The International Scene Since 1945


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The International Scene Since 1945

  1. 1. The International Scene Since 1945
  2. 2. • Artists since 1945 have used their art to comment on the state of the world, and the spread of mass media after WWII (TV invented in early 50’s) • Addressed a variety of problems: racism, the environment, weapons of mass destruction, social and political issues) – a very tense atmosphere • Great experimentation • Short-lived movements of intense activity • Artists express themselves in new ways via technology • Artists work in a variety of media • Computers have impact on architecture – easier and faster to draw plans, computer checks for structural errors too! • Other new technologies: plastics, video projections, computer graphics, sound installations, fiberglass, lasers, etc. • Women play a larger role than ever before (as artists, patrons, gallery owners, and customers)
  3. 3. • Existentialism reflected in artwork – there is no God, no supreme being, humans are “condemned to be free” – the self is a process in constant evolution as each of us establishes an identity and responds to our world • Humans are responsible for the world they have created, and are free to decide how to act in it • Most valuable art = shows honest individual thoughts about life and existence • Assault on traditional art continues • Artists investigate the nature of art – created works as experiments to test the boundaries of art • Paris is no longer the art capital of the world, position taken by New York (because Europeans moved in, it had an active art community, and it was afraid of experimentation)
  4. 4. What’s happening with PAINTING: • Artists still paint with oils, but ACRYLIC paint is introduced and became popular • ACRYLICS dry fast and can be thinned with water (easy cleanup!) – but they crack over time (so many artists still prefer oils) • Traditional painting techniques still popular, but artists often use computers to make the process easier
  5. 5. What’s happening with SCULPTURE: • Goodbye marble – takes too long to carve, too easy to mess up, no market for it….old fashioned • Hello fast and easy sculpture methods! – porcelain, fabric, beeswax – anything that can be molded, shaped, modified to make an impact • Sculptures made of multiple objects = ASSEMBLAGES • Big ASSEMBLAGES are called INSTALLATIONS an can even take up a whole room in a museum or gallery
  6. 6. FIGURAL ART • Figuration keeps art close to the human condition – connect to humanity – expresses kinship with the wounded, displaced, and dead
  7. 7. CITY SQUARE, by: Alberto Giacometti, 1948, bronze •Opposite of the classical ideal- thin, fragile, lumpy, rough, crude •Bravely occupy their limited space, frail nobility, they exist in the space (existentialism)
  8. 8. •Inspired by Expressionists •Depicts a figure howling in a black void, anguished, insubstantial •Similar mood to “The Scream” by Munch •Figure (a Pope) in a claustrophobic box, frightful cries, terror Head Surrounded by Sides of Beef Francis Bacon, 1954, oil on canvas
  9. 9. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM • Sometimes called “The New York School” • First American avant-garde movement • A reaction against artists like Mondrian and Malevich, who took the minimalist approach to abstraction • Abstract Expressionists want more active representation of the artist’s process (aka: Action Painting)
  10. 10. Number 1, 1950 Jackson Pollock, 1950 oil, enamel, and aluminum paint on canvas
  11. 11. • ACTION PAINTING: the artist places canvas on the floor and drips and splatters paint on the surface •Huge painting – engulfs viewer (about 9’x17’) •Made with spontaneity and improvisation •Limited color palette •No hierarchical arrangement – every area of the canvas is equally energized
  12. 12. •We can re-trace Pollock’s steps around the canvas (even his footprints are on the edges) – he worked from all four sides •Used conventional oil paint with house paint – dripped them with sticks and brushes, fluid arm and wrist motions •Listened to jazz music as he worked, also inspired by Navajo sand painting (shaman pours colored sand on floor in symbolic patterns) •One of the most important breakthroughs in modern art
  13. 13. Number 8 Jackson Pollock
  14. 14. The Seasons Lee Krasoner, 1957, oil on canvas
  15. 15. •Lee Krasner = Jackson Pollock’s wife, temporarily stopped painting to “play wife” •Pollock died in a car crash (don’t drink and drive!), and she took over his studio and did more work, emerged from Jackson’s shadow •Bold, sweeping curves that express her new sense of liberation (it wasn’t a great marriage) and her identification with the forces of nature – bursting rounded forms and springlike colors
  16. 16. Woman II Willem de Kooning, 1952 oil on canvas •Slashing of paint onto canvas •Jagged lines create an overpowering image •Ferocious woman with fierce teeth and huge eyes •Large breasts – satire on women who appear in magazine advertisements (response to mass media) •Smile inspired by a woman in a Camel cigarettes advertisement (response to mass media) •“Art never seems to make me peaceful or pure” – de Kooning
  17. 17. ASHEVILLE William de Kooning, 1948, oil and enamel on canvas •Painted in an agitated way •Urgent improvisation (though done on an easel) •Dominant rhythm in dark, jagged, dripping brushstrokes •Natural arm movements with brush
  18. 18. COLOR FIELD PAINTINGS •We won’t see the “aggression” of Abstract Expressionism •Subtle tonal values, often variations of the same hue •Popular in the 1960’s
  19. 19. Four Darks in Red Mark Rothko, 1958, oil on canvas •Blocks of color •Rich color stretches across picture plane •Radically simple composition •Tension in the harmony of the color relationships = tension in harmonious relationships in life and in one’s self
  20. 20. No. 61, Brown, Blue, Brown on Blue Mark Rothko, 1953, oil on canvas •Luminous colors seem to emerge and recede •Hazy edges •Paintings have no titles, just the names of the colors used •Usually have 2-4 soft-edged rectangular blocks hovering against a monochrome ground •Rich color = emotional and instinctual •Simple composition = rational, disciplined •Believed people were “tragically divided” – his paintings are a collection of separate parts
  21. 21. No. 61, Brown, Blue, Brown on Blue Mark Rothko, 1953, oil on canvas •Three blocks approximate the human division of head, torso, and legs •Paintings are usually just a little taller than an adult, so they are a sort of mirror image of the divided self •Dark tones = implications of division
  22. 22. Vir Heroicus Sublimis Barnett Newman, 1950-1951, oil on canvas •Newman specialized in monochrome canvases with one or more vertical lines (“zips”) dividing the surface – engulf the viewer with color •Modern experience of the sublime (basic to most of the world’s religions)
  23. 23. NEW YORK SCHOOL SCULPTURE •Use abstract means to transmit meaning and emotional states
  24. 24. Hudson River Landscape David Smith, 1951, welded steel
  25. 25. •Defied traditional vertical sculpture, welded in horizontal format •Open form, resembles a drawing in space, fluent metal calligraphy, like Pollock’s poured lines •Inspired by views from a train window of rolling landscape of upstate NY •Meant to be seen from the front, like a painting
  26. 26. Assemblage: •Artists gather seemingly random objects and put them together •Not meant to make a predetermined statement •Want to see what kind of meaning might emerge
  27. 27. Sky Cathedral Louise Nevelson, 1958, wood (ASSEMBLAGE) •Huge wooden construction made of random wooden parts •Furniture, dowels, moldings, etc. – all painted black, unifies composition and obscures identity of individual elements •Shallow boxes with wooden components •Complex interplay of recession and projection
  28. 28. Sky Cathedral Louise Nevelson, 1958, wood (ASSEMBLAGE) •Analytic Cubist influence in the arrangement of forms (similar to Picasso collage) •Displayed it in soft blue light (like moonlight) because she believed she could transform an ordinary space into another, higher realm (just like she changed the pieces of wood)
  29. 29. Canyon Robert Rauschenberg, 1959, combine painting •COMBINES: combine painting and sculpture •Family photos, public imagery (Statue of Liberty), fragments of political posters, objects from the trash (flattened steel drum), purchased objects (stuffed eagle) •Various patches of paint •Disorderly – makes the viewer try to make sense of it •Wants each viewer to interpret it differently
  30. 30. Target with Four Faces Jasper Johns, 1955, assemblage •Controlled, emotionally cool, highly cerebral •Inspired by Marcel Duchamp •Conceptually puzzling, •Representation vs. abstraction •Target is representational, and representational art usually creates the illusion of 3-D space…..but this target is flat….. •Target hovers between two kind of painting struggling for dominance in American art
  31. 31. Post-WWII Photography •Photojournalism grew more popular – commercial assignments help earn a living and express concerns •Magazines like Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar provide work for photographers, influenced the development of color photography •Documentary photography – rejected aesthetic standards, depicted raw, unsentimental subject matter •Combines social commentary with formal interest in composition
  32. 32. Trolley, New Orleans Robert Frank, 1955, photograph
  33. 33. •Documentary-style photo about racial segregation – white passengers sit in front of trolley, African-Americans in back (this is before civil rights movement forced changes in the South) •Rectangular frames of trolley window isolate individuals – urban alienation •Top row of windows have ghostly reflections – almost like photos themselves
  34. 34. POP ART •POPular in 1950’s and 1960’s •Draws on materials from every world – items of mass popular culture like consumer goods and celebrities •Also used mass-production techniques to make art •No distinction between “high” art and the design of mass- produced objects •Glorifies and magnifies common things, brings the viewer face to face with everyday reality •A reaction against Abstract Expressionism, not meant to be satirical • A response to the growing presence of mass media in the prosperous postwar culture •Slick look due to exclusive use of mass-produced imagery/techniques •ironic, cynical, detached attitude
  35. 35. Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? Richard Hamilton 1956, collage
  36. 36. •Consumer productions put together in a collage: Armor ham, Ford insignia, Tootsie Pop, etc. •Mass-marketed items arranged in a somewhat Surrealist way – woman with headlights for breasts wears a lampshade, and a romance comic book is a framed painting
  37. 37. •Abstract expressionist painting is a rug •Photo of moon is ceiling art •Contemporary details (room, furniture) •Consumer society is obsessed with the human body and advertising. •Hamilton called the man and woman in this “Adam and Eve” – in their domestic setting
  38. 38. •“The Jazz Singer” is showing at the theater outside the window (first sound movie, 1927) •Images of modern comfort, progress, and success
  39. 39. Marilyn Monroe Andy Warhol, 1964, silkscreen and oil on canvas •Marilyn’s highly- recognizable face is highlighted in bold, artificial colors •Her private personality is hidden behind her public image •Social characteristics magnified brilliant blonde hair, heavy lipstick, seductive expression
  40. 40. Marilyn Diptych, Andy Warhol, 1962 oil, acrylic, and silkscreen on enamel on canvas, 2 panels
  41. 41. •Warhol used an “assembly line” technique of silkscreening photographic images onto canvas – quicker than painting by hand = more $ gained…. Also, he could produce more versions of the same subject (mass-production of art) •Established his own art workshop in 1965 called “The Factory” •He was obsessed with celebrity •Prompted to use Marilyn’s image after her suicide in 1962 •This piece looks almost like a film strip, sequential (some black and white, some color, just like her movies •Shows Monroe as a star, not as a person (he wasn’t interested in her real self) •Made this a diptych – a format he remembered from his childhood church – symbolically treating the actress as a saint
  42. 42. WARHOL
  43. 43. Warhol said of Campbell’s Soup, “I used to drink it. I used to have the same lunch every day, for 20 years, I guess, the same thing over and over again. Someone said my life has dominated me; I liked that idea.”
  44. 44. Hopeless Roy Lichtenstein, 1963, oil on canvas •First American artist to make art from the LOOK as well as the SUBJECT of popular culture •Used images from advertisements and cartoons •Used thick black outlines and BENDAY DOTS to add tone in printing (just like in comics)
  45. 45. Hopeless Roy Lichtenstein, 1963, oil on canvas •Heavy black outlines frame unmodulated flat color •Hard, precise painting •His work usually captures a moment of transition or crisis •Used images for reference, but made formal adjustments that tightened, clarified, and strengthened the final image •We know that comic book emotions aren’t real, but he presents them vividly and reverently (What IS real in our media- saturated culture?)
  46. 46. Oh Jeff…I Love You, Too…But… Roy Lichtenstein, 1964, oil on canvas
  47. 47. Lipstick (Ascending) On Caterpillar Tracks Claes Oldenburg 1969 steel, aluminum, fiberglass It’s at Yale Art Gallery!
  48. 48. •Oldenburg had a critical and humorous attitude about pop culture •Did this as a response to Yale School of Architecture students’ request for a monument to the “Second American Revolution” of the late 60’s – marked by student demonstrations against the Vietnam War •Mounted a giant lipstick tube on tracks from a Caterpillar tractor – suggests a missile grounded in a tank •Missile is in the form of a feminine cosmetic , with erotic overtones •Make love, not war
  49. 49. OP ART •Short for “optical” •Strictly abstract, relies on optical illusions •Fine lines used in receding/emerging patterns create a 3-D effect over canvas •Mind-boggling illusions created by varying length and waviness of lines •Popular in the 60’s
  50. 50. Fall Bridget Riley, 1963, synthetic polymer on board
  51. 51. •Plays with viewer’s depth perception •Narrow lines describe wave patterns, natural rhythm •Impossible to keep our eyes perfectly still when looking at this •Visual immersion – suited to a fast- paced society
  52. 52. Movement in Squares Bridget Riley 1961 tempera on board
  53. 53. Pause Bridget Riley 1964
  54. 54. MINIMALISM •A form of abstract art that denies representation of any kind (the objects, the titles, nothing!) •Completely abstract aesthetic, lacking narrative, gestures, and impulses, metaphor personal feelings, etc. •Wanted to purge their art of everything that was not essential to art •Emphasized simple geometric forms, plain surfaces •Industrial techniques and materials often used •Popular in 60’s and 70’s
  55. 55. Untitled Donald Judd 1974, stainless steel and plexiglass •Geometric boxlike shapes aligned in a row on a wall •Highly polished surfaces •Personality of the artist completely suppressed •Spaces between boxes create dynamic interplay of solids, voids, and shadows
  56. 56. Avicenna Frank Stella, 1960 aluminum paint on canvas •Paint normally applied to radiators •Chose the paint because it “had a quality of repelling the eye” •Cut notches out of the corners and the center – striped “jog” in response to these irregularities •He experimented with the possibilities of the shaped canvas
  57. 57. STELLA!!!!
  58. 58. CONCEPTUAL ART •Conceptual artists see art in its purest form •Emphasis on thought process, not artistic process •Popular in 1960’s •Pushed Minimalism to the extreme by eliminating the art object itself (I know, I know, how is it ART if it’s not ART?) •Sometimes a printed statement, set of directions, documentary photograph •Root of conceptual art – Marcel Duchamp – said making art should be a mental, not physical, activity •Every art object begins as an idea – more important that carrying out the idea •If an idea is good, the piece of art will also be good!
  59. 59. •We could even call Michelangelo a conceptual artist! •Sistine chapel- creative envisioning of the relationship between God and people •IDEA of God reaching out to Adam was the masterpiece, and all he had to do was paint the idea •Other artists had similar skills, but no one thought as creatively as Michelangelo •Michelangelo is a good conceptual artist!
  60. 60. One and Three Hammers Joseph Kosuth, 1965, hammer, photo of hammer, printed dictionary definition of a “hammer”
  61. 61. •So which type of hammer is the real hammer? Which expresses the greatest concept of the hammer? Photo of hammer, 3D hammer, definition of hammer? •A study of the relationship of the three items – comparison and contrast •A study in semiotics- a philosophical theory that discusses the relationship and function of signs and symbols in language
  62. 62. One and Three Chairs Joseph Kosuth, 1965, wood folding chair, photo of chair, dictionary definition of chair
  63. 63. Self Portrait as a Fountain Bruce Neuman, 1966, color photo •Many conceptual artists used their bodies as an artistic medium and engaged in activities/performances that they considered works of art •Bare chested artist tips head back, spurts water into air, designates himself a work of art •“Fountain” a reference to Duchamp’s urinal
  64. 64. How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare Joseph Beuys, 1965 photograph of performance • Beuys covered his head in honey and gold leaf • Large metal flange on one shoe • Hobbled around gallery w/ dead rabbit in his arms, stopped at each work in the gallery and whispered to the animal the meaning of each, then touched its lifeless paw to the glass-covered surface • Radiant golden head makes him look magical, like a wizard, but the metal flange handicapped him and made him appear frail at the same time • “Even a dead animal preserves more powers of intuition than some human beings” - Beuys
  65. 65. EARTHWORKS and SITE-SPECIFIC ART (you could call this SITE ART too) • Dependent on its location to render full meaning • Sometimes the works are temporary (like works by Christo and Jeanne-Claude) • Other times the works remain, but need the original environment intact in order to be fully understood • 1970’s – the present
  66. 66. Spiral Jetty Robert Smithson, 1970, Great Salt Lake, Utah
  67. 67. •1500-foot spiraling stone and earth platform extending into the Great Salt Lake, Utah •Smithson wanted to illustrate the “ongoing dialectic” in nature between constructive forces (forces that build, shape, form) and destructive forces (those that destroy it) •Chose this lake because it represents the origins of life in the salty waters of the primordial ocean as well as the end of life (few organisms can live in this salty water, mostly just alga that give the water a red tinge, suggestive of blood •Located in an extremely remote and inaccessible area near abandoned mines and mining equipment •Walk on the jetty and the curling path changes your view from every angle
  68. 68. •Artist used a tractor and native stone to create the jetty •A jetty is supposed to be a pier in the water – here is is transformed into a curl of rocks sitting silently in a vast empty wilderness •Coil is an image seen in North American earthworks •Used a spiral because it is the most fundamental shape in nature (seen in galaxies, seashells, DNA molecules, salt crystals) •He liked the dialectical shape (one that opens, closes, curls, uncurls •Suggested to him the coming and going of things •Since he made it, the surrounding lake water has turned red and back to blue, risen up to drown the work, and revealed it again covered in salt.
  69. 69. Serpent Mound 2300 BCE, Ohio •A snake seizing a huge egg •Dates from a time period without any written record, could mean anything! Influence of North American earthworks
  70. 70. Vietnam Veterans Memorial Maya Lin, 1981-1983, black granite, D.C.
  71. 71. •V-shaped monument cut into the earth, 60,000 casualties of the Vietnam War in the order they were killed or reported missing •One arm of the monument points to the Lincoln Memorial, the other to the Washington Monument •Black granite is very reflective – viewers can see themselves in the names of the veterans, and black is a somber color for the memorial Strong influence of the minimalist movement
  72. 72. Running Fence Christo and Jeanne-Claude 1972-1976, nylon fence 18’ high and 24 ½ miles long in California
  73. 73. •Christo obsessed with wrapping places or things in fabric •Chose the location for aesthetic reasons, and to call attention to the link between urban, suburban, and rural spaces •Had a hard time convincing the county commissioners to let this happen •Installed by a diverse group of supporters – teachers, students, ranchers, lawyers, artists – broke down social barriers between people as they worked on it •Remained up for 2 weeks, property owners kept materials
  74. 74. Wrapped Reichstag, Berlin Christo and Jeanne-Claude, 1971
  75. 75. The Gates, Christo and Jeanne-Claude, 1979-2005 In Central Park, NYC
  76. 76. FEMINIST ART •Developed out of the Women’s Liberation movement of the late 60’s and early 70’s •Challenged the fact that Western art had been dominated by men all along •Goals: increase recognition of the accomplishments of women artists, past and present, and increase awareness and acceptance of feminist issues in society •“Craft” media – traditionally women (ceramics, textiles, jewelry) – tried to elevate craft media to fine art status •Some artists see the “feminist” label as categorizing and demeaning •1970’s – the present •In 1970, only 18% of the New York galleries carried works by female artists
  77. 77. You Are a Captive Audience Barbara Kruger, 1983, photograph • Kruger began as a graphic designer for Mademoiselle magazine • Works have mass-media influence • Words place in large photos as design elements, and to highlight a message • Large single image with short catchy phrase, like a magazine ad layout • Artistic message relies on irony
  78. 78. Untitled Film Still, #14 Cindy Sherman, 1978, photograph •MOMA has 69 of the pieces in this series •Imitates the way that women have been stereotypically depicted in the movies •Criticizes the concept of women as objects to be merely gazed at •Artist used herself as the primary figure in the series
  79. 79. She always uses herself as her model, but sometimes changes so dramatically that you wouldn’t even recognize her!
  80. 80. Tar Beach Faith Ringgold 1988, quilt •Drew on the traditional American craft of quilt making- combined it with traditional African textiles – creates statement about American race relations •Signature medium: story quilt
  81. 81. •Always narrated by women about women’s lives •This piece reflects her memories of growing up in Harlem •“Tar Beach”- reference to the roof of the apartment building her family lived in – they’d sleep up there to cool off (no AC) •Sleeping on Tar Beach was magical!
  82. 82. •Fictional character “Cassie” lies on blanket with her brother, dreams he can fly over Washington bridge, new union building, ice cream factory (we see her flying) •Family and neighbors play cards at table •Her dreams remind us of the social limitations African- Americans have faced throughout American history
  83. 83. VIDEO, COMPUTER, DIGITAL ART •New technology = alternative ways to express the artist’s soul •Artists can take or create an original subject and change the size, color, background, shape, and continuity of the object almost indefinitely •Artist has complete license to maneuver the work
  84. 84. Electronic Superhighway: Continental U.S. Nam June Paik, 1995, video installation
  85. 85. •Nam June Paik was the pioneer of video as an artistic medium, saying that the television will replace canvas •Worked with live, recorded, and computer-generated images displayed on video monitors of varying sizes, which he often combined into sculptural ensembles •Site-specific work for a NYC gallery •A map of the continental U.S. outlined in neon and backed by video monitors flashing with color and movement, accompanied by sound (side walls have Hawaii and Alaska)
  86. 86. • Monitors within the borders of each state play images reflecting that state’s culture and history, past and recent • In the NY monitors, the gallery visitors see themselves in a closed-circuit broadcast – puts them into the artwork, transforms them from passive spectators to active participants
  87. 87. MODERN ARCHITECTURE • Classical influences and dark interiors banned! • Proud display of technology – innovative materials like titanium, unusual shapes • Natural light supplements artificial light • Obsession with light – domes, glass, etc. • Buildings are either in harmony with surroundings or purposefully stand out as being completely different
  88. 88. Notre Dame-du-Haut Le Corbusier, 1950-1955, France
  89. 89. •Spaces for outdoor services •Roof seems to float over the body of the building •Random placement of windows – deeply religious effect of scattered light on interior – thick walls w/ stained glass •Walls are plain concrete – primitive feeling •Sweeping roof bends downward over nave •Resembles a ship, nun’s habit, dove (Holy Spirit!), and/or praying hands
  90. 90. Guggenheim Museum Frank Lloyd Wright, 1943-1959, NY
  91. 91. •Curvilinear patterns of the outside reveal circular domed walkway inside •Exhibits placed on walls around spiraling ramps •Circular motif throughout building •Poured concrete
  92. 92. •Exhibits placed on walls around spiraling ramps •Permanent collection of Impressionist, Post- Impressionist, Early Modern, and Contemporary art, and special exhibits •Named after its founder, Solomon R. Guggenheim (a wealthy art collector)
  93. 93. •Wider at the top than bottom, like a rounded inverted ziggurat! •Open rotunda – you can see several layers at once and interact with guests on other levels •Wrights idea of a “temple of the spirit” •Skylight in middle adds natural light to whole space •Visitors go through interconnected rooms, leisurely pace along the gentle slope of the continuous ramp •Spiral design, like a nautilus shell – blend of natural shape and rigid geometry
  94. 94. Seagram Building Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 1956-1958 NY •A reflection of the Minimalist movement in art, “less is more” •Simplicity, geometric design, elegant •Set back in the plaza, balanced by reflecting pools
  95. 95. •Bronze veneer gives skyscraper a monolith look •Interplay of vertical and horizontal accents •Steel and glass skyscrapers like this are popular after WWII •A triumph of the International Style of architecture
  96. 96. •Worse energy star rating of any building in NY (3 out of 100) •Headquarters of Canadian distillers Seagram & Sons •Miles wanted the steel frame visible, but building codes required all structural steel to be covered in fireproof material (usually concrete, which he didn’t want) – so he used non-structural bronze-toned beams to suggest structure instead – run horizontally land surround the large glass windows •Miles wanted a uniform appearance (window blinds, noooo!!!) – Kept it organized by installing blinds that only operate in 3 positions – open, closed, or half open
  97. 97. Sydney Opera House Joern Utzon, 1959-1972 Sydney, Australia
  98. 98. •Vaults grow upward from their bases, glass connects them •3 buildings in 1 – concert hall, opera house, and restaurant Fanlike groupings, resemble a ship’s sails (makes sense since it’s in Sydney Harbor, surrounded by water on 3 sides
  99. 99. Georges Pompidou Center Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano 1977, Paris
  100. 100. •An art museum and cultural complex •Interior framework of building is exposed (like an exoskeleton) •Color coded system: •Red: escalators, elevators, stairs •Green: plumbing •Blue: air ducts, AC •Yellow: electricity •Interior has interchanging walls, good for flexible viewing spaces •Metal and glass – lots! •GERBERETTES on exterior – steel vertebrae that allude to ship building and symbolize the center as a cultural ship
  101. 101. GERBERETTES Pompidou Center ship
  102. 102. Guggenheim Bilboa Museo Frank Gehry, 1997, Bilboa, Spain
  103. 103. •Appearance of asymmetrical exterior with outside walls giving no hint to interior space •Irregular masses of titanium walls •Sweeping curved lines •Called “Deconstruction Architecture: seeks to create a seemingly unstable environment with unusual spatial arrangements
  104. 104. •Built along a river •Permanent and visiting exhibits of Spanish and international artists •Represents a VERY rare moment – critics, academics, and the general public were all pleased with the structure •Random curves were designed to catch the light •Atrium nicknamed “the flower” because of its shape
  105. 105. Atrium ceiling
  106. 106. Exterior is glass, titanium, and limestone
  107. 107. Check out Gehry’s “Fish” in Barcelona
  108. 108. Or his “Dancing House” in Prague
  109. 109. AT&T Building (now the Sony Building) Philip Johnson 1978-1983 NY
  110. 110. •Moved away from glass and steel box of International Style to a reintroduction of stone on the exterior POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE •Emerged in the 1970’s and early 80’s •International Style perceived as cold and removed from the needs of modern cities with cosmopolitan populations •Nothing wrong with incorporating ornament, traditional architectural expressions, and references to past styles IN A MODERN CONTEXT •Shift away from Postmodern ideal
  111. 111. •36-story building with floors w/ exceptionally tall ceilings (so the building is actually 66 stories) •Pediment on top (OMG!!!) – in the style of 18th century English Chippendale furniture
  112. 112. •Strong vertical emphasis •Looks like a spin on old-fashioned phones that had coin slots at the top and coin returns at the bottom (AT&T, get it?)
  113. 113. VOCABULARY: •ACTION PAINTING: an abstract painting in which the artist drips or splatters paint onto a surface like a canvas in order to create his or her work •ASSEMBLAGE: a 3-D work made of various materials such as wood, cloth, paper, and other misc. objects •BENDAY DOTS: named for inventor Benjamin Day – the printing process uses the pointillist technique of colored dots from a limited palette placed closely together to achieve more colors and subtle shadings
  114. 114. •COLOR FIELD: a style of abstract painting characterized by simple shapes and monochromatic color •EARTHWORK: a large outdoor work in which the earth itself is the medium •INSTALLATION: a temporary work of art made up of assemblages created for a particular space, like an art gallery or museum
  115. 115. FIN It’s the end of an era!!!