Discover the Baltic states for studies


Published on

Discover the Baltic states for studies

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Discover the Baltic states for studies

  2. 2. Sisukord Contents Introduction ............................................... 4 Latvia Baltic region in brief .................................. 6 1 . Higher education system .....................36 1.1 Qualifications 37 Estonia 2 . Organization of studies........................39 1 . Higher education................................. 12 2.1 Academic calendar 39 1.1 Academic higher education 12 2.2 Admission procedure 40 1.2 Professional higher education 14 2.3 Tuition fees 40 2 . Organization of studies........................ 15 2.4 Assessment and grading system 42 2.1 Academic calendar 15 2.5 Recognition of Foreign Degrees 2.2 Admission procedures 15 and Diplomas 43 2.3 Tuition fees 18 3 . Scholarships/grants ...........................43 2.4 Assessment and grading system 19 4. Higher education institutions ............. 44 2.5 Recognition 23 5 . Useful links ........................................48 3 . Scholarships/grants ...........................26 4. Higher education institutions ..............29 5 . Useful links ........................................32
  3. 3. Lithuania 1 . Higher education system .....................52 2 . Organisation of studies .......................54 2.1 Academic calendar 54 2.2 Admission procedure 54 2.3 Tuition fees 56 2.4 Forms of assesment and grading system 56 2.5 Recognition 57 3 . Scholarships and grants......................57 3.1 Lithuanian national scholarships 57 3.2 Lifelong learning programme/Erasmus 58 3.3 Erasmus Mundus 59 4. Higher education institutions ..............60 5 . Useful links ........................................66
  4. 4. Dear reader, The three Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia The Baltic region has a long tradition and Lithuania are rather small countries of providing high-quality education. For and not too many people know about young people it is a vibrant and interna- them. Thus, we are pretty sure we can tional environment with the possibility to surprise you in a really positive way. We make use of the latest developments in welcome all the eager students, who are different study fields which makes the interested in the degree programmes and region an attractive place for living and shorter courses, or would maybe like to studying. visit an enlightening summer school with the combination of brilliant academics Of course, a student’s life is more and fabulous cultural programmes. than just studying. Estonia, Latvia and The Baltic higher education institutions Lithuania being also EU Member States participate actively in different European offer good value for money with its educational programmes, including relatively low tuition and living costs for the EU education and training flagship recognised quality education. After the programme Erasmus. There are several classes young people can wander around national and European support schemes in the medieval streets of the towns, available for international students. attend a concert, enjoy a lively night-life 4
  5. 5. in modern clubs and bars or escape into the shores of which we have been living the riches of preserved nature – endless for several thousand years. And yet, we forests, picturesque lakes, long beaches have many interesting things that differ of white sand, tranquillity of country from one country to the other. roads. Come and see, and find out by yourselves! We have a common history and much in We hope you find the information in this common in culture, nature and mentality, brochure helpful. We hope you find your and we share our common Baltic sea, at way to the Baltics! Yours sincerely, Rait Toompere, Alberts Prikulis, Daiva Šutinytė, Director of Estonian Director of Academic Director of Education Centre for Educational Programme Agency, Exchanges Support Programmes Latvia Foundation, Lithuania Foundation Archimedes 5
  7. 7. HISTORY History HISTORY Politics countries has declared itself to be the HISTORY restoration of the sovereign nations which restored The Baltic States became sovereign After the Baltic States had The Baltic States became sovereign nationsnations in the aftermath of World War I for The Baltic States became sovereign existed already in 1918-1940. nations Baltic States became World War I independence, integration with Western in the aftermath ofaftermathI ofsovereign nations in the The in the World War for the first the first time since the 13th century (Estonia and Latvia) and the 18th century time aftermath time century the for thecentury since the was chosen as the main stra- for the first 13th since (Estonia and time Europe since the 13th first (Lithuania). of World War (Lithuania). POLITICS and were recognised as HISTORY declaredIindependence in 1918 They Latvia) andand Latvia) and the 18th century tegic goal. Membership of NATO was the 18th century (Estoniacentury (Estonia and Latvia) and the 18th century 13th They declared independence 1920. and independentHISTORY in in 1918 countries HISTORY (Lithuania). They declaredindependence in 1918 andon March 29, restored (Lithuania). They declared independ- the in the States had 2004, and acces- were recognised as independent countries After achieved The Baltic States became sovereign nations Baltic in 1920. in recognisedWorld Warshort-lived, the EU tookfollowing May 1, 2004. ence aftermathand as independent countries in 1920. integration with Western were 1918 of were The I for the first time In the 1940, place on as sion recognisedindependence, Independence was relatively became sovereign since June the The Baltic States Baltic States became sovereign main strategic nations in Europe Furthermore, the I December 21, 2007, was chosen as countries pact of in I and first of century on independentaftermath ofinnations1939,for thethe 18th World War the whole 1920. the Molotov-Ribbentrop World War thethe Soviet time since the 13th century (Estonia and Latvia) aftermath Union occupied Independence was was relatively short-lived, however. In of NATO was achieved Independence relatively for andindependence pro-Soviet short-lived, goal. Membership territory ofJuneBaltic States, the first Latvia)Estonia, 18th governmentsthe all the They following installed new, the2004, and accession in EU however.(Lithuania).century (Estonia the timeMarchin 1918 and century Lithuania entered In 13th 1940, declared and on since 29, the Latvia and to and 13th century June 1940, following the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact of century three were recognised 1939, the Soviet countries in 1920. 1, and countries. (Lithuania). independent Latvia) and thein (Estonia and independence 18th Molotov-Ribbentrop pact of asThey short-lived, place Schengen2004. Furthermore, Independence was relatively declaredtook the on May1918zone. 1939, the Soviet Union (Lithuania). They declared independence Latvia and occupied the whole territory Union occupiedwerewhole territory of the on December 21,in 1920. however. In the recognised as independent countries 2007, Estonia, June 1940, following the of annexationStates, andinpro-Soviet were recognised as Schengen zone. the Balticinstalled new,installed new, pro-Soviet (re-occupation by the Baltic States, and of the Baltic States lasted from entered the The Independence Lithuania 1944 Molotov-Ribbentropwas relativelyand the All three Baltic States are parliamentary 1918 short-lived, however. In pact of 1939, governments in all three countries. countries in pact of governments in all three countries. invasion) till 1990. 1920. Soviets after the followingwas Molotov-Ribbentrop however. In June 1940, Nazi German relatively short-lived, Independenceindependent All three Baltic States which have unicameral the Soviet Union occupied the whole terri- democracies, are parliamentary 1939, the the of Soviet Union occupied democracies, which have the whole territory The annexationBaltic Baltic States lasted Molotov-Ribbentrop pact of unicameral the June 1940, following thetheir independence toryThe annexation of the Baltic States lasted pro-Sovietshort-elected by the States, Independencenew, parliaments by popular of popular vote. Theofof the Baltic the Sovietand installed fromwhole territory Each vote. In States, installed was andUnion parliaments 1944 three Baltic nations re-declaredoccupiedrelatively in 1990. 1939, from 1944 (re-occupation by the Soviets the elected after (re-occupation bydeclared itselfall installed In Latviafollowing is elected three governmentsBalticSoviets however. Nazinew,Estonia, and Estonia, President is the countriesthe inthe three countries.the June 1940, all States, and the lived, after Latvia German new, pro-Soviet hasinvasion) till 1990. three restoration of the sovereign nations Nazi German of governments in to be In and President pro-Soviet countries. tillalready in 1918-1940. by parliament while Lithuania has awhile Lithuania which existed 1990. invasion) the Molotov-Ribbentrop pactby 1939, elected of parliament semi- The three Baltic nations re-declared their presidential a semi-presidential system and the HISTORY The annexation of the Baltic States lasted from the wholethe President is the Soviet Union occupied 1944and has system independence inBaltic Each of the three The three 1990.the Baltic Statesafter the independence elected by popular vote. nations re-declared electedPresidentvote. by popular their Nazi German The annexation of by the Sovietsof the Baltic States, and (re-occupation territory lasted is CountryBaltic Each of the threeESTONIA nations in the aftermath of World War I for The 1944 (re-occupationsovereign has declared governmentsLITHUANIA from in 1990. States becameinstalled new, pro-Soviet itself to countries by the LATVIA in be the time since the 13th century (Estonia which existed the 18th century restoration of theall three countries. and Latvia) and sovereign nations Capitalfirst the Soviets after the Nazi German invasion) Tallinn Riga Vilnius (Lithuania). They declared independence in 1918 and were recognised as till 1990. Population (2007) 1,340,602 2,270,700 3,369,600 independent countries in 1920. Area 45,227 km2 64,589 km2 65,200 km2 The three Baltic nations re-declared Independence was relatively short-lived, however. In June 1940, following Calling code +372 +371 +370 their Molotov-Ribbentrop pact of 1939, the Soviet Union occupied the whole the independence in 1990. Each of the Internet domain .ee .lv .lt three countriesBaltic States, and installed new, pro-Soviet governments in all territory of the has declared itself to be Currency the restoration of the sovereigncrown three countries. Estonian nations Latvian lat Lithuanian litas €15,310 GDP per existed already in 1918-1940. which capita (2007) €11,826 €10,472 HDI* (2005) 0.860 0.855 0.862 * Human Development Index 7 3
  8. 8. Location The Baltic States are situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, bordering Russia (Estonia and Latvia) and Byelorussia (Latvia and Lithuania) in the east, Poland and the Kaliningrad region of Russia (Lithuania) in the south. The landscape of the countries is marked by lowland plains and rolling hills, with thousands of rivers and lakes. Most of the countryside is less than 100 metres above sea level. Statistics Country ESTONIA LATVIA LITHUANIA Capital Tallinn Riga Vilnius Population (2007) 1,340,602 2,270,700 3,369,600 Area 45,227 km2 64,589 km2 65,200 km2 Calling code +372 +371 +370 Internet domain .ee .lv .lt Currency Estonian kroon Latvian lat Lithuanian litas GDP per capita (2007) €15,310 €11,826 €10,472 HDI* (2005) 0.860 0.855 0.862 * Human Development Index 8
  9. 9. Climate guages make up the group of the Baltic The climate of all three countries can languages which belongs to the Indo- be described as transitional between European language family. The Estonian maritime and continental. Summers language is not an Indo-European are pleasantly mild, whereas not language and instead belongs to the every winter offers an abundance of Baltic-Finnic subgroup of the Finno- snow. Average temperature in July is Ugric languages, sharing close ethnic +17°C, in January –5°C. and historical ties with the Finnish language and people. Languages The languages of the Baltic nations Local time belong to two distinct language fami- Local time is the Eastern European lies. The Latvian and Lithuanian lan- Time (GMT +2 hours, e.g. Helsinki, Budapest and Athens). 9
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 1. Higher education higher education is to increase students’ level of general education, their acquired The Estonian higher education system basic knowledge and skills in the spe- consists of academic and professional cialty necessary for master’s level studies higher education. Higher education is and for commencing work. The nominal provided mainly by universities and pro- length of bachelor’s studies is usually 3 fessional institutions of higher educa- years, and the capacity of studies is 180 tion. Recent trends in higher education credits in the European Credit Transfer implemented in accordance with the and Accumulation System – ECTS. In objective to create a European higher exceptional cases the nominal length education area, have lead to the adop- of bachelor’s-level studies reaches four tion of a higher education system based years (240 ECTS credits). After graduation on two main cycles - undergraduate and from bachelor’s-level programmes, the graduate studies. bachelor’s degree bakalaureusekraad, is awarded. 1.1. Academic higher education After graduation from bachelor’s-level The academic branch of Estonian higherprogrammes, students can continue in the second cycle leading to the Master’s education has two cycles, following the degree magistrikraad. Master’s level bachelor-master model. Bachelor’s level studies form the first cycle, and mas-studies are the studies of the second cycle of higher education in the course of ter’s level studies the second. In some specialties the study programmes have which, knowledge and skills in the speci- ality are acquired, preparing a student for been integrated into a single long cycle. independent work after graduation. The The purpose of the bachelor’s level main purpose of master’s level studies studies of the two-cycle structure of is to educate a specialist with thorough 12
  13. 13. professional knowledge. Master’s level ECTS credits, but together with bache- studies in universities are continued lor’s level studies not less than five years studies after bachelor’s level studies, (300 ECTS credits). and a bachelor’s degree or equivalent level of qualification is a prerequisite In addition to the two-cycle general for admission. Persons who hold a pro- structure, the study programmes of fessional higher education diploma can medicine, dentistry, pharmaceutical, veteri- also commence master’s programmes narian, architectural and civil engineering in a university under the conditions and training are single long-cycle studies pursuant to the procedure established with a nominal length of 5 – 6 years and a by the university. The nominal length capacity of 300 – 360 ECTS credits. Such of master’s level studies is 1 – 2 years single long-cycle studies are called in- and the volume of the studies is 60 – 120 tegrated bachelor-master studies based 13
  14. 14. on an integrated study programme that contains both basic studies and deep specialisation. The completion of studies provides qualifications that correspond to a master’s level degree. Existing legislation establishes that the master’s level qualification is a prereq- uisite for the commencement of doctoral studies. The nominal length of doctoral studies is 3-4 years after which the post- graduate research degree (doktorikraad) is conferred. 1.2. Professional higher education Professional higher education institu- tions and a small number of vocational education institutions offer non-academic first cycle higher education, rakendus- kõrgharidus, or professional higher education, aimed at providing skills and knowledge required to work in a certain profession or continue one’s studies at the master’s level. Depending of the subject area, the nominal length of first cycle professional higher education studies is 3 – 4 years, and the volume 14
  15. 15. of studies is 180 – 240 ECTS credits. lectures, seminars, practical training, Persons who have completed professio- independent work and an examination nal higher education studies are awarded period. Institutions of higher education a diploma called a rakenduskõrghari- operate five days a week for full-time dusõppe diplom. A diploma of profes- studies. sional higher education corresponds to a bakalaureusekraad awarded by 2.2. Admission procedures universities, and graduates are entitled to International students seeking a degree continue studies towards the magistri- from an institution of higher educa- kraad on conditions laid down by the tion in Estonia must usually apply for university council. admission on the same terms as Estonian students. There are general and specific requirements for admission to institu- 2. Organization tions of higher education. The general Of studies requirements are binding on all institu- tions of higher education and concern 2.1. Academic calendar all study programmes. The academic year at institutions of higher education is divided into two Admission to the study programmes is semesters: autumn and spring. The administered by the institution of higher autumn semester usually runs from education, and candidates apply directly the last week of August to December, to the institution of their choice. It is wise with examinations in January. The to contact the respective institution well spring semester lasts from the end of before commencing one’s studies, in January or the beginning of February to order to obtain detailed information on the end of May, but exams can be taken application procedures, accommodation until the middle of June. As a general possibilities and other important facts. rule a semester contains 20 weeks of 15
  16. 16. General requirements grammes to facilitate student mobility. Undergraduate students – applicants Further information on conditions and wishing to pursue first cycle higher procedures for application is available at education studies are required to have the student’s home university. completed their secondary or equivalent level education. International applicants Visiting students – visiting students are must be eligible for higher education in international students who plan to study their own country. In a country where the at the host institution for up to one year certificate of completion of secondary at either the graduate or postgraduate school is in itself sufficient for admission level. Further information on conditions to higher education, additional qualifying and procedures for application is avail- examinations may also be required for able at the student’s home university and/ admission to institutions of higher edu- or at the prospective host university. cation in Estonia. Specific requirements Graduate and postgraduate students – Specific requirements depend on the applicants wishing to pursue master’s requirements of the institution of higher level studies are required to have com- education and on the specialisation. pleted the first cycle of higher education, Specific requirements may include and those wishing to pursue doctoral entrance examinations, an interview or studies must have completed master’s minimum marks on the secondary-level level studies. school-leaving certificate. All prospective international students should contact the Exchange students – student exchanges International Relations Office or another take place on the basis of bilateral agree- appropriate office of the higher educa- ments between partner institutions. tion institution of their choice for more There are also different exchange pro- detailed information before mailing their 16
  17. 17. application materials. Exchange students and visiting students should also contact the appropriate office at their home university. Language requirements All the applicants need to provide proof of the proficiency in the language of a respective study pro- gramme. Most of the international students apply for the programmes taught in English, but there are also those, who prefer to study in Estonian or Russian languages. The documented proof of proficiency is not required from native-speakers or from the applicants who have completed their previous education in a respective language. In most cases results of internationally ac- cepted foreign language tests are accepted. Some institutions carry out their own language tests and/or interviews. Many universities offer language courses for international students as a pre-study possibility or as part of the study programme. 17
  18. 18. 2.3. Tuition fees information on tuition fees is the higher Study costs may include application fees, education institution in which a student tuition fees directly covering the course is interested. Generally the fees vary or programme offered and the purchase from 1280 EUR (20 000 EEK) to 5100 EUR of textbooks and other study materials. (80 000 EEK) per year for English taught Since universities reserve the right to programmes. Some of the more expen- revise fees, study costs may differ from sive specialities are medicine, law, busi- one university to another. In addition to ness administration and social sciences. study costs, students should also take Some higher education institutions may into account living expenses. differentiate tuition fees for students Therefore the most reliable source of from EU and from outside EU. 18
  19. 19. Citizens of EU member states are eligible system of credits is a cumulative calcula- to apply for the state-commissioned tion of credit points based on a student’s places on undergraduate and graduate workload. One credit point corresponds level together with the applicants pos- to 40 hours or one study week of studies sessing a diploma from an Estonian edu- performed by a student. A credit point is cational institution to the programmes not related to the lecturing or any other taught in Estonian language. A number workload of a member of the academic of state-commissioned places is avail- staff. The normal workload of an average able for all the doctoral students. student during a full academic year would include forty weeks of studies and entail 40 national credit points. Credit points 2.4. Assessment and grading system are awarded only for successfully com- Credit system pleted courses. Academic progress is measured in credit points (ainepunkt, or AP). The national In the ECTS system of credits the volume 19
  20. 20. of one academic year is 60 ECTS credits. two specific questions at the beginning The valid legislation enables parallel of the session, and after preparation, usage of both systems – the national answers the examiner. The examiner system and the ECTS credits. The full may ask additional questions which are transition to the ECTS system of credits required to pass the examination. Oral will be completed by 1 September 2009. examinations usually last longer, from thirty minutes to one hour. In the description of all study programmes the nominal length of studies, the balance Oral examinations are sometimes also of compulsory and optional subjects, the organised such that a small group of stu- number of credits for specific courses dents may answer questions at the same together with a general description of time. In a written examination a group of the content, available majors within the students receive one or several questions study programme and requirements for related to the subject area that must be graduation are determined. thoroughly answered. There may also be written tests that include questions with Tests and exams multiple answers, and the students must All institutions of higher education are select the right answer from the given required to end courses with examina- list. A written examination usually takes tions (eksam) or preliminary examina- from one to two hours. The results of an tions (arvestus). There may be several examination and preliminary examina- independent examinations or tests in tion are given in the form of marks or separate parts of a subject. Usually the may be evaluated as pass (arvestatud) or oral and written examinations are held fail (mitte arvestatud). at the end of each semester during the four-week examination session. In an oral examination a student gets one or 20
  21. 21. Grading According to government regulation, all Estonian institutions of higher education use a standardised 6-point scale of grades based on the percentage of aquired knowledge: Grade Description Percentage of expected knowledge and skills 5 or A suurepärane/excellent 91 – 100% 4 or B väga hea/very good 81 – 90% 3 or C hea/good 71 – 80% 2 or D rahuldav/satisfactory 61 – 70% 1 or E kasin/sufficient 51 – 60% 0 or F puudulik/insufficient 0 – 50% Some institutions use letters (A – F) in It is important to emphasise that the assessment, while other have opted for grades awarded according to the Estonian numbers (5 – 0), the principles of grading grading scale are not directly transfer- are still similar regardless of which of able to the ECTS rating scale, regardless these is used. With grades A/5, B/4, C/3, of their striking resemblance. According D/2 and E/1, an examination is consi- to the Estonian national grading scale, dered passed, whereas with grade F an each student’s knowledge and skills are examination is not considered passed. assessed independently, and not in com- The grades with which an examination parison to each other. The ECTS rating is considered passed begin from 51% of scale aims at the evaluation of students’ the acquired volume of the subject, and abilities in relation to other students in the distribution of grades between the the same study group. As the basis for students who pass the examination is assessment is different, the transfer of not determined. grades from one system to another is problematic. 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 2.5. Recognition Before making the final decision on what university or study programme to choose, it is important to check whether the institution of higher education and the selected study programme is offi- cially recognised in Estonia. Pursuant to the laws of Estonia, accreditation is not compulsory; it is, however, the only pos- sibility for an institution of higher educa- tion to acquire the right to issue officially recognised documents certifying higher education. Recognition by the Republic of Estonia is the basic requirement for the recognition of studies in the student’s home country. Information about the ac- creditation of higher education institu- tions and their programmes can be found on the databases of Estonian higher education institutions (Õppekavade and- mebaas) on the web site of the Estonian Accreditation Centre. Students wishing to continue their studies in Estonia on the basis of a foreign academic certificate, diploma or 23
  24. 24. degree must apply directly to the higher education institution or ENIC/NARIC Centre in Estonia for admission, as well as for recognition of their periods of study. The Estonian ENIC/NARIC belongs to the Council of Europe and UNESCO ENIC (European Network of National Information Centres on Academic Recognition and Mobility) network, and is a member of the European Commission NARIC (National Academic Recognition Information Centres) network. The main activities of the Centre in Estonia are the evaluation of foreign educational qualifications (certificates, diplomas, degrees etc.), and the provision of information on edu- cation systems and recognition. Foreign students who have been awarded a degree by an Estonian education institution but wish to continue studies or start working in either their home or another foreign country must approach the appropriate authority in that country in order 24
  25. 25. to evaluate the equivalence of the the home and host institutions. The Estonian credential in a particular educa- Learning Agreement is an informal tion system. contract that indicates precisely what modules and courses a student would Students studying in Estonia in the be studying. At the end of the study framework of the Erasmus programme period abroad, the host university shall do not have to check upon the study pro- provide both the exchange student grammes offered in their host institution, and the sending university a transcript as only institutions with accredited study reporting the results obtained in the programmes are eligible to participate agreed programme of study. in the Erasmus programme. To facilitate the comparability and recognition of Estonian Accreditation Centre acquired credits and grades, students are advised to complete a Learning Estonian ENIC/NARIC Centre Agreement to be signed by them and 25
  26. 26. 3. Scholarships/grants New scholarships for international students undergraduate students. have been envisaged for the coming years, and it would be worthwhile consulting our Citizens of EU member states accepted portal for the to the state-commissioned student latest news. Most of the scholarships are places (mostly Estonian taught study available for outstanding graduate and programmes) do not have to pay tuition postgraduate students. Thus, some insti- fees and are eligible to receive national tutions provide scholarships also for the grants awarded on the basis of academic 26
  27. 27. performance. As of 2008, a similar grant scholarships cover tuition fees, health for doctoral students coming from third insurance, the cost of a residence countries can be applied for through permit and an allowance for living and the Archimedes Foundation, although travel. Only students wishing to pursue it must be emphasised that application their studies at the bachelor’s or mas- must be made by the institution and not ter’s level can benefit from the support the individual student. offered under this scheme, however. Descendants of Estonians living abroad Hundreds of exchange student study in may apply for a student scholarship of Estonia with the support of an Erasmus the compatriots program. Compatriots’ or Erasmus Mundus student grant. In 27
  28. 28. the framework of these European Union the international office of the respective programmes, one can study abroad only institution of higher education. as an exchange student. The amount of the scholarship varies considerably, Study in Estonia portal: depending mainly on the length of study and the student’s home institution or Archimedes Foundation: country. There are currently 24 institu- tions of higher education in Estonia that European Commission educational participate in the Erasmus European programmes: Community action programme (see pp. 29–31). Every participating higher edu- index_en.html cation institution has its own Erasmus co-ordinator who provides academic Study loans - All the full-time degree information for prospective Erasmus students coming from EU countries are exchange students. able to apply for a study loan. The loan will be granted after the student has Almost all the universities offering been officially enrolled to the institution international degree programmes have of higher education. More details can scholarship schemes for outstanding be obtained from the banks offering the applicants and continuing students. loans. More information can be obtained at 28
  29. 29. 4. Higher education institutions* * Institutions participating in the Erasmus programme are marked with (EUC) Public universitites Estonian Academy of Arts (EUC) Eesti Kunstiakadeemia Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre (EUC) Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia Estonian University of Life Sciences (EUC) Eesti Maaülikool Tallinn University (EUC) Tallinna Ülikool Tallinn University of Technology (EUC) Tallinna Tehnikaülikool University of Tartu (EUC) Tartu Ülikool Private universities Estonian Business School (EUC) Euro University (EUC) Euroülikool Theological Institute of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church (EUC) /EELK Ususteaduste Instituut University Nord (EUC) Akadeemia Nord 29
  30. 30. State professional higher education institutions Estonian Joint Military Educational Institutions Kaitseväe Ühendatud Õppeasutused Estonian Maritime Academy (EUC) Eesti Mereakadeemia Lääne-Viru School of Applied Sciences (EUC) Lääne-Viru Rakenduskõrgkool Public Service Academy (EUC) Sisekaitseakadeemia Tallinn College of Engineering (EUC) Tallinna Tehnikakõrgkool Tallinn Health College (EUC) Tallinna Tervishoiu Kõrgkool Tallinn Pedagogical College (EUC) Tallinna Pedagoogiline Seminar Tallinn School of Economics (EUC) Tallinna Majanduskool Tartu Art College (EUC) Tartu Kõrgem Kunstikool Estonian Aviation Academy (EUC) Eesti Lennuakadeemia Tartu School of Health Care (EUC) Tartu Tervishoiu Kõrgkool Võru County Vocational Training Centre (EUC) Võrumaa Kutsehariduskeskus 30
  31. 31. Private professional institutions of higher education Estonian Information Technology College (EUC) Eesti Infotehnolooga Kolledž Mainor Business School (EUC) Mainori Kõrgkool Tallinn Commercial College (EUC) Tallinna Kommertskolledž Estonian-American Business Academy Eesti-Ameerika Äriakadeemia Baltic Methodist Theological Seminary Eesti Metodisti Kiriku Teoloogiline Seminar Tartu Academy of Theology Tartu Teoloogia Akadeemia Theological Seminary EEKBL Kõrgem Usuteaduslik Seminar Institute of Economics and Management Majanduse ja Juhtimise Instituut Computer Science College Arvutikolledž Higher School I Studium Kõrgkool I Studium Institute of the Humanities and Social Sciences Sotsiaal-Humanitaarinstituut 31
  32. 32. 5. Useful links Studying in Estonia Student life Study in Estonia portal: Federation of Estonian Student Unions: Estonian Ministry of Education and Erasmus Student Network: Research: AIESEC Estonia: Archimedes Foundation: Estonian ISIC web site: European Commission educational programmes: Living in Estonia en.html Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Estonian ENIC/NARIC Centre: Citizenship and Migration Board: Estonian Accreditation Centre: Estonian Tourist Board 32
  33. 33. 33
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 1. Higher education System Latvian education system is structured at four levels: pre-school, basic, (upper) secondary, and higher education. Basic education is compulsory and it lasts nine years, after which pupils can choose to continue their studies in either secon- dary schools or vocational education institutions. Study period varies according to the type of institution: three years in a secondary school or one to three years in a vo- cational education institution. After any of the types of secondary education is completed, students can choose either to enter the labour market or continue their studies at a higher education insti- tution. Graduates of general secondary, professional secondary, and 4-year vocational secondary programmes are eligible for admission into higher educa- tion institutions. The Law on Higher Educational Institutions 36
  37. 37. (1995) sets the framework for the higher Second level professional higher education education system in Latvia. The Law programmes lead to Level V professional defines two types of institutions: non- qualifications (the highest professional university (ISCED level 5) and university qualification that ensures planning and (ISCED level 6). Universities and other research skills in the respective branch). institutions of higher education mostly These programmes last at least four run both academic and professional years. programmes. 1.1 Qualifications Academic education programmes last The following qualifications can be three or four years for Bachelor's de- received in state-accredited study pro- gree, one or two years – for Master's grammes provided by higher education degree; scientific activities last three or institutions: four years for Doctoral degree. 1. Academic education leads to Bachelor's Professional higher education is divided and Master's academic degree and into first level (college programmes) and Doctoral scientific degree. second level professional higher educa- 2. Professional higher education leads tion. First level programmes lead to to level IV or level V professional qualifi- Level IV professional qualifications; they cation and professional Bachelor's and are called ‘college programmes’ and Master's degrees. are mainly established to prepare spe- Bachelor's degree gives access to Master cialists for the labour market. College studies and Master's degree or its programmes last two or three years. equivalent – to Doctoral programmes. 37
  38. 38. Higher education structure in Latvia First and second cycles Third cycles and futher courses Notional ages/length corresponding Length of studies to full-time studies 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0 1 2 3 4 5 Medicine, veterinary UNIVERSITĀTE rezidentūra ārsta diploms Pharmacy, dental studies farmaceita/zobārsta diploms UNIVERSITĀTE/ AKADĒMIAJA/ AUGSTSKOLA diploms profesionālais bakalaurs magistrs/magistrs Other programmes diploms bakalaurs profesionālais doktors maġistrs/maġistrs Other programmes profesionālais profesionālais bakalaurs maġistrs/maġistrs Nursing, KOLEDŽA/ other programmes AUGSTSKOLA žas diploms koled ISCED 5A (1st or 2nd programme) ISCED 5B (1st or 2nd programme) ISCED 6 programme Further qualification Selection procedure/limitation of places at institutional level Source: Eurydice, 2008 38
  39. 39. 2. Organization of studies Semester Examinations Examination sessions take place at the 2.1. Academic Calendar end of each semester (i.e. in January/ The academic year begins in September February and June-July). Students are and ends in the second half of June or usually given 3–5 days to prepare for in the first half of July. As a general each examination. rule, it comprises 40 weeks of lectures, seminars, and practical work, divided Students are individually tested in each into 2 semesters – autumn and spring. subject, and the total number of ex- In some universities students also have aminations in a semester usually ranges to undergo practical training in the form between four and six. Candidates who fail of an internship during the summer. in a course (semester) examination may be allowed to repeat it in the same ses- sion or later, depending on the institu- Autumn semester tion. In principle, an examination cannot mas be repeated more than twice. If the stu- • Lectures: September to Christ y • Examinations: January/Februar dent fails, he/she has to repeat the study • Vacation: Christmas course. Some institutions allow their students to continue the studies even if Spring semester they have failed in one or two subjects. of • Lectures: February to the end However, the student must pass the May examination before the beginning of the • Examinations: June/July next academic year. ation • Vacation: Easter, summer vac Final Examinations in July, August Final exams are usually arranged as joint examinations covering several subjects relevant to the main field of study. 39
  40. 40. 2.2. Admissions procedure gramme. The standards required to pass All higher education institutions require the entrance examinations are aligned a secondary education diploma. Starting with secondary education standards. from 2004, students are enrolled on the basis of the results of centralised exami- 2.3. Tuition fees nations which are passed at secondary The government sets the number of school leaving. However, higher educa- places in Latvian public sector insti- tion institutions may still organize one tutions which are financed from the or several additional entrance examina- state budget, according to the State tions or aptitude tests with an emphasis Procurement in the respective academic on subjects pertinent to the chosen pro- year. Each higher education institution 40
  41. 41. may set a tuition fee for the rest of students’ places. All students are entitled to a state credit for their studies in any higher edu- cation programme. Students themselves or other juridical or physical persons pay tuition fees if the place is not fi- nanced from the state budget. On average 75% of students pay for their studies. Two types of loans are available to students: one to cover tuition fees and another for living expenses. Until the end of 2006 working students could not claim scholarships; this restriction is now cancelled, and scholarships are assigned based only on examination grades. Foreigners or non-citizens pay for their education in accordance with the agreement concluded with the respective educational establishment. In cases when foreign citizens study in Latvia under an exchange programme 41
  42. 42. and an equivalent number of Latvian are examined by a single examiner or by students study abroad, the foreigners’ an examination board. If the student suc- studies in Latvia are financed from the cessfully passes all examinations in the budget resources of the Republic of examination session, he/she is allowed to continue the studies in the following Latvia allocated to the respective institu- semester. Final examinations are con- tion of higher education. The tuition fee for the citizens of European Union coun-ducted by an examination board chaired tries shall be determined and covered by an academic or a professional from according to the same procedure as for outside the institution. In some cases, the citizens and permanent residents of especially if the programme prepares the Republic of Latvia. the student for work in a regulated pro- fession, the final examinations may be 2.4. Assessment and grading system arranged as State examinations. Latvian Examinations can be written or oral. higher education system uses a ten-point In some fields e.g. medicine, practical grading scale, where 10 is the maximum examinations are important. Students grade and 4 the lowest passing grade. Grade Explanation Approx. ECTS grade 10 Izcili (Outstanding) A 9 Teicami (Excellent) A 8 Ļoti labi (Very good) B 7 Labi (Good) C 6 Gandrīz labi (Almost good) D 5 Viduvēji (Satisfactory) E 4 Gandrīz viduvēji (Almost satisfactory) E/FX 3-1 Negatīvs vērtējums (Unsatisfactory) Fail 42
  43. 43. 2.5. Recognition of ments (bilateral, exchange etc.). Several Foreign Degrees and Diplomas institutions offer grant competitions for Information on recognition procedures outstanding achievements in particular is provided by the Academic Information field of study. It is therefore advised to Centre. Address: Brīvības 33, 4th floor,contact respective institution and ask Riga, phone: +371 67225155; about possibilities to apply for scholar- ships/grants. More information about scholarships in 3. Scholarships/grants Latvia for the current academic year: Studies for visiting students in Latvia are regulated according to the agree- currently/2407.html 43
  44. 44. 4. Higher education institutions Daugavpils University www.dau.lvh Daugavpils Universitāte University of Latvia Latvijas Universitāte Riga Technical University Rīgas Tehniskā universitāte BA School of Business and Finance Banku Augstskola Latvian Maritime Academy Latvijas Jūras akadēmija Latvian Academy of Art Latvijas Mākslas akadēmija Latvia University of Agriculture Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte Riga Stradiņš University Rīgas Stradiņa universitāte Liepaja University Liepājas Universitāte Jāzeps Vītols Latvian Academy of Music Jāzepa Vītola Latvijas Mūzikas akadēmija Latvian Academy of Culture Latvijas Kultūras akadēmija Police Academy of Latvia Latvijas Policijas akadēmija 44
  45. 45. Latvian Academy of Sports Education Latvijas Sporta pedagoģijas akadēmija Stockholm School of Economics in Riga Rīgas Ekonomikas augstskola Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy Rīgas Pedagoģijas un izglītības vadības augstskola Vidzeme University College Vidzemes augstskola School of Business Administration “Turība” Biznesa augstskola “Turība” University College of Economics and Culture Ekonomikas un kultūras augstskola Latvian Christian Academy Latvijas Kristīgā akadēmija Riga International School of Economics and Business Administration Rīgas Starptautiskā ekonomikas un biznesa administrācijas augstskola Rezekne Higher Education Institution Rēzeknes Augstskola Riga Graduate School of Law Rīgas Juridiskā augstskola Ventspils University College Ventspils Augstskola Baltic International Academy Baltijas Starptautiskā akadēmija Information Systems Management Institute Informācijas sistēmu menedžmenta augstskola 45
  46. 46. Higher School of Psychology Psiholoģijas augstskola Higher School of Social Work and Social Pedagogics “Attīstība” Sociālā darba un sociālās pedagoģijas augstskola “Attīstība” Transport and Telecommunication Institute Transporta un sakaru institūts International Higher school of Practical Psychology Starptautiskā praktiskās psiholoģijas augstskola Latvia Bussiness college Latvijas Biznesa koledža Liepaja medical College Phone: +37163442118 Liepājas Medicīnas koledža e-mail: Riga Building College Rīgas Celtniecības koledža Riga Business College Rīgas Uzņēmējdarbības koledža SA “Social integration center” College RRC VA “Sociālās integrācijas centrs” koledža RRC Daugavpils Medical College Daugavpils Medicīnas koledža Latvia Culture college Latvijas Kultūras koledža P. Stradiņš Health and Social Care College P. Stradiņa Veselības un sociālās aprūpes koledža Riga Medical College Rīgas Medicīnas koledža 46
  47. 47. Red Cross Medical College Sarkanā Krusta medicīnas koledža Riga 1st Medical College Rīgas 1. medicīnas koledža 47
  48. 48. 5. Useful links Latvia on the Web Academic Programme Agency (imple- Welcome to Latvia ments EU education programmes) Student Union The Latvian Institute Each higher education institution has its own student union that organizes seminars, competitions, festivals, Riga in Your Pocket concerts, job markets, and parties. Almost every University has an active en/ student club. The Latvian Student Union Riga Municipality can be found at: Baznīcas iela 5–20, Rīga, LV-1050 phone: +371 67034673 Countryside Traveller e-mail:; Ministry of Education and Science State Education Development Agency (implements education programmes financed by EU Structural Funds; Euroguidance) 48
  49. 49. 49
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. 1. Higher Education System There are two types of higher education the second cycle, when studies of the institutions in Lithuania: universities and first and second cycles are combined in colleges. The Lithuanian higher education succession. institutions are either state or non-state. Non-state higher education institutions Upon the completion of undergraduate can pursue their activities according to a university studies, Bachelor diploma is licence issued by the Government of the awarded, testifying Bachelor’s degree Republic of Lithuania. Higher education or Bachelor’s degree and professional can only be acquired in higher education qualification. institutions. Upon the completion of integrated studies, Non-university studies are under- the Master’s qualification or Master’s graduate (professional Bachelor), qualification and professional qualifica- one-cycle, aimed at acquiring profes- tion, testified by Master’s diploma, is sional Bachelor’s degree and / or the acquired. Sometimes only professional professional qualification, testified by qualification is awarded testified by the the professional Bachelor diploma or higher education diploma. higher education diploma. University studies are organised in three cycles: Upon the completion of graduate first cycle – under-graduate (Bachelor), Master’s studies, Master’s diploma is second cycle – graduate (Master’s awarded, testifying Master’s qualification or specialised professional) and third or Master’s and professional qualifica- cycle – postgraduate (doctoral, residency tion. or postgraduate art). Integrated studies are aimed at acquiring qualification of Specialised professional second cycle 52
  53. 53. studies are aimed at acquiring profes- sional qualification in a specific field, tes- tified by the higher education diploma. Postgraduate art studies are the third cycle studies designed for the training of higher education institution art teachers and specialisation of artists. Residency is in the third cycle studies de- signed exclusively for training of specia- lists in the specific study fields (Medicine, Odontology and Veterinary Medicine) in order to follow their individually chosen careers. Lithuania uses its national credit system based on student workload with an average of 1,600 working hours per academic year. One credit corresponds to 40 hours of student work (in classes, laboratories, independent work etc.), or to one working week. There are three modes of studies: full- time daytime, part-time evening and part-time extramural. 53
  54. 54. 2. Organisation aminations (one or two weeks), summer holidays – after the spring semester (up of Studies to two months). In summertime some students undertake a practical course 2.1. Academic calendar during which they train working as pro- The academic year is divided into fessionals. two semesters: autumn (beginning in September) and spring (beginning in 2.2. Admission procedure February). Each semester usually covers Admission to all Lithuanian institutions 20 weeks. The last 4 weeks are allotted to of higher education is subject to com- examination sessions. petition. There is a fixed number of ap- plicants admitted to study programmes. Holidays: Christmas holidays from 25 In order to enter the first cycle university December till the beginning of January, studies, a Maturity Certificate (school Easter holidays from five to nine days, leaving certificate) or comparable quali- winter holidays – after the winter ex- fication is required. To be admitted to the 54
  55. 55. second cycle university programmes, language of instruction is other than individuals should hold a Bachelor’s Lithuanian, the applicant must pass a degree or equivalent qualification (usu- test to demonstrate his/her proficiency ally in the respective field). In order to in that language. The test is taken at the enter the third cycle university studies, institution offering the programme. As an applicant should have either Master’s a rule of thumb, admission to regular or a corresponding degree in the selected studies is carried out in July. However, study field. A foreign national seeking foreign citizens planning to study in access to studies in Lithuania has to be Lithuania are advised to start the proficient in the language of instruction. application procedure as early as pos- As a rule, the language of instruction sible due to the fact that document is Lithuanian, and the applicant has to recognition and subject equivalence pass the pass/fail test of the Lithuanian identification procedure may take up to language ( In cases of one month and sometimes longer. international programmes, when the 55
  56. 56. 2.3. Tuition fees 2.4. Forms of assessment The amount of tuition fees varies from LTL and grading system 3,500 (approx. EUR 1,010) to LTL 12,000 Every course in a subject should be (approx. EUR 3,500) per academic year assessed by one of three means: exami- for undergraduate studies and from LTL nation, graded credit test or credit test 8,500 (approx. EUR 2,500) to LTL 20,000 (pass/fail). (approx. EUR 5,800) per academic year Either of the three can be oral or in for graduate studies depending on the writing. An examination is evaluated by institution and the programme chosen. a mark. A graded credit test is similar Marking system Definition PASS 10 (excellent) Excellent performance, outstanding knowledge and skills 9 (very good) Strong performance, good knowledge and skills 8 (good) Above the average performance, knowledge and skills 7 (highly satisfactory) Average performance, knowledge and skills with inessential shortcomings 6 (satisfactory) Below average performance, knowledge and skills with substantial shortcomings 5 (sufficient) Knowledge and skills meet minimum criteria shortcomings FAIL* 4 (insufficient) 3 (highly insufficient) Knowledge and skills do not meet minimum criteria / below minimum criteria 2 (poor) 1 (very poor) *Failed exams (marks from 1 to 4) must be retaken. 56
  57. 57. to an examination, only less time is 3. Scholarships allowed for preparation, and the scope of the material covered is usually much and Grants narrower than in an examination. As for 3.1. Lithuanian national scholarships credit tests, they are either pass or fail, The Ministry of Education and Science and even less time is given for prepara- of the Republic of Lithuania offers the tion. following national scholarships under Only in exceptional cases students bilateral agreements in the field of may choose the means of assessment. culture, science, education and sports: Usually it is unequivocally determined • state scholarships for undergradu- by the curriculum. ate, graduate and postgraduate level Students at institutions of higher educa- students’ 5-10 months’ studies; tion are evaluated on a ten point scale, • state scholarships for researchers’, although actually on a seven point scale, teachers’ short term (1-5 months) because examinations with 1, 2, 3, 4 research or lecturing stays in state points received are considered failing higher education and research insti- and must be retaken. tutions of Lithuania; 2.5. Recognition • state scholarships for participation A foreign citizen must have his/her in language and culture summer education documents organised in schools. Lithuania. The evaluation and recogni- tion procedures of school-leaving certifi- The opportunity is given for advanced cates and higher education qualifications students, researchers and teachers of are provided by the Centre for Quality higher education institutions to enable Assessment in Higher Education (www. them to study or carry out research at a Lithuanian institution of higher education and science. Applications from students 57
  58. 58. and researchers from different fields of Method of application studies or research are welcome. Applicants for the scholarships must be nominated by the authorised All applicants have to be enrolled in co-ordinators in their home country higher education institution in their observing the deadlines, requirements home country (or employment in a higher and quota established in bilateral agree- education and research institution). ments and exchange programmes The scholarships are not intended for More information is available on the a full course of study. Normally, an website: academic degree or diploma cannot be obtained during the tenure of the scho- larship. 3.2. Lifelong learning Lithuanian (Baltic) Studies programme / Erasmus The Lithuanian (Baltic) studies organised In Lithuania, 48 universities and by higher education and research institu- colleges participate in the Erasmus tions of Lithuania attract foreign students programme which is the vast majority who learn Lithuanian or Baltic philology, of all Lithuanian institutions of higher Indo-European linguistics or Lithuanian education. Hundreds of foreign students literature. These studies may be attrac- come as Erasmus students to Lithuania tive for researchers and lecturers who every year. are interested in the scientific Lithuanian literature, history, culture, ethnography, For more information see also: folklore, political and economic processes in the Baltic region. 58
  59. 59. 3.3. Erasmus Mundus Mundus projects as coordinators and Erasmus Mundus is a cooperation and partners. mobility programme, intended to en- hance the quality of higher education in More information is available on the Europe and cooperation throughout the website: world by organising high-quality Masters Courses at the European universities. external-relation-programmes/ Lithuanian institutions actively par- doc72_en.htm ticipate in number of various Erasmus 59
  60. 60. 4. Higher education institutions* *All institutions of higher education listed below are participating in LLP/Erasmus programme. Universities The General J. Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania Generolo J. Žemaičio Lietuvos karo akademija ISM University of Management and Economics ISM Vadybos ir ekonomikos universitetas Kaunas University of Medicine Kauno medicinos universitetas Kaunas University of Technology Kauno technologijos universitetas Klaipeda University Klaipėdos universitetas LCC International University LCC tarptautinis universitetas Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education Lietuvos kūno kultūros akademija Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre Lietuvos muzikos ir teatro akademija Lithuanian Veterinary Academy Lietuvos veterinarijos akademija 60
  61. 61. Universities Lithuanian University of Agriculture Lietuvos žemės ūkio universitetas Mykolas Romeris University Mykolo Romerio universitetas Siauliai University Šiaulių universitetas Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts Vilniaus dailės akademija Vilnius University Vilniaus universitetas Vilnius Pedagogical University Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas International Business school at Vilnius University Vilniaus universiteto tarptautinio verslo mokykla Vytautas Magnus University Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas 61
  62. 62. Colleges Alytus College Alytaus kolegija College of Social Sciences Socialinių mokslų kolegija Kaunas College Kauno kolegija Kaunas College of Forestry and Environmental Enginnering Kauno miškų ir aplinkos inžinerijos kolegija Kaunas Technical College Kauno technikos kolegija Klaipeda College Klaipėdos kolegija Klaipeda Business and Technology College Klaipėdos verslo ir technologijų kolegija Klaipėda Business College Klaipėdos verslo kolegija Kolping College Kolpingo kolegija Lithuanian Maritime Academy Lietuvos aukštoji jūreivystės mokykla 62
  63. 63. Colleges Marijampole College Marijampolės kolegija Panevezys College Panevėžio kolegija Siauliai College Šiaulių kolegija College of Management, Law and Languages in Siauliai Region Šiaulių krašto vadybos, teisės ir kalbų kolegija Northern Lithuania College Šiaurės Lietuvos kolegija Zemaitijos College Žemaitijos kolegija Utena College Utenos kolegija West Lithuanian Business College Vakarų Lietuvos verslo kolegija Vilnius College Vilniaus kolegija Vilnius Co-operative College Vilniaus kooperacijos kolegija 63
  64. 64. Colleges Vilnius College of Construction and Design Vilniaus technologijų ir dizaino kolegija Vilnius Law and Business College Vilniaus teisės ir verslo kolegija Vilnius Management College Vilniaus vadybos aukštoji mokykla Vilnius Business College Vilniaus verslo kolegija V.A. Graičiūnas school of Management V.A. Graičiūno aukštoji vadybos mokykla 64
  65. 65. Scientific Institutes participating in LLP/Erasmus programme Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Matematikos ir informatikos institutas Semiconductor Physics Institute Puslaidininkių fizikos institutas 65
  66. 66. 5. Useful links Student life Lithuanian National Union of Students Studying in Lithuania Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania Lithuanian National Union of Students Representations Educational Exchanges Support Foundation ISIC Lithuania Lithuanian State Science and Studies Living in Lithuania Foundation Lithuanian Central Internet Gates Centre for Quality Assessment in Migration Department Higher Education Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Science Council of Lithuania Republic of Lithuania 66
  67. 67. 67
  68. 68. Sisukord Notes 68 66
  69. 69. Notes 69 67
  70. 70. Notes 70
  71. 71. Published and compiled by: Academic Programme Agency (Latvia) Archimedes Foundation (Estonia) Educational Exchanges Support Foundation (Lithuania) © 2009 Academic Programme Agency, Archimedes Foundation, Educational Exchanges Support Foundation Copies can be ordered from: Academic Programme Agency Blaumaņa iela 22 Rīga, LV-1011, Latvia Email: Estonian Centre for Educational Programmes Foundation Archimedes Koidula 13A, 10125 Tallinn, Estonia Email: Educational Exchanges Support Foundation Higher Education Programmes Unit Geležinio Vilko g. 12, LT-01112 Vilnius, Lithuania Email: ISBN 978-9985-9936-4-4
  72. 72. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.