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  1. 1. GREAT DEPRESSION INTERACTIVE MAP Options Directions Take me to the map! Credits
  2. 2. DirectionsFrom the large map, click on the name of theregion you wish to view up close.Once viewing a certain section of America, clicka green star on the map to see informationabout an event that took place in this location.When finished, click the red arrow in the cornerto go back to the previous page.
  3. 3. Credits Information SpecialistsZorana Knezevic, Marina Palese, Kayla Shirley, & Faith Saylor Powerpoint CreatorMap Creator Faith Saylor Interactive DesignFaith Saylor That’s about it…. Faith Saylor
  4. 4. The United States of America
  5. 5. Events in the Midwest!
  6. 6. Events in the Northeast!
  7. 7. Events in the Northwest!
  8. 8. Events in the Southeast!
  9. 9. Events in the South!
  10. 10. Events in the Southwest!
  11. 11. Tennessee Valley Authority project- 1932Building the dam on the Tennessee River was started in WWI, andpostponed until 1932 when one of the nations great utility empirescollapsed and the area was in need of utility rebuilding. The TennesseeValley Authority (TVA) was installed to complete the dam, build others inthe region, and make and sell electricity to the public at low prices. Ithelped the redevelopment of the whole region by stopping the terribleflooding that plagued the Tennessee Valley, encouraging the developmentof local industries, supporting reforestation, and helping farmer increaseproductivity. It succeeded by improving water transportation, eliminatingflooding, providing electricity to many who never had it before, anddeclining private power rates. It also inspired other areas in the country toimprove their public works and was a huge success. Zorana
  12. 12. Schoolchildren support the NRA- 1933Thousands of children from San Francisco arrangedthemselves in the shape of a blue eagle to salute theNRA in 1933. The NRA (National RecoveryAdministration) was established after thegovernment was urged to create an antideflation plan that would allow trade associations tocooperate in stabilizing prices within their industries.The NRA request every business establishment inthe country to accept a temporary "blanket code".This code set a standard min./max. wage andmin./max. workweek requirement and the abolitionof child labor, and larger industries could not lowerprices/wages for competitive advantage. The ideawas that this would raise consumer purchasingpower and employment. Unfortunately, the NRAultimately failed though because of hastily writtenrules and trouble managing such a large system. Zorana
  13. 13. Longs Huey Long was the senator of Louisiana. "Share He did not like most of FDRs plans and came up with his own. His plan was the Our "Share Our Wealth" plan, advocatingwealth distribution. Long believed that the Wealth" Depression could be ended by the plan- government using the tax system to confiscate the surplus riches of the 1937wealthiest citizens in the nation and giving it to the rest of the population. He established the "Share Our WealthSociety" which gained enough popularity to threaten the president in the next election. This prompted FDR to propose the "Second New Deal". Zorana
  14. 14. UAWs Sitdown Strike - 1936The members of the UAW (United Auto Workers)organized a sitdown strike in which employees of severalGeneral Motor plants sat down inside the plants, refusingto work. The strike was done because workers were fedup with the horrible working conditions before the strike.The final straw was when the UAW heard rumors thatGeneral Motors was moving work to factories where theunion was not as strong. This sitdown strike spread toother automobile companies/factories. The strikingended when General Motors finally recognized the UAWas the bargaining representative for their workers andother automobile factories did the same. Zorana
  15. 15. Ten striking workers from the SWOC of the CIO (Steel Workers Organizing Committee of the Congress of Industrial Organizations) wereThe Memorial killed by police bullets during the "Little Steel Strike". The "Little Steel Strike" happened because several smaller steel companiesDay Massacre declined to follow the lead of U.S Steel in signing a union contract. The contract was - 1937 basically for recognition and a wages deal, that the SWOC hoped the smaller steel firms would be forced to approve, but did not. A large group of peaceful demonstrates gathered together on Memorial Day, attempting to march peacefully on a Republic Steel Plant, but they were brutally attacked by the Chicago police instead. The president, FDR, did not punish the police and the strike was a failure for the SWOC. Zorana
  16. 16. Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected- 1932The election was held on November 29, 1932 with Hoover and FDRas the candidates. Hoover had struggled and lost credibility after thestock market crash, ultimately leading to FDR being the elected one.His slogan was "New Deal", promising changes in the desperateeconomic situation of the time. As president, he got to work onbalancing the budget and fixing the issues at hand by creatingdifferent Administrations to target different issues, such as theFederal Emergency Relief Administration to get more money to thepeople through the states, and the Civil Works Administration todecrease unemployment, among many others. Some succeeded, somedid not. He also used the media, radio and newspaper, to effectivelytalk to the American people about the problems and keep their hopeup. Zorana
  17. 17. Eleanor Roosevelt and Marian Anderson- 1939 In the spring of 1939, the well-known African- American singer Marian Anderson was refusedpermission to hold a concert in the Daughters of the American Revolution Concert Hall (Washingtons only concert hall). After this, Eleanor Roosevelt resigned from the D.A.R (Daughters of the American Revolution) organization which she was a part of. She arranged for Anderson to perform at the Lincoln Memorial instead. Andersons Easter Sunday Concert attracted 75,000 people. It is considered the first modern civil rights Zorana
  18. 18. Building the Hoover Dam- 1934In 1934, the Public Works Administration (PWA) provided $38 millionfor the construction of the Hoover Dam. The PWA was created forpublic works project and spent over $6 billion in total on them. Theprojects helped improve employment and quality of life. They werealso a means of pump priming (spending federal funds in ways thatquickly put money into the hands of consumers, so that consumerswould buy more goods and stimulate the economy). Overall, the totalcost for the Hoover Dam project ended up $114 million. It was made toutilize the water resource of the Colorado River and transport watereasier through it. It is the most famous dam in the world. It was namedafter the former president Hoover, which was very controversial.People flocked from all around the country during the desperateeconomic times of the depression to get a job at the Hoover Dam.More than 5,200 men worked on the dam 24/7 to complete it. Zorana
  19. 19. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camps- 1930’sThese are CCC camps in Michigan. The tents were soonreplaced with barracks as the CCC expanded and became moreimportant. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was one ofthe public relief programs installed during the New Deal. It wasdesigned to provide employment for young men and conservenatural resources in every state. They revitalized the land; forexample, they planted an estimated three billion trees. Thisreforestation effort was especially important for the Dustbowlstates where trees were needed to help the soil for farmingagain. They became responsibility for more than half thenations reforestation in all its history to this day. Zorana
  20. 20. This photo shows the FERA unemployment camp for women. The Federal Federal Emergency Relief Emergency Administration (FERA) was made to give direct aid to Relief states so that they couldAdministrationdistribute necessities, such as clothing or food, to people who Camps- 1934 needed it. It distributed about half a billion dollars to states in total for this aid. FDR soon added programs to the FERA to provide jobs for people, and not just handouts. The FERA was the first of Zorana
  21. 21. This is an example of a typing class for unemployededucation. The National Youth Administration National Youthoffered this kind of class and many more. Thepurpose of the National Youth Administration Administration(NYA) was to provide jobs, education, counseling,Classes- 1935and recreation for young people. In exchange foreducation aid from the NYA, students worked part-time jobs at their schools. For graduates who couldnot find jobs, or high school drop-outs, the NYAoffered part time jobs at parks, public buildings,etc. In 1935, more than 5 million youths werewithout a job, so Roosevelt implemented thisprogram to empower youths and restore their hope. Zorana
  22. 22. The Works Progress Administration (WPA) is perhaps the most famous action implemented by Roosevelt asWorks Progress part of the Second New Deal. The WPAs goal was to create as many jobs as possible and as fast as possible. It Administration gave jobs to more than 8 million workers, mostly unskilled. It spent $11(WPA) - 1935 billion doing this. They built 850 airports, fixed thousands of roads/streets, and built more than 125,000 public buildings. Women workers made clothes for the needy. The WPA helped return a sense of hope and purpose to the people. With Eleanor Roosevelts urging, the WPA made efforts to help women, minorities and young people as well. It supported the arts as well, sponsoring murals, writing, and theater. Zorana
  23. 23. Publishing The Grapes of Wrath- 1939The Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck, tellsthe story of the Joad family during the DustBowl. As most farmers during this period oftime they were forced to give up their land andmove. On their travels to California they havean ending course of failures and problems. Thisbook showed the exploitive features of Agrarianfarming. The Joad family became symbols ofthe many American farmers who left their landsduring the Dust Bowl. Marina
  24. 24. Hoover Towns- 1937President Hoover may have beencontinually unpopular during the GreatDepression, but still remained a symbol tomany. Hoover town is a shanty town withnot much to it. Its located along ariver, for running water, and is wherethose who were made homeless duringthe Great Depression live in their make-shift tent-homes. It was still called Hoovertown by residents and neighbors fouryears after Hoover was taken out of Marina
  25. 25. Bonus Marchers- 1932In 1924 Congress approved of a check of $1000 to be paid to theveterans that fought during World War 1. The check was to bepaid in 1945, but by 1932 the veterans were demanding that it bepaid immediately. President Hoover was concerned more aboutbalancing the budget and rejected. Early June, more than 20,000members of the Bonus Expeditionary Force, (or Bonus Army),marched into Washington, built crude camps, and promised tostay until Congress approved the legislation. When Congress saidno, some left, but many stayed. President Hoover wasembarrassed, so to speak, to their presence, and ordered the policeforce to clear them out. Some of the marchers responded bythrowing rocks or opening fire, described by Hoover asuncontrolled violence and radicalism. Hoover responded by alsosending the US Army after them. General Douglas MacArthurwas put in charge, and sent not only the Third Calvary, but twoinfantry regiments, a machine gun detachment, and six tanks.More than 100 marchers were injured, and many began to thinkof Hoover as aloof and unsympathetic. He became a symbol ofthe nation’s failure to deal with what was happening within thecountry. Marina
  26. 26. Frank Capra was born in 1897 and immigrated intoCulture American from Sicily, the largest Island in the Mediterranean Sea, located at the tip of Italy’s boot. After college he went into the young movie and industry, eventually becoming a director of feature films. He brought romantic populism into films, and was well aware of it. He established himself as a Frank vision of democracy and American life. An intensely patriotic man, he believed that America stood for individual opportunity and was defined by theCapra - decency of ordinary people. This was clearly shown in the films he created, which we most popular during the Great Depression. Almost all of his films1920’s had a vision of society and politics that resonated with the concerns of the American people. Marina
  27. 27. Movies during the Great Depression- 1930’sBecause of lack of income and other money-relatedissues, movie attendance dropped significantly at thebeginning of the decade. My the mid 1930’s, many peoplehad returned to their movie watching habits, partly due tothe fact that it was the least expensive means ofentertainment. During this time, all movies had sound andmost of them were with color. Within Hollywood, WillHayes served as a censor, ensuring that there were nocontroversial messages in movies. The studio system alsoperformed this job. However, this did not stop film makersfrom exploring social questions Marina
  28. 28. The 30’s began the reign of Disney, who began producing full length movies, starting with Snow Movies White (1937). Other films were based on novels, such as theduring the Wizard of Oz. Even so, pop culture issues regarding gender and race Great were not too exceedingly affected. Women played roles ofDepression housewife’s, moms, or very striking women that swooned men - 1930’s and won them over with their charisma. African-Americans were often portrayed as servants or farmhands. Marina
  29. 29. Movies during the Great Depression- 1930’sMovies explored a wide variety of themes thatinfluenced culture during the Great Depression.Movies such as “Our Daily Bread” investigatedpolitical themes. “Little Caesar” and “The PublicEnemy” showed a dark, grim world that manyAmericans were unfamiliar with. Other movieswere comedies or musicals, such as “Ithappened one night” and were meant to divertfamilies away from the troubles they were havingduring the Great Depression. Marina
  30. 30. Perpetual lines leading to numerous soup kitchens became commonplace during the Great Depression era.Chicago This soup kitchen, run by Al Capone, offered food and coffee to Soup over 3500 unemployed people a day. Even with these long lines of similar citizens a common sight, manyKitchen Americans had been taught that unemployment would still equal personal failure. Many people, instead of standing in lines, would wander the streets for employment or abandon their families altogether. Kayla
  31. 31. Acceleration of the Great Migration Leads to Harsh Unemployment of BlacksWhile the Great Migration began immediately afterWorld War I‟s end, the economic fallout acceleratedit. With the strain on social relations increasing in theSouth, blacks attempted to escape to the lessoutwardly aggressive North. Unemployment stillravaged the population, and in New York, blackunemployment was at nearly 50 percent. By 1932,over 2 million African Americans were on relief. Kayla
  32. 32. Jacob LawrenceJacob Lawrence was an African Americanpainter, who depicted the migrants from theSouth to the somewhat “safety” of the Northduring the Great Depression era. His serieswas called The Migration of the Negro Kayla
  33. 33. Scottsboro CaseIn 1931, nine black teenagers weretaken off of a freight train, and arrestedfor vagrancy/disorder. They were lateraccused of rape by two white women.There was no evidence to support theaccusation(most evidence pointed to thewomen simply lying, perhaps in fear ofalso being arrested), but the all-whitejury quickly convicted the teenagers. Kayla
  34. 34. The NAACP Supports theEmerging Black Labor Movement The NAACP’s support eventually led to the formation of the Congress of Industrial Organization. They worked to break down the racial barriers present within labor unions, in order to ease the economic strain that African Americans were also facing as well as social persecution. Walter White, the secretary of NAACP, once appeared publically at an auto plant to implore blacks to not work as strikebreakers. In effect, a half million blacks were able to join the labor movement; the Steelworkers Union alone became 20 percent African American. Kayla
  35. 35. Mexican American immigration had beenincreasing since early in the century, mostlyinto California. Mexico had been excludedfrom the immigration laws of the 1920s,leading to more than two million “Latinos” in Mexicanthe United States during the 1930s. These“chicanos” of the West faced discrimination Americansakin to blacks of other regions. Some farmed,but many flooded urban areas, takingunskilled industry jobs such as steel-working,auto industries, and meatpacking in states likeCalifornia, New Mexico and Arizona. Mexicanunemployment skyrocketed as Anglosdemanded their jobs during the harsheconomic times, and many were forced toleave the country, through deportation orotherwise. To increase their hardships, mostrelief programs excluded Mexicans, or gaveless benefits, and there were less institutionssuch as schools and hospitals available tothem. Some even joined the AmericanCommunist Party, and moved to the LosAngeles region where they could form smallunions while still dwindling in poverty Kayla
  36. 36. HindenburgWhile many radio stationsbroadcast politicalannouncements and dramashows, this form of media wasalso how families heardwidespread news. TheHindenburg disaster was Crashdocumented through spectacularuse of photography and livebroadcasting, giving rise to theinfamous line: “Oh thehumanity!” After its crash in1937, the disaster marked theend of the airship era as thepublic’s confidence in itdwindled Kayla
  37. 37. Orson Welles’ Halloween BroadcastAs a Halloween show, Orson Wellesgave a fake broadcast from NewJersey, claiming that armed alienforces had invaded New York City andhad begun a massacre. Because ofthe inherent nature of radio, thisthrew many citizens into a panic, asthey believed the broadcast to be real Kayla
  38. 38. Escapism in RadioAlthough radio was traditionally considered a private or familyexperience, the 1930s gave rise to closer-knit communities, leading toyoung people placing their radios on their front porches to listen ordance together. Radio channels such as WNBC began airing comediessuch as “Amos „n Andy,” “Superman,” and “Dick Tracy.” Radiopersonalities such as Jack Benny and Gracie Allen developed broadfollowings that followed them into the television era. Although theprimary audience was women who stayed at home alone during theday, radio gained such popularity that the stars usually only heard on theairwaves were able to gain fame in dance halls and theaters as well. Kayla
  39. 39. Strains of Great Depression cynicism found a stronger voice Popular in literature. Novels were more accurate in depicting theLiterature harshness and emptiness of American life during that era. and Gone With the Wind by Margaret Mitchell took place inJournalism Atlanta, Georgia. LIFE magazine began publishing in 1936 Kayla
  40. 40. Florida’s Premature Depression Due to the nature of the time, the 1920s caused a large “land boom” in Florida. The common practice was to buy the state’s land and sell it at higherprices. Farther into this “boom,” more land began to pass between hands without even beingviewed, and communities and roads were sponsoredfor the home builders expected to arrive. By the mid 1920s, however, the prices became so high that no buyers could be found, and natural disasters and Florida’s natural extremes chased off prospective buyers. This ended the land boom and, in turn, forced Florida into a depression preceding the stock market crash by four years Kayla
  41. 41. Du Pont and the Nemours FoundationAfter leaving his family’s business in 1915, Alfreddu Pont (1864 – 1935) set off to invest in bankingand real estate in Florida. After he arrived inJacksonville in 1925, his business became a largebenefactor in Florida’s development and growth,including the Nemour Foundation, which stillexists today. In this case, once du Pont becameowner of the company, its primary focus switchedfrom the production of explosives to the that ofchemicals, as today it manages children’s clinicsand hospitals Kayla
  42. 42. The CCC and Golden Head Branch State ParkFlorida’s Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was anenvironmental corporation responsible forplanting trees, setting up campsites, anddeveloping roads and buildings for the use of parkadministrators and visitors. In 1935, one ofFlorida’s first state parks, Golden HeadBranch, was developed. Here, visitors could goswimming, fishing, canoeing, kayaking, andhorseback riding. Some of the same cabins built Kayla
  43. 43. During the early 1900s, poll taxes were instituted in many of the states in the South, which were annual fees residents were Poll required to pay in order to remain registered voters. On electionTaxes day, each resident would receive a receipt of payment for these fees. During the Great Depression, however, many citizens were unable to pay the taxes in addition to their everyday expenses. Poorer residents were Kayla
  44. 44. Originally, Camp Roosevelt was used as housing for the Army Corps of Engineers, until it changed hands and the The National University of Florida used this Youth venue as a site for adult education classes. TheAdministration National Youth Administration (NYA) made leaps forward in social progress when, in 1938, it converted this site into a boarding school for girls. The attendees worked for half the day and then attended classes for the remaining half, and earned $7.50 a month in addition to room and board, giving developing girls a chance to earn their own money while working towards a Kayla
  45. 45. The Overseas HighwayDuring the years of the New Deal, theconstruction of the Overseas Highwaywas sponsored, which enabled travelfrom Key Largo to Key West. Ahurricane struck the construction sitein 1935, where over 400 workers andbystanders were killed. After a haltin the construction effort, thehighway was still completed in 1938 Kayla
  46. 46. Florida’s Paper IndustryBy 1935, five paper mills had cropped up inFlorida. Georgia and Alabama were inneed of wood, which stimulated Florida’spaper industry, which in turn created jobsthat unemployed Floridians could hold.Profit could easily be made from formerlyunused or wasted wood, as the paper andpulp industry was in need of different kindsof trees Kayla
  47. 47. Stock Market Crash- 1929Prior to the crash, stock prices had increased morethan 40% and the Dow Jones Average had doubled.These high priced stocks cost more than their actualvalue, putting the market under stress. It had beenstruggling for a while; big bankers were publicallybuying up stocks to restore confidence in the market.However, the inevitable happened: the prices begansuddenly declining. On “Black Tuesday” in October1929, more than 16 million shares were traded. Manycompany stocks became worthless. The stock marketremained deeply for years; this event is often seen as Faith
  48. 48. Collapse of Banking- 1931The banking collapse basically started withthe crash of the Bank of the UnitedStates, a totally independent bank whosename and situation caused panic andmistrust amongst the general public. Morethan 9000 banks went bankrupt or closedbetween 1930 and 1931, causing people tolose more than $2.5 billion in deposits andsavings. The people lost faith in thebanking system and began withdrawing alltheir money, causing more banks to crash aswell. Total money supply in America fell bya third; the Federal Reserve Board startedto hike up their interest rates in order tokeep the government funded. Faith
  49. 49. Effects ofUnemployment - 1932Individualism had always been at the root of Americanculture, and the idea remained strong throughout theGreat Depression. Individualism constitutes that onecontrols his own fate; poverty and unemploymentwere seen as personal failures. Adult men unable tofind work felt extremely ashamed of their joblessness.In many big cities such as Cleveland, men would roamthe streets searching for nonexistent jobs. Many youngmen ended up taking to the roads and trains, living onthe streets as nomads rather than unsuccessfullytrying to find a job. Faith
  50. 50. Asian Americans were greatly affected in the Great Depression. Even college-educated Asians had difficulty finding work. Like blacksPlight of and Hispanics, they lost work to Asian desperate white Americans that wouldn’t have taken their jobsAmerica before the Depression. Asian farm workers also lost work as whitens- late farmers migrated from the Great 1930s Plains.of the Nisei population in20% Many Asians (including Los Angeles) ended up working their family fruit stands, including those with college educations Faith
  51. 51. Fight of Asian Americans- 1940In attempt to change their fate, young Nisei andother Asians turned to politics. The JapaneseAmerican Domestic Club began to rise in manycities, working to create laws protecting ethnicminorities from discrimination, especially in theworkforce. The Japanese American CitizensLeague also took root in a few large cities. Theyencouraged assimilation into American culture inorder to be more eligible for jobs that whiteAmericans were taking. By 1940, they had 6,000members and growing. Faith
  52. 52. Dust Bowl- 1930sOne of the worst environmental tragedies in American historyoccurred during the Great Depression in the 1930s. The country wasfacing a severe national drought; instead of the normal 18 inches ofrain in common farming areas, there was only 3 – 7 inches, causingthe topsoil to dry up. The dehydrated dirt baked and cracked in thesun as crops and native grasses died. There was nothing to protectthe dirt below from the wind. Along with the poor climate, economicconditions were terrible in the South. With farmers in debt and havingno source of income, most could not properly care for theirland, adding to the inevitable. Throughout Colorado, NebraskaKansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, dust storms becamecommonplace, darkening the sky, getting dirt into homes, and killingpeople and animals. In May of 1934, 300 million acres of Great Planssoil was carried all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, dusting NewYork, Washington, and even ships 300 miles out at sea. Though theNew Deal administration tried to help (ResettlementAdministration, Forest Service, Soil Conservation Service), only Faithreturning rain and World War 2 demand for crops in 1941 ended the
  53. 53. Middletown in Transition- 1937In 1929, Robert and Helen Merrell Lyndpublished Middletown, study of Muncie,Indiana, analyzing their culture and waysof life. They observed that Americansappreciated being wealthy and focused onconsumerism; they figured that attitudeslike this would change in such hard times.In attempt to observe how the GreatDepression affected Americans‟ ways oflife, they travelled back to the city in 1937.The two were surprised to find that culturehadn‟t really changed. They publishedanother book, Middletown in Transition,showing that the people in the town, likemost Americans, were still committed totraditional values like individualism. Faith
  54. 54. Chinese Americans- 1930sSpecifically, Chinese Americans had a lot of troublefinding jobs outside their Asian communities. Eventhose with college educations had difficulty getting anywork above entry level positions, such as store roomworkers or cashiers. Many Chinese people chose to stayin their Chinatowns, accepting that there were noopportunities for them elsewhere, usually continuing towork in laundries or restaurants with little profits. Aswell as job troubles, they faced emotional issues aswell. As well as the Depression, Chinese Americanswere dealing with news from the war between China andJapan, devastating them even more. Faith
  55. 55. Federal Farm Security Administration Studies Farm Families- 1930s In order to expose, the FSA hired documentary photographers to capture the hardships of life in the Great Depression. The group of photographers travelled to the South, recording the nature ofagricultural life specifically. Very much like the housing movement in the Progressive Era, Americans were shocked at the conditions. The memorable studies of farm families in deep debt, dealing with the harsh environment, and trying to make a living impacted the mindsets of the FSA members. The project truly conveyed the depth of poverty in America. Faith
  56. 56. Writers Change- 1932During the Great Depression, writersbegan to turn away from personalconcerns and focus rather on socialinjustices. Drifting from pureentertainment, they began to addressproblems in American society. EskineCaldwell‟s Tobacco Road, publishedin 1932, conveyed poverty in the ruralSouth. In Native Son, Richard Wrightexplained the plight of black residentsin urban ghettos. John Dos Passo‟strilogy, USA, directly attackedcapitalism. Faith
  57. 57. During the hard times of the Great ComicDepression, many young Americansbegan searching for an escape throughfantasy. It was in this decade that Books-comic books made their debut. MalcolmWheeler-Nicholson founded the first 1938comic named New Fun. It had littlesuccess, but Wheeler-Nicholson didntgive up; he opened a new company calledDetective Comics and released the firstissue of Action Comics, presenting thefirst appearance of Superman. By 1940,several other superheroes werecreated. Young Americans foundcomfort in these tales; the heroes thatalways saved the day were seen asperfect and ideal by boys, providingthem with an escape from the fear thatthe Depression brought along. Faith