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Chemical composition


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Chemical composition

  1. 1. chemical composistion of the cell
  2. 3. Elements of the cell
  3. 5. Inorganic elements <ul><li>State the name of elements </li></ul><ul><li>State the function of each elements in animal and plant cell </li></ul>
  4. 6. Water molecules
  5. 7. List the importance of water in the cell: <ul><li>Biochemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent </li></ul><ul><li>Transport medium </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining osmotic balance </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture – alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Lubrication – mucus </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining body tempt </li></ul>
  6. 8. Organic compound in the cell Basic element: C, H, O
  7. 9. <ul><li>Always contain carbon and hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Usually contain covalent bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Usually large, unique molecules with complex functions </li></ul><ul><li>Make up 40% of body mass </li></ul>
  8. 10. Carbohydrate Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide
  9. 11. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Substances formed from C, H, and O </li></ul><ul><li>Main function is source of energy for ATP </li></ul><ul><li> formation </li></ul><ul><li>Forms only 2-3 % of total body weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glycogen is storage in liver and muscle tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sugar building blocks of DNA & RNA (deoxyribose & ribose sugars) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only plants produce starch for energy storage </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Monosaccharides Glucose Fructose Galactose
  11. 13. Characteristic of the monosaccharide <ul><li>Water soluble </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallization </li></ul><ul><li>Colorless </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet to taste </li></ul>Food test:
  12. 19. Disaccharide Sucrose Maltose Lactose
  13. 23. polysaccharides . strach - plant cell storage . glycogen - animal cell storage . cellulose - cell wall
  14. 26. Fatty acid Glycerol lipids
  15. 27. List the importance of lipids
  16. 32. proteins . contain C, H, O, N, S . smallest unit = amino acid . combine -by peptide bond . dipeptide . polypeptide
  17. 33. List the importance of proteins:
  18. 37. Amino acid <ul><li>Essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to take by food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be synthesized by body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First class protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost found in plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be synthesized by our body </li></ul></ul>
  19. 38. <ul><li>Peptide bond can be broken by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dilute acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Denaturation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of three dimensional structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By heat or chemical </li></ul></ul>
  20. 39. Polypeptide chain
  21. 40. Various protein structures e.g.: hormone insulin e.g.: hormone, antibodies, enzyme e.g.: hemoglobin
  22. 43. DNA Structure <ul><li>Huge molecules containing C, H, O, N and P </li></ul><ul><li>A molecule of DNA is a chain of nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogenous base (A-G-T-C), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a 5- carbon sugar, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and a phosphate group </li></ul></ul>
  23. 46. enzyme
  24. 47. what is enzyme?
  25. 48. <ul><li>Answer: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Proteins: most enzymes are proteins , primarily tertiary and quaternary structures . </li></ul><ul><li>2. Catalyst: chemical agent that accelerates a reaction without being permanently changed in the process. </li></ul>
  26. 49. <ul><li>3. Selective: enzymes are specific for which they will catalyze (Specificity - depends upon 3D shape). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Recycled: enzymes are reusable. </li></ul>
  27. 50. student presentation
  28. 51. . proteins . biological catalyst . speed up biochemical reation
  29. 52. <ul><li>Work rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Not destroyed after reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Can work both direction </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely specific </li></ul><ul><li>Denatured by high temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to pH </li></ul>enzymes characteristics:
  30. 53. “ ase” endings: sucrase maltase lactase naming of enzymes Name according to substrate it catalyst A few enzymes are named before : pepsin, trypsin, rennin
  31. 54. Lock and key hypothesis <ul><li>Enzyme is specific to its substrate </li></ul><ul><li>When pH change, the charge of active sites change, </li></ul>
  32. 59. DNA <ul><li>Huge molecules containing C, H, O, N and phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Each gene of our genetic material is a piece of DNA that controls the synthesis of a specific protein </li></ul><ul><li>A molecule of DNA is a chain of nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotide = nitrogenous base (A-G-T-C), a 5- carbon sugar, and a phosphate group </li></ul>
  33. 61. Factors affecting the rate of enzymatic reactions
  34. 62. pH [acidity and alkalinity] <ul><li>Enzymes are affected by changes in pH </li></ul><ul><li>Most work best at pH 7 </li></ul><ul><li>A change of pH, will change the active site charge of enzyme molecules, </li></ul><ul><li>not able to form enzyme – substrate complex </li></ul>
  35. 63. Rate of enzyme reaction pH 7 1 14 Pepsin [stomach] Amylase [mouth] Amylase [duodenum]
  36. 64. Heat <ul><li>Most work best at optimum temperature </li></ul><ul><li>37 C </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme heat (above) – denaturation of enzyme molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Active site altered – not able to form enzyme – substrate complex </li></ul><ul><li>In cold condition [below 20] – enzyme inactive </li></ul>
  37. 65. TEMPT [c] Rate of enzyme reaction 37 60 0
  38. 66. Substrate concentration <ul><li>If the concentration of substrate increase, </li></ul><ul><li> the chance for enzyme-substrate collision will increase . </li></ul><ul><li>When all active sites filled with substrate, </li></ul><ul><li>the rate remains constant. </li></ul>Rate of enzyme reaction Substrate concentration
  39. 67. Enzyme concentration <ul><li>If the concentration of enzyme increase, </li></ul><ul><li> the chance for enzyme-substrate collision will increase . </li></ul><ul><li>When all substrate are used at one time, </li></ul><ul><li>the rate remains constant. </li></ul>Rate of enzyme reaction Enzyme concentration
  40. 68. Design an experiment : The effect of pH/ temperature on enzymatic activities
  41. 69. Enzymes in daily life <ul><li>State the use of enzyme in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological detergent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textile industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leather industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper industry </li></ul></ul>