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Developing locally attuned and responsive curricula
Rael Futerman
Department of Industrial Design
Faculty of Informatics &...
and frobetweenbiologyandhumanneedsto develop strategiesthatcanbe beneficial touswithout
impacting negatively on our contex...
InformaticsHubplannedforthe areain Cape Town East City, now known as the Fringe initiative. In
concept phase since 2007, t...
the historicallybadcommunicationonthe beach. Again, playingarole insavinglives - andthe shark
became astimulating...
We are confidentthatwe have a pedagogical model thatworks,andconvincedof the efficacyof the
picture. To mimica natural system one must ask how each aspect relates to the other components
to form the greater whole. ...
An example of thismethodologyhavingbeensuccessfully putinto practice is the Eastgate Centre in
Harare, designed by archite...
resourcefulness &
using simple common building blocks
Curricula can be designed to create conditions conducive to life by:...
Phase 1: A weekissetaside forstudentstoabsorband practice the Biomimicry designmethodology.
After a two-day workshop run b...
The module will conclude with presentations for assessment. This is designed to support learning
lack of respect shown to the environment by human beings and this creates a negative, rather
hopeless perception. Biomimic...
It is our hope that by introducing students to Biomimicry it will help develop them as mature
designers with a sense of re...
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CPUT RITAL Paper2011


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In this joint paper we share our ideas for an interdisciplinary module that introduces Biomimicry into a design faculty.

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CPUT RITAL Paper2011

  1. 1. Developing locally attuned and responsive curricula Rael Futerman Department of Industrial Design Faculty of Informatics & Design Andrea Grant-Broom Department of Graphic Design Faculty of Informatics & Design Bruce Snaddon Department of Graphic Design Faculty of Informatics & Design Keywords Design, curriculum, education, collaboration, innovation, creativity, sustainability, local context, complexity, opportunity, Biomimicry. Abstract Developing curricula responsive to the complexity of the current time is the challenge for design educators. This paper explores the development of an innovative module driven by the need for sustainability throughconsiderationof a more productive relationship between design, technology and science. The authors believe it is imperative for design students to be taught to investigate design solutions from a more sustainable and holistic perspective, acknowledging that habitual approaches to design are proving to be destructive to our environment. We discuss the merits of a trans-disciplinary, holistic approach to project development in design education and practice, and provide a rationale for Biomimicry as an imperative consideration in design education curricula. A pilot project is proposed which will involve Graphic, Industrial and Surface Design students at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) focusing on Biomimicry both as the topic for study, but also as the lens through which the design process is applied. Biomimicry is about learning how to innovate by mimicking the design systems, strategies and processesevidentinnature.The biomimetic process gives us a highly structured methodology that enables us to investigate carefully what organisms are doing to survive. From this we can move to
  2. 2. and frobetweenbiologyandhumanneedsto develop strategiesthatcanbe beneficial touswithout impacting negatively on our context/environment. “Design is no longer just about form anymore but is a method of thinking that can let you see around corners. And the high tech breakthroughs that do count today are not about speed and performance but about collaboration, conversation and co-creation.” Bruce Nussbaum (no date) From a businessperspective,Bruce Nussbaum, Editorof BusinessWeek,describesdesignthinking as no longer about form but about an anticipatory, collaborative way of thinking which leads to responsible innovation. Clarke and Smith (2008:8) maintain that people educated in design should be able to offer organisations valuable insights in addressing problems as complex as systemic re-evaluation of corporate companies’ responses to sustainability in product development and communication. As educators, our responsibility lies in designing appropriate learning contexts which develop students’ capacity to act (Quinn, Spreitzer & Brown, 2000; Welsh & Dehler, 2001, in Welsh and Murray, 2003:221). Thispaperdescribesaplannedcollaborative, transdisciplinary module designed to empowerstudentsthroughadeepand critical understanding of Biomimicry’s life principles and design methodology. It is projected that this will then enable them to innovate products and communications in a genuinely sustainable manner. Our job is made easier by acknowledging the unique context we find ourselves in – a Faculty of Informatics and Design (FID) housing 14 design disciplines within the context of a University of Technology. This unique configuration affords us the opportunity to engage relatively easily with manyother design disciplines as well as with Informatics, Commerce, the Sciences and Education. Our local context is constantly influenced by rapidly changing social patterns and new technology and as such,we have begunto increase students’exposure to, and capacities for innovative design by taking advantage of local opportunities for solving immediate and accessible problems in and around the city. In our broadercontext, we find ourselves situated in a developing country with a new democracy. This presents many challenges for education – many of which have to do with infrastructure and improvement of quality of life for all citizens. An example of this is the proposed Design and
  3. 3. InformaticsHubplannedforthe areain Cape Town East City, now known as the Fringe initiative. In concept phase since 2007, the project is under way with the FID at CPUT playing a role as a key partner. The project focuses on the need for an environment to support innovation and development in the design, media and ICT sectors (The Fringe: Cape Town Partnership Proposal, 2010). Building capacity for conversation and response Overthe last three yearswe have begun respondingpromptlytonew transdisciplinaryopportunities posed,andhave increasedourcollaborativecapacityasa faculty. Asindividuals sharing this ‘space’, or place of education, conversation has deepened as a result of pilot collaborations, consistently growingourcollective awarenessof all aspectsof environmental andsustainabilityissues. We found by maintainingan opennesstowardovercomingroutinelyacceptedrestrictions inherent in subject- specifictimetables,we were abletoalmostimmediately accept opportunities for civil involvement offeredbygovernment and corporate business. Creative solutions to problems posed by logistical and assessmentchallengeswereovercome throughcommitmentand collaboration, and as a result, some highly successful interdisciplinary projects were run. The first of these involved the development of proposals for graphic concepts for the new MyCiti Bus Rapid transport system developed for the 2010 Soccer World Cup in Cape Town, with social, economic and environmental concerns underpinning the brief. For a week students worked in groups of four to present concepts and artwork for the glass panels of the terminals which are situatedinandaroundCape Town. The processwas documentedand presented to representatives fromthe city. We foundthat the interaction enabled the sharing of skills and approaches between the two disciplines,suchas knowledge of materialsand presentationof three-dimensional modelsof the industrial designers,togetherwiththe visual andconceptual communicationskillsof the graphic designers. Although only Graphic Design was involved, another successful introduction to the curriculum includedthe re-design of the Steenbras Gorge information system and signage. The students’ task was to propose solutions to the lack of information about 
safety in a potentially dangerous and environmentallysensitivereserve.A daywasspentexperiencingthe locationphysically,thuscoming into contact with all situations visitors encounter. We found that being involved with a local and critical need,producedhighlymotivated students – and exciting innovation resulted. Similarly, the shark threat at a local beach was tackled. The students designed some very workable solutions to
  4. 4. the historicallybadcommunicationonthe beach. Again, playingarole insavinglives - andthe shark habitat-
became astimulatingchallengeforthem, andthere wasnew- found understanding of the kinds of situations where design can change perception and action. On reflection,Stehr’sclaimof the emancipatorynature of knowledge which leads to capacity to act and exercise influence (1994:259, in Welsh & Murray, 2003:220), is a powerful reminder to educators of the need to involve our students in projects that generate meaning and purpose. Nature as inspiration In late 2010, our earlier experiences of interdisciplinary collaboration and ever-expanding consciousness of environmentalissues resulted in four design educators from the FID (three being the authors) attendinganEducator’sworkshoprunby the BiomimicryInstitute ata Game Reserve in the North West Province. The week-long workshop had attracted fourteen people from disparate sectors such as Engineering, Game Ranging, Geo-informatics, secondary school Education, Architecture andZoology. An intensive week spent learning and analysing nature’s strategies, and then implementing these to solve design challenges resulted in innovative and pragmatic design solutionstoa numberof situations posedlocally.Thisbore testament not only to the methodology introducedandthe range of skills present, but importantly, to the importance of inter-disciplinary collaboration. The settingandcontextof a game reserve allowedpowerful learning to take place as ‘live’ situations presented themselves for examination and analysis. The sharing of vastly diverse knowledge became the most valued commodity, and a keen awareness of the limitations of discipline-specific solutions was evident. The experiencehascatalysedanumberof educational initiatives through the Biomimicry network. Relationshipswithresource-producers,civil bodiesandcorporate businesshave beenidentified and established as willing partners for the Faculty. The potential learning for students is that through exposure to local initiatives they will gain a better understanding of the complexity involved in reconciling social, economic and environmental concerns as well as how their employers may respond. According to Welsh & Murray (2003:222), it is not the collaborators themselves that are important in an educational setting, but the purpose and process of collaboration itself. They maintain that for corporate, governmental and private enterprise, collaboration of this kind is necessarytoimprove anddeepenunderstandingof environmental concerns thereby improving the quality of corporate decision-making.
  5. 5. We are confidentthatwe have a pedagogical model thatworks,andconvincedof the efficacyof the rigorousdesignprocessasdisplayedby natural systems. In the next section we provide a rationale for Biomimicry within curriculum design, and go on to describe and outline the proposed module structure. Biomimicry explained Biomimicryliterallymeans,‘to imitate life’, and is derived from the Greek words bios meaning life and mimesis meaning to imitate. It is a design discipline that studies nature's best ideas and then imitates them in artifact, process or system design. The term ‘biomimicry’ was coined by Janine Benyus,authorof Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature,andreferstothe “conscious emulation of nature’s genius” (Benyus, 1997:1). The concept as a whole is not new. An example of early adopters of this concept can be seen in an early letter by Wilber Wright in which he mentions his investigation into buzzards’ wings for design of a more stable aeroplane wing (quoted in Culick: 2010). What isnewthoughis the developmentof the ideaof mimicking nature’s solutions to solve human needs, into a specific field of study. Life on earth has been around for approximately 3.85 billion years,that means3.85 billionyearsof trial anderror, selectionandrigoroustestingthatresultedina 99.9% failure rate of species. What this means is that the 0.1% of species alive today must have developedorevolvedsome prettyremarkable strategiesforsustaininglife(BiomimicryGuild, 2009). Biomimics aim to identify these strategies and understand the underlying principles, then apply them to designing sustainable solutions to human needs. Biomimicryisaboutseeingnature asa model,measureandmentor(BiomimicryInstitute,2009). This is done by imitating or taking inspiration from natural designs and processes, by using ecological standardsto judge the efficacyof ourinnovations,andbyviewingnot what we can extract from the natural world but what we can learn from it. Biomimicry is thus a tool for attaining sustainable products, processes and systems. There are different levels of inquiry within Biomimicry. The first level is the mimicking of natural forms. Interrogatingnatural processesinvolvesadeeperform of Biomimicry, which looks into how nature moves,maintainscommunitiesandprocessesinformation, to name a few. The third level is investigatingnatural systems/ ecosystems. This is probably the most important area of curriculum developmentasone looks at how nature’s systems work together. The focus here is on the bigger
  6. 6. picture. To mimica natural system one must ask how each aspect relates to the other components to form the greater whole. Possible questions for such inquiry could include: is it necessary; is it contextuallyrelevantand;what is its role in the system? Through this investigation into the bigger picture one can visualize the systemasa sortof interconnected web where each meeting point is a dialogue or interaction between two or more components of the system. At the heart of Biomimicry are Life’s Principles. These are intended to represent nature’s overarching patterns and strategies for sustainability, and are how we use nature as a measure in evaluating the sustainability of our designs. The first principle, ‘Life Adapts and Evolves’ presents a systemic approach or design that alters in response to changing conditions, in order to stay relevant. This is done in various ways. Some of whichare:optimizingratherthanmaximizing;and leveraginginterdependence. One asks questions such as: doesthe designenhance the systemscapacitytosupport life overthe longhaul,and;doesit foster symbiotic, co- operative, community savvy relationships? The second principle, ‘Life creates conditions conducive to Life’, is a systemic approach that enhancesthe environmentandfosterssurvival. Here one wouldinvestigate if the design,processor systemislocallyattunedandresponsive,whetheritintegratescyclic processes, and if it is resilient. These traitsare achievedthrough:beingresourceful andaware of opportunities and limitations; by responding quickly and appropriately to feedback; by creating opportunities for cross pollination; and by using mistakes to encourage continual idea generation, to name a few. There are two approaches one can take in putting this methodology into practice. The first is ‘challenge to biology’. Initially the design brief is defined and the real challenge identified, through reinterpreting the brief as not “what do you want to design?” but rather ”what do youwant yourdesigntodo?” Thisapproach broadensone’spotentialsolutionspace significantly and isgood practice,independentof turningtonature. The nextstepsare to contextualise the brief and biologizethe question,inother words, interpret the design brief from nature’s perspective by investigatinghownature doesordoesn’tperformafunction. The processistoidentifychampionsin nature, whether forms or strategies, which answer or resolve aspects of the brief. One then developsideasandsolutionsbasedonthese natural models through mimicking form, function and context (Biomimicry Guild: 2009).
  7. 7. An example of thismethodologyhavingbeensuccessfully putinto practice is the Eastgate Centre in Harare, designed by architect Mike Pearce. Instead of designing a building that uses standard air- conditioning, natural methods for keeping a structure cool were interrogated. Here the challenge was to create a self-regulatingventilationsystemthatwouldkeepthe buildingat temperatures that are comfortable forworkers and residents. He drew inspiration from the thermal control found in termite mounds,whichuse airflowtomaintainidealtemperatures(Onwumere:2008). The building is designed so that cool air is drawn in from the open lower sections, while warm air is blown out from chimney-like structures in the roof creating a cooling effect. As a result the construction company saved 10% on costs up front, and the building uses 10% less energy than similar-sized buildings. The second approach is “Biology to Design”. Here one identifies organisms or ecosystems that are achievingwhathumanswanttodo. Thisis done initiallythroughobservationandby asking“who, in the natural kingdom, has innovative strategies one could use to solve design challenges?” These strategiesare then used to abstract relevant principles and emulated (Biomimicry Institute: 2009). An example would be to investigate how animals that swarm but rarely, if ever, collide with one another. Thisobservationhasledtothe developmentof collisiondetection and avoidance systems for motor vehicles. Biomimicry as an educational lens Designeducation needstostaycurrent,withthe flexibility torespondtomultiple external and internal requirements. Thesecouldrange fromthe size of student cohort, industry’sneedsandnew technologies toplace of delivery(instudiooroff-campus). The curriculumneedstoevolveand adapt inorderto stay relevant. Possibilitiesforcurriculadevelopersandhow theycan draw from life’sprinciplesare presentedin Table 1. Curricula should adapt and evolve by: - Being designed with context in mind - Being designed to be responsive, and - Improve resilience through taking into account: diversity building in feedback loops cross-pollination
  8. 8. resourcefulness & using simple common building blocks Curricula can be designed to create conditions conducive to life by: - Identifying neighbours and creating productive, mutually beneficial relationships Table 1: potential curriculum development guidelines The pilot module The aim is to pilot the integration of this approach by running an interdisciplinary module in the second term of 2011 involving students in Graphic, Product and Surface design. Fig 1: Module structure As all designdisciplinesdependoncreativityandproblem solving,thispedagogicmodelis consistent withcurrentand historicmodesof learning indesigndisciplines.The module usesreflective practice as a basisfor learning,whichisconsistentwiththe iterative process of design and rolls out in three distinct phases namely:
  9. 9. Phase 1: A weekissetaside forstudentstoabsorband practice the Biomimicry designmethodology. After a two-day workshop run by the South African representative of the Biomimicry Institute we thenmove onto the methodology and available tools while working on short exercises to put into practice what is being learned. Students will be shown how to use AskNature, an online resource where biologyanddesigncross-pollinate providingarichsource of information where they can find biological blueprints and strategies, bio-inspired solutions and design sketches, talk to and collaborate withotherbiomimics as well as contribute case studies and pictures (AskNature 2008). Time for reflectionandpresentation of research and findings is an important part of the process of immersion into the field. Field trips will take participants into various local biomes in order to engender appropriate listening and noticing behaviours. In working within these areas alongside relevant experts, we would be identifying the needs or problems that require designed solutions. Phase 2: A potential projectpartnerhasbeenidentifiedtodevelopabrief thatislocallyattuned and responsive tothe needs of the Cape Town community. As the module coincides with Cape Town’s Water Week,the theme of water as a natural resource has been decided on. This intention blends well with the ‘Reclaim Camissa’ project. The project is located in Cape Town at the foot of Table Mountain and is described by von Zeil as a ‘stewardship for the waters that flow from Table Mountain to the sea’ (2010). The aim of this project is to reclaim the common heritage of Camissa, ‘the very waters that defined the location of the City of Cape Town, reflecting the public past and embracinga newcivicinfrastructure - thistime inspired by a deliberate recognition and respect for the social / cultural andecological significance of thiswater’ (ibid).Thisinitiative hasthe potential to yieldsome veryinterestingdesignproblemsandissuesdue toitsecological,economic,historical and socio-political layers. Forthe projectchallenge studentswill workingroupsof five, using the lens of Biomimicrytodevelopinnovativesolutionstothe problemsidentifiedwithinthe localizedcontextof Cape Town’s CBD. Other project partners are Biomimicry SA, Creative Cape Town, and For Love Of Water or FLOW. Creative Cape Town communicates, supports and facilitates the development of the creative and knowledge economy in the Central City of Cape Town, it’s key aim being to facilitate dynamic partnershipsinthe central citytopositionitas a leadingcentre forknowledge,innovation,creativity and culture in South Africa (2011). FLOW is a solution and innovation based national campaign aiming to instill awareness and create practical solutions regarding our water supply.
  10. 10. The module will conclude with presentations for assessment. This is designed to support learning formativelyatthisstage,andispart of the continuousassessmentpolicyatthis level. Students will, intheirgroups,delivertheirdesignsolutionsaspresentationstothe appropriate stakeholdergroups and partners. Opportunity exists for the presentation of the more successful ideas at the Young Water Professionals conference in July 2011. Phase 3: Having completed the first two phases of the module, a further week is devoted to retrospective reflection. This will involve students making further improvements to their designs accordingto recommendations made by stakeholders at the assessment stage, and reporting back on insightsgainedduringthe process.Thiswill engender the notion that design does not stop at an evaluationpoint,butthatlearningisacontinuumthroughwhichwe can arrive at fully resolved and workable solutions. Continuous and rigorous testing needs to be understood as part of the design process,sidestepping students’commonmisunderstanding of assessment as judgmental and final. Roles of faculty staff After an initial phase of guidance and facilitation, staff will follow a learner-centered approach, collaboratingwithandworkingalongside studentsastheyuse the methodology toexplore solutions. In this way roles become decentralised and distributed and knowledge is co-created and shared, using a bottom-up approach. The interdisciplinary approach The interdisciplinaryapproachisitself biomimeticinthe way that it helps students develop a sense of mutual appreciationandinterdependence - these are keyaspectsgoverning any living organisms success story. Students recognize how ‘similar their underlying crafts are and then also see how incomplete either craft is when enacted in isolation’ (Welsh & Murray, 2003:223). In this way we endorse the idea that life works around simple common building blocks and how they connect to create the whole. Itisour belief that,workinginthisway, students tap into a wider knowledge and personalitybase (Haynescitedin Jones) where theycanlearntobe the problem solvers and change agents we need in society today (Staples 2005:18). In addition, the aspectof mentorshipandleadership isadded tothe dynamicas groups are made up of a combination of third and fourth years. Students in their fourth year will be expected to play a project management role. It is our belief that Biomimicry provides us as educators with a very positive andproactive approach to teaching sustainability. There is overwhelming evidence of the
  11. 11. lack of respect shown to the environment by human beings and this creates a negative, rather hopeless perception. Biomimicry begins rather by ‘inspiring admiration for the remarkable adaptations that organisms historically deemed ‘lower’ or ‘primitive’ employ’, and therefore encourages us to take a more humble view of our relationship to life on Earth (Staples, 2005:5). Why Biomimicry in Design Education? We believe thatwe canenergize ourcurriculum by including Biomimicry for the following reasons: • to encourage students to ‘develop a better understanding of how naturally occurring processes and patternsmaybe usedasdesigninspirationforthe developmentof forms, structures, systems and interactions.’ (Ontario College of Art and Design Biomimicry 1: Points of Departure) • by being cognizant of natural patterns and the way we intuitively ‘read’ archetypal patterns we stand a better chance of designing better communication, products and systems. • recognisingpatternisone of humanities greatest abilities - it is what helps us to make sense of a chaoticworldallowingustosee contrast as well assimilarity(Macnab, 2008:9). Patternawareness runs deep, as designers we are able to touch on universal concepts to communicate. To site a graphic example, in this logo design by Herb Lubalin, the shape of the letterform ‘O’ becomes the womb for an embryonic ampersand. Fig. 2: Herb Lubalin’s mother and child logo (McAlhone & Stuart 1998:86). There isan economicuse of elements,optimizingrather thanmaximising,multifunctional inthe way information is layered and how the letter-forms are exploited to reveal function. Conclusion An aimfor thismodule istodraw attentiontowardthe source,andto create consciousdesignthatis ‘naturallyaesthetic,efficientandenduring by its very nature of being nature’ (Macnab, 2008:10). In effect,these approachesopenapathfor a perspective shiftbytransferringenergiestocreativityand ingenuity,revealingsolutionsand sustainability(Staples2005:5). We will attempttomimic the basic principles of ecology in the way that the module is structured and run, so that we encourage ‘interdependence, recycling, partnership, flexibility, diversity, and as a consequence of all those , sustainability’ (Capra, 1996:304).
  12. 12. It is our hope that by introducing students to Biomimicry it will help develop them as mature designers with a sense of responsibility toward their environment and fellow human beings. References: Benyus,J.(1997). Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature.New York,NY,USA:WilliamMorrow & Company,Inc.. Clark,K. & Smith,R.(2008). Unleashingthe powerof designthinking. Design Management Review 19(3):8-15. 2nd publication, TheFutureof Design Leadership.[Oct.2008] F.E.C.Culick 2010. The Originsof the FirstPowered,Mancarrying Airplane. [Online] Available: [31 January2011] Jones,C. (2010). InterdisciplinaryApproach - Advantages,Disadvantages,and the Future Benefitsof InterdisciplinaryStudies. ESSAI:Vol.7,Article 26. Availableat: Course Description.OntarioCollege of ArtandDesign.Biomimicry1:Pointsof Departure.Available at [5December2010] Macnab, M. (2008). Decoding Design: Understandingand Using Symbolsin Visual Communication.HowPublishers. Onwumere,F. (2008). A NewInspirationforEfficientInnovation. Scitech360. [Online]Available:[31 January2011] McAlhone,B.& Stuart, D. 1998. A Smile in the Mind:Witty Thinking in Graphic Design. London: PhaidonPress. Nussbaum,B. (nd) [5December 2010] Stehr,N.(1994). KnowledgeSocieties. London:Sage Welsh,M.A. & Murray, D. (2003). The Ecollaborative:Teaching SustainabilitythroughCritical Pedagogy. Journalof ManagementEducation,Apr2003; 27,2; ABINFORMGlobal 220-235. BiomimicryGuild (2009).Biomimicry: A Toolfor Innovation. [Online] Available: . [31 January2011] Staples,H.2005. The Integration of Biomimicry as a Solution-Oriented Approach to the EnvironmentalScienceCurriculumfor High SchoolStudents. EducationResourcesInformation Center, [December12,2010 ]