Life Sciences
Agenda <ul><li>Return of HW & feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Module B </li></ul><ul><li>The Scientific Method ...
NRW (Huckabee) Feedback
Some Pointers <ul><li>Whatever , … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whatever  the case may be , … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Missing arti...
Some Pointers <ul><li>Ensure a clear division between summary & response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In my opinion </li></ul></u...
Most Importantly <ul><li>What’s the purpose of the article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heading/title gives the clue </li></ul></...
Introduction to Module B
The Scientific Method
1. Give the meaning of the words  <ul><li>Collectively and over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a cohort across generations ...
2. Explain the rationale behind the “scientific method” in your own words. <ul><li>It is a means of making sure scientific...
3. What are four steps of scientific theory? <ul><li>Using our eyes or senses to make observations or deductions on what w...
4. What does the writer mean by the phrase “experimental science”? <ul><li>He means that this knowledge is derived from ha...
5. Why is it that “experiment is supreme”? <ul><li>The ability to test a hypothesis out by experiment is said to be “supre...
6. Is an error a bad thing? <ul><li>No, an error is not necessarily a bad thing as an error can also disprove a hypothesis...
7. What are the 3 common mistakes? <ul><li>The three commonest mistakes are </li></ul><ul><li>to accept a hypothesis witho...
8. What is the difference between a hypothesis, a model and a law? <ul><li>A hypothesis is an educated hunch or guess that...
Vocabulary
Vocabulary <ul><li>David Porter Unit 4   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In groups, complete the exercise that has been assigned to ...
Vocabulary Sheet 4 p.22 <ul><li>Phenomenon/phenomena </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An occurrence, circumstance, or fact that is pe...
Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Hypothesis/hypotheses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A tentative explanation for an observation, phenome...
Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of fa...
Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Theorem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An idea that has been demonstrated as true or is assumed to be so...
Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Superimpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To lay or place (something) on or over something else. </li><...
Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Eliminate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To get rid of; remove.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To leave out...
Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Exterminate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To get rid of by destroying completely. </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Embodies the principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To represent in bodily or material form the basic ...
Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>High proportion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A part considered in relation to the whole.  </li></ul></...
Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Induce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To infer by inductive reasoning.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Induc...
Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Deduce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To reach (a conclusion) by reasoning.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Grammar
The Passive Voice
Someone locks the office every morning. The office  is locked  every morning.  Someone has invited Sarah to the party. Sar...
We form  passive  verbs with the different tenses of  be  (e.g. is, was, is being, have been) + past participle.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

30 Jan

580 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
580
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
22
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

30 Jan

  1. 1. Life Sciences
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Return of HW & feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Module B </li></ul><ul><li>The Scientific Method Comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timed practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Porter Unit 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Passive Voice </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. NRW (Huckabee) Feedback
  4. 4. Some Pointers <ul><li>Whatever , … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whatever the case may be , … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Missing articles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. the , a , an </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explain fully (don’t let readers connect points for themselves) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. The teaching pace is no longer adjusted to suit the needs of the average but becomes more flexible </li></ul></ul>to suit the needs of the individual.
  5. 5. Some Pointers <ul><li>Ensure a clear division between summary & response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In my opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After reading the article </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t write your opinion as facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In my opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I feel that / I believe / I think </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use hedging words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. “ may ”, “ if ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s more </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is more </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Most Importantly <ul><li>What’s the purpose of the article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heading/title gives the clue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples are examples. They are not points. Look for salient points. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction to Module B
  8. 8. The Scientific Method
  9. 9. 1. Give the meaning of the words <ul><li>Collectively and over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a cohort across generations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-arbitrary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not randomly but purposefully, educated guess </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group of phenomena </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A collection of happenings/observations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contradict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose, challenge, go against </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intricately associated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closely involved with </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 2. Explain the rationale behind the “scientific method” in your own words. <ul><li>It is a means of making sure scientific hypotheses and discoveries are made in a systematic and standardised manner which are free from idiosyncratic or arbitrary judgments of individual scientists. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 3. What are four steps of scientific theory? <ul><li>Using our eyes or senses to make observations or deductions on what we see before us in nature, </li></ul><ul><li>Formulating or thinking of a hypothesis or a scientific hunch based on observable data, </li></ul><ul><li>Confirming that the hunch is correct by applying it to predictions of other occurrences or by research such as experimentation; and </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing if the experiments may be replicated in other applications. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 4. What does the writer mean by the phrase “experimental science”? <ul><li>He means that this knowledge is derived from having conducted various means, i.e. experiments and other controlled situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry, biology, medicine, biochemistry, engineering </li></ul>
  13. 13. 5. Why is it that “experiment is supreme”? <ul><li>The ability to test a hypothesis out by experiment is said to be “supreme” or of paramount importance because if it cannot be tested thus, the hypothesis, in general, cannot be confirmed as being true. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 6. Is an error a bad thing? <ul><li>No, an error is not necessarily a bad thing as an error can also disprove a hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>However, if an error is due to a design flaw in logic or by excluding data erroneously then it would be a bad thing as that might pose a set- back to a discovery being made. </li></ul><ul><li>Errors nevertheless have to be minimised and there are standard operating procedures for doing so. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 7. What are the 3 common mistakes? <ul><li>The three commonest mistakes are </li></ul><ul><li>to accept a hypothesis without proof, </li></ul><ul><li>to be biased in data selection in order to prove or disprove a hypothesis; and </li></ul><ul><li>to exclude or dismiss as a design or experimental quirk any hitherto unexpected finding rather than investigating it properly. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 8. What is the difference between a hypothesis, a model and a law? <ul><li>A hypothesis is an educated hunch or guess that there are definite reasons or explanation for a certain observable fact. </li></ul><ul><li>A model is used when a hypothesis can be used to explain some other events but not all events related to the topic being investigated. </li></ul><ul><li>However, a law is used when a hypothesis or a group of hypotheses are pretty well proven and stable and can be tested repeatedly and reliably. </li></ul><ul><li>In short, the three terms appear to be in some sort of continuum of what makes scientific truth. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Vocabulary
  18. 18. Vocabulary <ul><li>David Porter Unit 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In groups, complete the exercise that has been assigned to you. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Sheet 4 p.22 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work out the meanings of the words in the list. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Vocabulary Sheet 4 p.22 <ul><li>Phenomenon/phenomena </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An occurrence, circumstance, or fact that is perceptible by the senses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physics An observable event. </li></ul></ul>Source: thefreedictionary.com
  20. 20. Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Hypothesis/hypotheses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Something taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation; an assumption. </li></ul></ul>Source: thefreedictionary.com
  21. 21. Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An assumption based on limited information or knowledge. </li></ul></ul>Source: thefreedictionary.com
  22. 22. Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Theorem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An idea that has been demonstrated as true or is assumed to be so demonstrable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics A proposition that has been or is to be proved on the basis of explicit assumptions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pythagoras' theorem </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: thefreedictionary.com
  23. 23. Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Superimpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To lay or place (something) on or over something else. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To add as a distinct feature, element, or quality. </li></ul></ul>Source: thefreedictionary.com
  24. 24. Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Eliminate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To get rid of; remove. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To leave out or omit from consideration; reject. </li></ul></ul>Source: thefreedictionary.com
  25. 25. Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Exterminate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To get rid of by destroying completely. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eradicate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To get rid of as if by tearing up by the roots. </li></ul></ul>Source: thefreedictionary.com
  26. 26. Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Embodies the principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To represent in bodily or material form the basic truth. </li></ul></ul>Source: thefreedictionary.com
  27. 27. Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>High proportion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A part considered in relation to the whole. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High ratio. </li></ul></ul>Source: thefreedictionary.com
  28. 28. Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Induce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To infer by inductive reasoning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning - reasoning from detailed facts to general principles. </li></ul></ul>Source: thefreedictionary.com
  29. 29. Vocabulary Sheet 4 <ul><li>Deduce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To reach (a conclusion) by reasoning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To infer from a general principle; reason deductively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning - reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect). </li></ul></ul>Source: thefreedictionary.com
  30. 30. Grammar
  31. 31. The Passive Voice
  32. 32. Someone locks the office every morning. The office is locked every morning. Someone has invited Sarah to the party. Sarah has been invited to the party. We use the passive when we are not interested in who or what does something The factory was painted during the war. Sarah has been invited to the party. I made a mistake. A mistake was made . We also use the passive when we do not want to say who or what does something Compare
  33. 33. We form passive verbs with the different tenses of be (e.g. is, was, is being, have been) + past participle.

×