Classification

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Classification

  1. 1. Classification Of Living Things
  2. 2. I. What is Classification? <ul><ul><li>A. Classification is grouping living things according to similar characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How could you classify the following: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dog </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fox </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tiger </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>housecat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wolf </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>How could you classify the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spruce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hemlock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alder </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>B. Taxonomy is the science of classification which involves identifying, classifying, and naming </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>taxis = arrangement or order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nomy = law </li></ul></ul></ul>II . Definitions A. Autotroph --an organism capable of making its own food B. Heterotroph --an organism that cannot make its own food. It obtains its energy by feeding on other organisms. C. Prokaryote --an organism whose cells lack a nucleus D. Eukaryote --an organism whose cells contain a nucleus
  5. 5. III. All living things are classified into eight major groups: <ul><ul><ul><li>domain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>kingdom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phylum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>genus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>species </li></ul></ul></ul>A. We can use a mnemonic device to help us remember these: D umb K ing P hillip c ame o ver f or g rape s oda
  6. 6. B. We can use an analogy with time to help us understand how these levels are included in the levels above <ul><li>Domain ……………decade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom……………year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phylum ……………month </li></ul><ul><li>Class ……………..week </li></ul><ul><li>Order …………….day </li></ul><ul><li>Family …………..hour </li></ul><ul><li>Genus ………….minute </li></ul><ul><li>Species ………..second </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>C. Domains and Kingdoms are the largest, most inclusive, most general groups or levels </li></ul><ul><li>D. The genus and specific name together make up the scientific name (the species name) -- a two-part name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The genus name is capitalized, but the specific name is not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific names are italicized (or sometimes underlined) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canis lupis </li></ul></ul>= wolf = onion = E. coli Allium cepa Escherichia coli
  8. 8. <ul><li>e) Species -- a group of organisms that are able to breed, producing fertile offspring </li></ul><ul><li>f) Genus -- may consist of several closely related species, or only one species </li></ul>
  9. 9. IV. Domains & Kingdoms <ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex multicellular organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually green because they contain chlorophyll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make their own food in a process called photosynthesis (autotrophs) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex multicellular organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture and eat their food to digest it (heterotrophs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most can move from place to place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a nervous system to sense surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells lack cell walls </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex multicellular organisms (some are unicellular) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally classified as plants, but do not contain chlorophyll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not perform photosynthesis or eat their food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorb nutrients from their surroundings (heterotrophs) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Protists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single celled or simple multicellular organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a nucleus -- eukaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal-like, plant-like, or fungi-like in how they obtain nutrients (some are autotrophs, some are heterotrophs) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Archaea and Bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely small, single-celled organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not have a nucleus -- prokaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs and heterotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can live in many different environments such as very hot, very cold, in soil, in animals, in water, and in the air </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. F .

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