Renaissance italy


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Renaissance italy

  1. 1. Renaissance Italy<br />By: Rose Statzell, Brigid Magdamo, Nick Pecharo, and Sofia Montgomery<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Renaissance means rebirth. <br />Time period: around 13th to 15th century<br />At this time, many people were interested in the ancient Greek and Roman ideas and customs.<br />This was also a time of scientific advantages and many voyages of discovery. <br />
  3. 3. Social Life<br />People’s lives in the Renaissance era of Italy were full of dangers and insecurities. To cope with this they relied on relationships with other human beings.<br />i.e. They would involve themselves in a musical or art group.<br />Common jobs back then were an artist or merchant. <br />Social class was shown by the colors you wore. <br />The colors also had other meanings: Green=love, gray=sorrow, yellow=hostility, Blue= loyalty (except in low-class countries where it represented the opposite, adultery), red=nobility, wealth, black= poor/lower class<br />
  4. 4. Social Life (continued)<br />Plays at the theatrewerea common form of entertainment. <br />Italians sought to incorporate as much literature, arts, music and religion into their everyday lives as possible.<br />Religion and art were very popular and the two combined created a very religiously inspired era of art. <br />i.e paintings of Mary and Jesus in church windows, in several art paintings such as the famous artwork on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. <br />
  5. 5. Arts<br />Artists of the time treated paintings as “windows into space”. <br />Ideas started to go towards realism in the art world.<br />They had a linear perspective and studied light, shadow, and human anatomy. <br />Tried to depict the beauty of nature and tried to unravel the “axioms of aesthetics.”<br />Used paint and a canvas. <br />
  6. 6. Arts (continued)<br />Famous artists/painters <br />Masaccio-<br />The Holy Trinity with the Virgin, St John and Two Donors<br />Donatello<br />David<br />Brunelleschi<br />The Sacrifice of Issac<br />Leonardo da Vinci-<br />Mona Lisa<br />Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />-Sistine Chapel<br />Titian<br />Venus of Urbino<br />Tintoretto<br />Susanna At Her Bath<br />Bellini<br />Greek Madonna<br />Botticelli<br />Birth of Venus<br />Caravaggio <br />Amor VincitOmnia<br />Ghiberti <br />Abel<br />Giotto <br />Raising of Lazarus<br />Raphael <br />La Muta<br />~If you would like to see paintings/sculptures done by these artists, check out their famous works of art [listedundertheir name.]~<br />
  7. 7. Arts (continued)<br />The most famous work of art from the Renaissance era is probably the Mona Lisa or the Last Supper.<br />Famous example of a sculpture is David by Donatello.<br />Art was closely related to religion and science.<br />Sculptures and architecture was also recognized as well as paintings. <br />Many of the artists were also scientists. <br />Sculptures: classicized positions, such as contrapposto pose (weight shifted to one leg)<br />Sculptures were usually nude. <br />Three dimensional impressionism came into popularity.<br />
  8. 8. Arts [Architecture]<br />Contained of Ancient Greek and Roman architecture.<br />Gothic & baroque was also commonly used.<br />Italians emphasized on: symmetry, proportion, geometry, and regularity of parts. <br />Buildings were complex because of their many parts: columns, pilasters, lintels, semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches, aedicules, and entablatures. <br />Fillipo Brunelleschi spread the Renaissance style.<br />Italian architecture commonly incorporated these styles:<br />Tuscan<br />Doric<br />Ionic<br />Corinthian <br />Composite <br />
  9. 9. Poetry<br />Most poets would write in their native language as opposed to Latin, which was considered scholarly.<br />Writers of the time were influenced by the ideas of humanism and the revival of interest in the classical world (Ancient Greek and Roman.)<br />Classical forms of writing included:<br />The epic<br />The pastoral<br />The satire<br />In the late 13th century, the poet Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) published 31 love poems called ‘Vita nuova’.<br />It was written in Italian and it influenced many other writers to start writing in Italian also, so it was starting to become commonly used in literary work. <br />
  10. 10. Poetry (continued)<br />Boccaccio (1313-1375) verses were influential and popular. <br />‘Il Filostrato’ told an ancient story of Troilus & Cressida (lovers during the Trojan war) which was an inspiration for Shakespeare’s play “Troilus & Cressida”<br />Petrarch (1304-1374) was devoted to classical learning & language. <br />He had written a collection of love lyrics and sonnets in Italian (called the Canzoniere.) It was about a married lady who he had admired from afar for sixteen years. <br />Poetry in Italy had gained influences from other European countries like France and especially, England.<br />Other influential poets of the time:<br />Sir Philip Sidney<br />Edmund Spencer<br />
  11. 11. Poetry (The Sonnet)<br />It was created by court poets in Sicily in the 15th century.<br />It always had 14 lines:<br />The opening 8 lines known as “octane” which posed a problem or question or described difficulty which needed a resolution.<br />The last 6 lines called the “sestet” contained a twist or a new point of view that answered the question or resolved the problem. <br />The sonnet is perfectly suited to the elegant expression of feelings, especially romantic feelings. <br />English poets invented their own particular form of the sonnet (consisted of three quatrains-four lines a verse, followed by a rhyming couplet.)<br />English poets also loved to write sonnet sequences which told a story. <br />i.e. Sir Philip Sidney’s sonnet sequence (Astrophel & Stella) which told the story of his idealized love for Lady Penelope.<br />
  12. 12. Poetry (the Sonnet continued)<br />Shakespeare’s sonnets were different compared to others of the time.<br />Instead of telling a story, they touched on all different topics like the changeability of the human heart, the short life of beauty, and the power of poetry. <br />Other poets to check out:<br />Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533) who wrote Orlando Furioso.<br />Francois Villon (1431-1463) who had lyric poems with intense emotional energy and tough realism. <br />
  13. 13. Music<br />Secular music is non-religious music and it was becoming more popular during this time.  There was a rise in instrumental music and dance music, too. <br />Since the printing press was created, music could be printed quickly. <br />At this time, people sang without instruments.<br />Vocal music was more important than instrumental music. <br />Madrigals were popular during the Renaissance.  These song forms were performed in groups of four, five, or six singers.<br />  A madrigal is secular music. <br />This is non-religious music. <br />Madrigalswere usually love song<br />
  14. 14. Music (continued)<br />As previously mentioned, Italy had many European influences through arts and social customs. <br />i.e. German chorales were performed in Protestant churches.<br />Listen to Hey Ho, Greenwood a madrigal by the English composer William Byrd.<br />  This is a polyphonicwork, which means it has many musical lines of equal importance. <br />This piece is sung with lots of imitation, which means the voices take turns singing the same melody.    <br />
  15. 15. Music (continued)<br />Religious music was still very important. <br />Choral music of the Renaissance was an extension of the Gregoriuan chant. <br />It was sunga capellaand sung in Latin.<br /> Motets were popular during this time. <br />A motet is a polyphonicwork with four or five voice parts singing one religious text. <br />
  16. 16. Religion<br />Martin Luther was the Father of the Protestant Reformation.<br />A German priest who altered the course of European history all himself. <br />Joined a monastery because of his promise to St. Anne.<br />The promise was if he had been saved by lightening then he would become a monk.<br />Luther was troubled by the church’s beliefs and he believed that salvation did not come from good acts but from the mercy of God.<br />
  17. 17. Religion (continued)<br />Luther found his answer in 1515.<br />He was a professor of theology who oversaw 11 monasteries. <br />Answer came through Romans 1:17 “Righteous God punishes sinners.”<br />Luther began to hate God even though he knew he should love Him.<br />Realized that salvation only comes through faith.<br />Truth is in the Bible, not in mass or sacrifices made by priest.<br />Challenged church with his thoughts.<br />
  18. 18. Religion (continued)<br />Roman Catholic Church <br />Reformation in mid sixteenth century to early seventeenth century.<br />Initiated by Council of Trent<br />Conference church of officials<br />Council in 27 sessions in 1545-1563<br />
  19. 19. Government<br />Monarchy rule by single power, king or queen.<br />Monarchs didn’t have absolute power.<br />They worked with representatives to help with laws and taxes.<br />Oligarchy rule by a set number of men.<br />Led by merchants in city who would represent interests of people.<br />Cities called republics.<br />Laws with rights to all citizens and limited power for members of government.<br />Despotism  relationship between master and slave.<br />Aristotle said unlawful power used to advance interest of a few people .<br />Some say despotism is between monarchy and tyranny.<br />
  20. 20. Government (continued)<br />Absolutism form of government with central authority with unlimited control or heads of state answer to God, govern without agreement between the people.<br />Jean Bodin, a French writer, favored monarchy. <br />He felt that stability of state need rule by single leader and through rulers, they could make rights but needed to respect rights given to groups and people.<br />They had the right to use power to govern all the people and didn’t need to use restriction for emergency.<br />He also didn’t believe people should resist the government.<br />
  21. 21. Government (continued)<br />The 1600’s were considered “the divine right of kings.”<br />Supports claim that rulers should get power from God instead of power from the people.<br />1500-1700 was the age of absolutism.<br />States increased power.<br />It hurt representatives, officials and church.<br />State power grew, bureaucracies enlarged and armies were constructed. <br />Monarchs exercised authority in legislation and finances.<br />
  22. 22. Philosophy<br />At this era, there was a revival of classical civilization and learning.<br />Beliefs and teachings credited to Aristotle and Plato.<br />Enthusiasm for occult and hermeticism and humanism. <br />Philosophers saw “man” as a rational and sentient being, with the ability to decide and think for himself.<br />This was the main principle.<br />Religion also had an influence in philosophy. <br /> Renaissance philosophers:<br />Pico dellaMirandola<br />Francesco guicciardini<br />Giordano bruno<br />Marsilioficino<br />Michel de montaigne<br />Niccolomichiavelli<br />
  23. 23. Science<br />Considered natural philosophy. <br />Most practitioners learned from Greek writings from Aristotle.<br />Much knowledge was theoretical & logical rather than practical. <br />Their goal was to understand nature and explain it rather than do experiments and make new discoveries.<br />Aristotle’s beliefs consisted of the sun & other planets/objects orbiting the Earth (which was later disproven by Copernicus.)<br />Inventions: 16th century-the printing press was created. <br />Books were published quickly and cheaply and ideas could spread rapidly.<br />Many books were published about practical trades (metallurgy, mining, pottery, and dyeing.)<br />Galileo Galilee (1564-1642) conducted many experiments related to motion and acceleration of falling bodies.<br />He laid groundwork for future work in physics by Sir Issac Newton (1642-1727.)<br />
  24. 24. Science (continued)<br />A myth that had been believed for centuries was alchemy.<br />Alchemy is the false idea that base metals can turn into gold.<br />The substance that could achieve this was believed to be the “elixir of life” that would cure illnesses and make people immortal.<br />Swiss alchemist & physician Paracelsus (1493-1541) experimented with chemicals such as:<br />Mercury<br />Sulfur<br />Iron<br />Early medicines were made from plants. <br />Robert Boyle (1627-1691) helped establish a modern science of chemistry in the 17th century.<br />Galileo observed spots on the sun and craters and mountains on the moon with the new telescope that he had created. <br />
  25. 25. Science (continued)<br />In 1543, anatomist Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) published De HumaniCorporisfabrica [On the Structure of the Human Body]<br />Based on his own dissections, he pointed out many anatomical errors made by Galen which had been undetected for over 1000 years. <br />Many authorities like Aristotle & Galen said that disease was caused by the imbalance in the four “humors.”<br />Paracelsus rejected the theory and urged physicians to observe the natural world and experiment themselves. <br />He also promoted the use of chemical medicines.<br />The Aristotelian world view was under attack and a revival of Plato’s works of the mysterious writings of “Hermes Trismegistos” were supposedly based on revelations made by the Egyptian god Thorth.<br />These works promoted the idea that there were correspondences between the physical world and hidden, natural forces. <br />This stimulated interest in “natural magic” which was considered a type of science that required the understanding and manipulation of hidden forces such as gravity. <br />
  26. 26. Science (continued)<br />As the 16th century was ending, people began to believe that they could not only discover the secrets of nature, but also could bend nature to their will. <br />Natural philosophers increasingly tried to understand nature so they could master & control it for the betterment of mankind. <br />
  27. 27. FIN<br />