulations). Foundations and structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and the effects of buoyancy. Source: Duxbury Local Hazard Source: LA Storm Smart Coasts Mitigation Plan
AdaptationLocal Tools – Built Environment4. Infrastructure Rehabilitation a. Coastal: Shoreline armoring (sea walls, revetments, jetties, etc.) • Short Term: Repair and reconstruct • Long Term: Elevate, relocate, nature-based optionsSource: Earth System Science Education Alliance
AdaptationLocal Tools – Built Environment4. Infrastructure Rehabilitation b. Water: Drinking Water Facilities, Wastewater Treatment Plants, etc. Methods: 1. Install protective walls 2. Raise pump stations 3. Develop new/relocate existing facilities away from flood zones 4. Increased effluent treatment 5. Eliminate combined sewer overflow Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Source: MLM Group Source:
Adaptation Local Tools – Built Environment Integrated Water Management (IWM)IWM Adaptation Strategies: Water Conservation/Greywater Reuse New Water Conveyance Desalination Riparian Restoration Green Infrastructure Source: Sustainable Water Management WikiSource: Dr. C.J. Woltemade, Shippensburg Univ. Source: City of Portland, Environmental Services Source: Australian Water Association.
AdaptationLocal – Infrastructure Rehabilitationc. Transportation: Roadways, Sidewalks, etc. Roadway relocation/depression Enhanced drainage systems Increased maintenance to protection structures Integration of roadway reconstruction with wetlands restoration Design Changes Source: MTA New York City Transit
Adaptation Local – Natural Resource Protection Conservancy District Rolling Easements Transfer of Development Rights (TDR)Source: MA CZM
AdaptationRolling Easement Source: Georgetown Law; Harrison Inst. For Public Law
AdaptationCommunication Municipal Staff Real Estate Agents Residents and Local Businesses Developers and Engineers Regional Outreach
AdaptationRepurposing…1. Sources that can be re-purposed or re-directed to support adaptation strategies: Master, HazMat, Open Space Plans Existing Regulations/Zoning Restoration Projects Capital Improvement Projects2. Seek collaborative opportunities: Multi-Municipal Projects District Financing Stormwater Utility/Drainage Fee
Town MeetingSetting The Stage…Town of LittlemarshPopulation: 12,000Characteristics: 21,200 total acres Mixed-use town center & compact neighborhoods Single-family homes on moderately-sized lots Coastal estuary and large inland riverine system Town-supplied water/wastewater
Town MeetingSetting The Stage…Climate Change Impacts: Severe flooding conditions along Littlemarsh River Damages to water/wastewater infrastructure along coastline and river Road closures along remote areas of coastal shoreline Property damages occurring after each major storm system over the past 5 years
Town MeetingProposalZoning Change - Rolling EasementTo allow for the conscious recognition that land will be abandoned whenthe sea/riverine system rises enough to submerge it. Split the Residential Zone into two zones: residential – protect, and residential - retreat Splits the Downtown Commercial Zone into two zones: downtown commercial – protect, and downtown commercial - accommodate Amends the zoning ordinance to add “shore protection structures” and “increases in land elevation grades” to the list of prohibited activities for these zones