Research Tool

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Research Tool

  1. 1. Designing the Research Tool(s)
  2. 2. Designing the Research Tool(s) <ul><li>Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Primary Research </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire Construction </li></ul>
  3. 3. Research Design <ul><li>Primary vs. Secondary Research </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability and Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative vs. Qualitative Data </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research Design <ul><li>Primary Research </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire survey </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Research </li></ul><ul><li>Unpublished </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic theses, reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Published </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books, magazines, journals, newspapers, internet websites </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Research Design <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Replicates research with same results </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure a significant sample size </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Test what you set out to test </li></ul><ul><li>Think through, design and construct carefully </li></ul>
  6. 6. Research Design <ul><li>Quantitative Data </li></ul><ul><li>Completely objective </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to tabulate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continuous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Data </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities or attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to measure quantitatively </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire survey </li></ul>Types of Primary Research
  8. 8. Questionnaire Survey <ul><li>An orderly list of questions to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>obtain facts, opinions, attitudes etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide answers to how and why people think or behave in a certain way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps researchers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recommend policies/procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suggest changes </li></ul></ul>Question 1 Question 2 Question 3
  9. 9. Questionnaire Survey <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates researcher’s prejudices </li></ul><ul><li>Time and cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>Reaches a large number of respondents </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents’ privacy maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to tabulate </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Returns may not be representative </li></ul><ul><li>Answers may not be as desired </li></ul><ul><li>May be invalid and unreliable </li></ul><ul><li>Time-consuming to design and refine </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Questions <ul><li>Open-ended question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In your opinion, how can Resident Committees meet the needs of people living in the neighbourhood? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dichotomous question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only people with degrees should be promoted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree ___ Disagree ___ No opinion ___ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple-choice question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tick the radio station you listen to most frequently : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class 95 FM ____ FM92.4 ____ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>93.8 FM ____ Gold 90FM ____ </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Questions <ul><li>Rating question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you rate the efficiency of this department? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent Good Average Fair Poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 3 4 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ranking question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rank the following subjects in order of preference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1 being the most preferable) : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied Statistics __________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Finance __________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Economics __________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial Accounting __________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management Sciences __________ </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Questionnaire Construction <ul><li>Be as clear as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to elicit as accurately and quickly as possible from the respondent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>obtain facts, opinions, attitudes etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide answers to how and why people think or behave in a certain way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps researchers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recommend policies/procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suggest changes </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Example Purpose: To evaluate the effect of training programme on staff morale Hypothesis: Workers are dissatisfied with the selection procedures.
  14. 14. Hypothesis : Workers are dissatisfied with the selection procedures. 1. How would you rate the present selection procedures used to identify staff for the new training programme? good 1 2 3 4 poor
  15. 15. Hypothesis : Workers are dissatisfied with the selection procedures. 2. If you gave a rating of either 3 or 4, please indicate your reasons (you may tick more than one option):  it is embarrassing to be nominated  it doesn't identify the people who really need the training  people who might want to attend the course are not able to  others; please elaborate ______________________
  16. 16. Structure of the Questionnaire <ul><li>Be personal and friendly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show appreciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce yourself and subject </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be logical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide clear instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place simple questions first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categorise questions (use headings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make transitions smooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use filter/classification questions </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Content of Questions <ul><li>Make questions easy to answer </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid sensitive or personal questions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid asking for difficult information </li></ul><ul><li>Provide realistic options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>offer choices that are mutually exclusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid multi-topic questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>include “don’t know”, “others”, no opinion” categories </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Phrasing of Questions <ul><li>Phrase questions unambiguously </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use question words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid words with vague meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Do you drink regularly? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Phrasing of Questions <ul><li>Use objective phrasing </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase questions concisely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Has it happened to you that over a long period of time, when you neither practiced abstinence nor birth control, you did not conceive? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Phrasing of Questions <ul><li>Use objective phrasing </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid leading questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Is Phua Chu Kang your favourite sitcom? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid loaded questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Do you practise good dental hygiene? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Basic Principles <ul><li>Be brief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the questionnaire short (10-15 min) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make each question count </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be professional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make questionnaire visually appealing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use good quality paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use correct grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan for easy tabulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid open-ended questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide range categories </li></ul></ul>

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