Democratized access to information Most people were not able to put content on the web Websites were largely one-way communication vehicles People still primarily got online information from major companies Some “social software” › Forums and mailing lists
Web 2.0 refers to the latest generation ofservices available on the world wide webthat lets people collaborate and shareInformation online. “The Social Web”
The concept of "Web 2.0" began with a conference brainstorming session between Tim OReilly and MediaLive International in 2004 The phrase "Web 2.0" hints at an improved form of the World Wide Web Emphasizing tools and platforms that enable the user to Tag, Blog, Comment, Modify, Augment, Rank, etc. The more explicit synonym of “Participatory Web"
“There are no products, only solutions” Not what customer wants but why they want A problem solving approach Simple Solutions
Customization Focus on the “Long Tail” Harnessing collective intelligence Specialized database Web as a platform Who owns the data ? End of the software release cycle Software above the level of a single device
Every individual is unique Some people want to be different Allow him to choose instead of forcing him to use what you have made Make him feel homee.g. › My yahoo, Google Homepage, Myspace › Firefox extensions
Reach out to the entire web To the edges and not just to the centre, to the long tail and not just the head Leverage customer-self service e.g. Google, StumbleUpon
Network effects from user contribution are the key to market dominance in Web 2.0 eraThe Wisdom of crowds – Users add value › Amazon, ebay - User reviews, similar items, most popular, › Wikipedia – content can be added/edited by any web user, › Flickr – tagging images
Every significant application to date has been backed by a specialized database › E.g. Amazon, Google, Ebay Database management is the core competency of Web 2.0 companies “infoware” rather than merely “software”
Control over data has led to market control and oversized financial returns It will provide a sustainable competitive advantage to the company Especially is data sources are expensive to create or amenable to increasing returns via network effects Race is to own certain classes of core data e.g. naukri.com, 99acre, yahoo
“Release Early and Release Often” “Perpetual BETA” Daily operations must become a core competency Software will cease to perform unless it is maintained on a daily basis
The PC is no longer the only access device for internet applications Applications that are limited to a single device are less valuable than those that are connected. Design your application from the get-go to integrate services across handheld devices, PCs, and internet servers.
Characteristics: work sharing, collaborative editing, rich formatting, document storage & sharing, access from anywhere; communities of members contributing to a collective effort or project. › - emulating the desktop experience Word processors / spreadsheets - Google Docs & Spreadsheets, Zoho Writer, Writeboard Online presentations - Zoho Show, Spresent Drawing and sharing diagrams on the web – Gliffy Wikis - software – wetpaint, mediawiki, pbwiki Project Management – Basecamp, , ZohoProjects Online Storage - box.net, xdrive, ibackup, esnips, , omnidrive
Weblogs Podcasts RSS feeds Instant messaging (IM) Wikis Social networking sites – MySpace, Facebook, Bebo, Ning Photo sharing – Flickr, BubbleShare Video sharing – YouTube, Google Video, blip Social bookmarking tools - del. Icio.us, furl, digg, slashdot, reddit, fark Social mapping – wayfaring, Google Maps Web-based work sharing tools Mashups
Fark is a community website allowing users to comment on a daily batch of news articles and other items from various websites. Digg is a community-based popularity website with an emphasis on technology and science articles. It combines social bookmarking , blogging, and syndication with a form of non-hierarchical, democratic editorial control. Slashdot is a technology-related news website which features user-submitted and editor-evaluated current affairs news. reddit is a community web site where users can post links to content on the web. Other users may then vote the posted links up or down, causing them to appear more or less prominently on the reddit home page. Furl (from File Uniform Resource Locators) is a social bookmarking website that allows members to store searchable copies of webpages and share them with others. Technorati is an Internet search engine for searching blogs.
Web architecture › Web as platform › API › Mashups › AJAX
API = Application Programming Interface Exposes a set of functions that make up the application and can be used in the creation of other applications Allows a developer to access the functions of another application in their own application so that they don‟t need to build the functionality from the scratch Example : Amazon, Google, eBay
Involves combining (or mashing up) two separate applications, or an application or data, to create an entirely new one Usually done using APIs, but sometimes screenscraping must be done Screenscraping : taking data directly from a website
Recruitment Due to the cutting-edge underlying technologies and usability-focused interfaces (the „cool‟ factor), organizations adopting Web 2.0 tend to attract sophisticated, high-caliber technical candidates. Reduced cost Not only are Web 2.0 offerings low-cost, but the same techniques can also be applied to existing (non-Web 2.0) products and services, lowering costs. For example, wikis can enable your users to build documentation and knowledge base systems, with relatively little investment from yourself.
Loyalty The open, participatory Web 2.0 environment encourages user contribution, enhancing customer loyalty and lifespan. Marketing/PR By taking advantage of the aforementioned benefits, marketing and PR teams can implement low-cost, wide- coverage, viral strategies. Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) Web 2.0 delivery mechanisms - such as Blogs and RSS - significantly enhance search engine exposure through their distributed nature
So much content…few efficient ways to search it The crowd isn‟t always right Trusting companies with your content Who owns your content ? Privacy issues Copyright issues
Michael Casey of the blog Library Crunch coined the term in Fall 2005 Popularized by popular bloggers and speakers in Librarianship
1. The library is every where › Available at the point of need › Go where our users are 2. The library has no barriers › No barriers between users and information 3. The library invites participation › Blogs, wikis, tagging and commenting in the catalog, etc 4. The library uses flexible, best of breed systems › ILS made of small pieces loosely joined. Modular interoperable web services
An online journal in which articles are posted in chronological order and in which users are able to participate by posting comments Libraries use blogs to promote their services, advertise events and post book reviews. Other libraries use it as their new homepage. Still others use it for special subject areas.
RSS is format for syndicating content on the Web Based on XML Enables you to view content from different sites on a single page Many websites have RSS feeds these days if they have information that is updated regularly (Examples :Times of India, CNN) You can view RSS-enabled content on another website, in an aggregator or another website
Libraries use RSS technology to share library news and content as well as gather and redistribute related information from other web sources.
A wiki is a collaborative online space in which users can work together on a shared space. The largest wiki to date is Wikipedia. Libraries use the technology to provide users with subject focused resource collections, and to offer community tools for participation and collaboration
Unlike social networking sites that focus on relationships, social bookmarking such as del.icio.us allow users to bookmark websites, articles, blogs, images, etc for future retrieval Libraries use social bookmarking to provide readers with subject guides and reader advisory sources Social bookmarking and tagging tools allow libraries bridge the gap between the library‟s need to offer authoritative, well organized information and their patron‟s web experience.
Social cataloguing websites allow users to create personal catalogs of their books, CDs and other collections and share them LibraryThing is the largest of these social catalog websites. It has a collection of 17 million books. Other sites include Shelfari and Listal Libraries use social cataloging as a collection development tool and integrating LibraryThing in their catalog
A series of audio recordings that can be subscribed to via RSS feed. Podcasts are being used for language learning, interviews, tours, debates, etc Libraries are using podcasting to communicate with and disseminate information to their patrons and also to market their services
A mashup is a hybrid web application that combines data and functionality from different sources to form something new. A majority of mashups center around maps and videos Library uses mashups to display new acquisitions by combining searches of book reviews with the library catalog
Library mobile services refer to library services provided to patrons within “mobile” environments or using mobile devices such as cell phone, iphone, PDAs The aim of mobile library services is to bridge the digital divide by providing services to the “born digital generation” who commonly use mobile phones and other mobile devices
Definition : The World Wide Web accessed through mobile device such as cellular phones and ipod touch Mobile phones that have web capabilities can access the internet from anywhere that the phone can get a signal. The cell phone is the desk top of laptop counterpart.
Libraries should › Establish text alert services › Offer text reference services › Develop an OPAC interface for phones › Design a website that is configurable for small screens › Allow limited, silent-mode phone service › Develop audio tours › Look for technology that will make e-journal access possible
Library websites and MOPACs (Mobile OPACs): Many libraries are offering mobile version of their websites for their patrons to access from their cell phones. Some mobile library sites are : › Ball State University Library‟s mobile site › http://www.bsu.edu/libraries/mobile/ › Boston University Medical Center Mobile Library › http://www.medlib.bu.edu/mobile/ › Nashville Public Library › http://m.library.nashville.org/#_home
Libraries must use technology to reach and engage users. They have to address the information seeking habits of the Net Generation Libraries have to learn how to integrate the physical spaces with virtual spaces and services Libraries have to make their websites friendly to the computer or the mobile devices or handhelds