Lessons in Content Area Reading and Writing

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How to exceed the Common Core standards with strategy-based comprehension instruction. Texts and lessons.
Harvey Daniels, Spring of 2014 in Wayne County, MI

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Lessons in Content Area Reading and Writing

  1. 1. Content Area Literacy: Reading, Writing, and Collaboration Smokey Daniels – April 10, 2014
  2. 2. Copeland Middle School Rockaway, NJ
  3. 3. Amesville Elementary Amesville, OH
  4. 4. Ka Waihona Charter School, West Oahu, HI
  5. 5. PYLE MIDDLE SCHOOL Albuquerque, NM
  6. 6. Quest Charter School, Ripon WI
  7. 7. Salazar School Santa Fe, NM
  8. 8. Sheridan High School, Sheridan, AR
  9. 9. Bishop‟s School La Jolla, CA
  10. 10. Disney 2 School Chicago, IL
  11. 11. And who are you?
  12. 12. GOALS • Big Picture/CCSS (Briefly) • Demo key lessons in reading, writing and collaboration • Watch videos of kids at work • Discuss management issues • Plan applications for your classroom
  13. 13. @smokeylit HDanielsNM@Gmail.com Please be in touch
  14. 14. STRATEGIES Real Turn and Talk Meta-cogitation Cold Think-Alouds Collaboration Mini-lessons Human Continuum Air Hog Prevention Close Reading Visual Comprehension Writing to Learn My #1 Teaching Strategy Written Conversation Text Annotation Jigsawing Content (time permitting)
  15. 15. Strategy #1: Turn and Talk
  16. 16. Find ONE Partner
  17. 17. HOW TO PAIR STUDENTS RANDOMLY Use a list randomizer. There were 14 items in your list. Here they are in random order: Kevin David Mike Tom Nancy Joe Mary Devin Elaine Shai Smokey Fred Dane Tom R Timestamp: 2013-02-10 14:23:06 UTC www.Random.org
  18. 18. TURN AND TALK: DISCUSS TOPIC: BUT FIRST….
  19. 19. MINI-LESSON # 1 How you sit matters Eye to eye Knee to knee Ear to ear
  20. 20. NOW, GET INTO AN EVEN BETTER TALKING POSITION: *Move furniture if it helps *Separate yourself from other pairs *Eye to eye *Knee to knee *Ear to ear
  21. 21. TURN AND TALK: What is a curricular unit that you will be teaching (coaching or supervising) soon? Share your goals, key topics, challenges, past experience, etc. TWO MINUTES TOTAL
  22. 22. Who had a partner with an interesting unit?
  23. 23. *Considering bailing (14 states)
  24. 24. “We are raising the bar for America‟s students.”
  25. 25. Rigor
  26. 26. Rigor, n. 1. The quality of inflexibility, harshness of judgment, strictness, sternness.
  27. 27. Text Complexity
  28. 28. Average Copyright Dates of Exemplar Texts: K-1 literature: 1963 4-5 literature: 1937 6-8 nonfiction: 1895 9-10 literature: 1801 HS nonfiction: 1897
  29. 29. PARCC online sample test – High School ELA
  30. 30. metamorpheses abhor sea-girt regnant sceptre pliant countenance perchance retard winnowed pinions solicitous “…formed from small to large, as any rustic pipe prom straws unequal slants.”
  31. 31. Testingtalk.org
  32. 32. ARGUMENTATIVEPersuasive
  33. 33. ar·gu·men·ta·tive Adjective: argumentative Quarrelsome, disputatious, contrary, cantankerous, belligerent, belicose, combative, antagonistic
  34. 34. Engagement What‟s potentially missing missing in CCSS? Curiosity Choice and Responsibility CreativityFUN! Social Justice
  35. 35. …One thing I never want to see happen is schools that are just teaching to the test. Because then you're not learning about the world; you're not learning about different cultures, you're not learning about science, you're not learning about math. All you're learning about is how to fill out a little bubble on an exam and the little tricks that you need to do in order to take a test. And that's not going to make education interesting to you. And young people do well in stuff that they're interested in. They're not going to do as well if it's boring.“ Barack Obama March 28, 2011
  36. 36. Rigor Without the mortis
  37. 37. Let‟s talk reading
  38. 38. Research has demonstrated that conversation with peers improves comprehension and engagement with texts in a variety of settings (Cazden, 1988). Such literary conversation does not focus on recalling or retelling what students read. Rather, it asks students to analyze, comment, and compare—in short, to think about what they've read. Fall, Webb, and Chudowsky (2000) found better outcomes when kids simply talked with a peer about what they read than when they spent the same amount of class time highlighting important information after reading. Similarly, Nystrand (2006) reviewed the research on engaging students in literate conversations and noted that even small amounts of such conversation (10 minutes a day) improved standardized test scores, regardless of students' family background or reading level. Yet struggling readers were the least likely to discuss daily what they read with peers. This was often because they were doing extra basic-skills practice instead. In class discussions, struggling readers were more likely to be asked literal questions about what they had read, to prove they "got it," rather than to be engaged in a conversation about the text. Time for students to talk about their reading and writing is perhaps one of the most underused, yet easy-to-implement, elements of instruction. It doesn't require any special materials, special training, or even large amounts of time. Yet it provides measurable benefits in comprehension, motivation, and even language competence. The task of switching between writing, speaking, reading, and listening helps students make connections between, and thus solidify, the skills they use in each. This makes peer conversation especially important for English language learners, another population that we rarely ask to talk about what they read. Research has demonstrated that conversation with peers improves comprehension, engagement, and standardized test scores in a variety of settings. Richard Allington, Educational Leadership, March 2012
  39. 39. How do we teach comprehension AND academic conversation with peers?
  40. 40. Short Text +Small Groups +Quick Meetings = Useful Comprehension Practice
  41. 41. Short Text
  42. 42. SHORT text *Mars is nicknamed the red planet because it is covered with rust-like dust. *Mars is home to the largest volcano in our solar system, which is 8 miles high. *Temperatures range from -120 Degrees Celsius on winter nights to 25 Degrees Celsius in the summer. *Mars has many channels, plains and canyons on the surface which could have been caused by water erosion in the past. * The polar ice caps consist of frozen Co2 (dry ice) which lies over a layer of ice.
  43. 43. INTERESTING short text Or a fascinating image or a read aloud
  44. 44. Content that is important or engaging People we can care about A narrative structure or chronological line Places we can visualize Danger, conflicts, risks, or choices Value, moral, ethical or political dimensions Some ideas that reasonable people can debate, dispute, or disagree about
  45. 45. PAIRS
  46. 46. QUICK meetings
  47. 47. Let‟s read!
  48. 48. // Recommendation Engine // Ask an Algorithm Which TV for Me? I want that Panasonic 103-inch TV. My wife says that’s too big. Is she right? Optimal viewing distance at 1080p = diagonal screen size / 0.84; Maximum OVD for 103-inch screen = 122.619 inches. Recommendation: If seat to screen distance >122.619 inches: Purchase TV; if <122.619 inches: Construct home theater space of necessary size; purchase TV.
  49. 49. 1. If you need advice about a TV, you can ask an _________________
  50. 50. // Recommendation Engine // Ask an Algorithm Which TV for Me? I want that Panasonic 103-inch TV. My wife says that’s too big. Is she right? Optimal viewing distance at 1080p = diagonal screen size / 0.84; Maximum OVD for 103-inch screen = 122.619 inches. Recommendation: If seat to screen distance >122.619 inches: Purchase TV; if <122.619 inches: Construct home theater space of necessary size; purchase TV.
  51. 51. 1. If you need advice about a TV, you can ask an algorithm.
  52. 52. 2. What size TV does the writer want? A: 13 inches B: 57 inches D: 103 inches E. 104 inches F: 1003 inches
  53. 53. 2. What size TV does the writer want? A: 13 inches B: 57 inches D: 103 inches E. 104 inches F: 10003 inches
  54. 54. 3. TRUE/FALSE: The writer‟s wife thinks that this TV is too big. TRUE FALSE
  55. 55. 3. TRUE/FALSE: The writer‟s wife thinks that this TV is too big. TRUE FALSE
  56. 56. 4. What is the writer advised to construct? A: a home theater B: a home bowling alley C: a home mortgage
  57. 57. 4. What is the writer advised to construct? A: a home theater B: a home bowling alley C: a home mortgage
  58. 58. 5. What are the Algorithm‟s final words? _______________ ____
  59. 59. // Recommendation Engine // Ask an Algorithm Which TV for Me? I want that Panasonic 103-inch TV. My wife says that’s too big. Is she right? Optimal viewing distance at 1080p = diagonal screen size / 0.84; Maximum OVD for 103-inch screen = 122.619 inches. Recommendation: If seat to screen distance >122.619 inches: Purchase TV; if <122.619 inches: Construct home theater space of necessary size; purchase TV.
  60. 60. 5. What are the Algorithm‟s final words? Purchase TV
  61. 61. WITH YOUR PARTNER What was going on in your brain when you were trying to read that passage?
  62. 62. // Recommendation Engine // Ask an Algorithm Which TV for Me? I want that Panasonic 103-inch TV. My wife says that’s too big. Is she right? Optimal viewing distance at 1080p = diagonal screen size / 0.84; Maximum OVD for 103-inch screen = 122.619 inches. Recommendation: If seat to screen distance >122.619 inches: Purchase TV; if <122.619 inches: Construct home theater space of necessary size; purchase TV.
  63. 63. PROFICIENT READERS: Monitor their comprehension Visualize Make connections Ask questions Draw inferences Determine importance Synthesize
  64. 64. How do we teach proficient reader strategies? MODELLING with Think-Alouds
  65. 65. Search your topic Corporal punishment
  66. 66. Find a great text
  67. 67. Edit it just right
  68. 68. Plan your stopping places
  69. 69. But: What is kids‟ real reading job? Reading unfamiliar text
  70. 70. “Cold” THINK ALOUD
  71. 71. Nonfiction Text #2
  72. 72. COLD THINK ALOUD I‟ll go first….(then you)
  73. 73. PARTNERS: Quickly determine who is wearing the coolest shoes
  74. 74. Round 1 THINK ALOUD STOP when done with page
  75. 75. Round 2 Switch Roles
  76. 76. Nonfiction Text #3
  77. 77. Deeper Reading --slow down, pay closer attention --make notes --read it again --notice, pose, and pursue questions --take a critical stance --support views with evidence from text
  78. 78. “CLOSE READING” --minute & meticulous examination of highly complex texts --little research support --New Criticism 1950‟s --teacher-directed, correct answers --“Four corners” = denial of background knowledge --not aligned to most career and college reading Hinchman and Moore, “Close Reading: A Cautionary Interpretation.” Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, March, 2013
  79. 79. Martin Luther King and the Common Core: A Critical Reading of “Close Reading” Daniel Ferguson Rethinking Schools Winter 2013-2014 @smokeylit
  80. 80. “CAREFUL READING” --robust research base (What Works Clearinghouse) --proficient reader strategies --reading with purpose in mind and pencil in hand --stop, think, and act --activating, building & accessing background knowledge --engaging, interactive, student-centered --College and Career aligned texts and purposes Comprehension Going Forward: Where We Are, What’s Next (Daniels, 2010)
  81. 81. HOW DO WE TEACH “CAREFUL READING”?
  82. 82. Read it again!
  83. 83. GIVE KIDS A REASON TO REREAD (other than obedience) --evoke students‟ curiosity --make it a puzzle, a quest, a mystery --focus on debatable content --zero in on a turning point --make it interactive, not solitary --get kids up and thinking
  84. 84. “Little Things are Big,” by Jesus Colon I’ve been thinking; you know, sometimes one thing happens to change your life, how you look at things, how you look at yourself. I remember one particular event. It was when? 1955 or '56...a long time ago. Anyway, I had been working at night. I wrote for the newspaper and, you know, we had deadlines. It was late after midnight on the night before Memorial Day. I had to catch the train back to Brooklyn; the West side IRT. This lady got on to the subway at 34th and Penn Station, a nice looking white lady in her early twenties. Somehow she managed to push herself in with a baby on her right arm and a big suitcase in her left hand. Two children, a boy and a girl about three and five years old trailed after her.
  85. 85. Anyway, at Nevins Street I saw her preparing to get off at the next station, Atlantic Avenue. That’s where I was getting off too. It was going to be a problem for her to get off; two small children, a baby in her arm, and a suitcase in her hand. And there I was also preparing to get off at Atlantic Avenue. I couldn’t help but imagine the steep, long concrete stairs going down to the Long Island Railroad and up to the street. Should I offer my help? Should I take care of the girl and the boy, take them by their hands until they reach the end of that steep long concrete stairs? Courtesy is important to us Puerto Ricans. And here I was, hours past midnight, and the white lady with the baby in her arm, a suitcase and two white children badly needing someone to help her. I remember thinking; I’m a Negro and a Puerto Rican. Suppose I approach this white lady in this deserted subway station late at night? What would she say? What would be the first reaction of this white American woman? Would she say: 'Yes, of course you may help me,' or would she think I was trying to get too familiar or would she think worse? What do I do if she screamed when I went to offer my help? I hesitated. And then…
  86. 86. First responses?
  87. 87. The Human Continuum AKA “Where do you stand?”
  88. 88. Standing Lit Circles
  89. 89. Little Things Are Big He will help Maybe will help Probably won‟t help Will not help
  90. 90. Re-Read Part 1 Find “text Evidence” Where will you stand and why?
  91. 91. Little Things Are Big He will help Probably will help Probably won‟t help Will not help
  92. 92. I pushed by her like I saw nothing, as if I were insensitive to her needs. I was like a rude animal walking on two legs just moving on, half running along the long the subway platform, leaving the children and the suitcase and the woman with the baby in her arms. I ran up the steps of that long concrete stairs in twos and when I reached the street, the cold air slapped my warm face. Perhaps the lady was not prejudiced after all. If you were not that prejudiced, I failed you, dear lady. If you were not that prejudiced I failed you; I failed you too, children. I failed myself. I buried my courtesy early on Memorial Day morning. So, here is the promise I made to myself back then: if I am ever faced with an occasion like that again, I am going to offer my help regardless of how the offer is going to be received. Then I will have my courtesy with me again.
  93. 93. GIVE KIDS A REASON TO REREAD (other than obedience) --evoke students‟ curiosity --make it a puzzle, a quest, a mystery --focus on debatable content --zero in on a turning point --make it interactive, not solitary --get kids up and thinking
  94. 94. TO Images
  95. 95. Nonfiction Text #4:
  96. 96. Guided Practice with Partners Ways to Read --Alternate reading aloud, by paragraphs or sentences --Read aloud together --Silently first Ways to Talk --Discuss text after each paragraph --Ask questions after each paragraph/sentence --Work on unknown words in the passage --Work to create a summary sentence
  97. 97. MINILESSON #2: Sharing Airtime Sometimes in pairs or groups, some people talk a lot and others talk much less.
  98. 98. LIST: What are some things you could do to balance airtime in a group discussion?
  99. 99. 4th grade MATH scores on NAEP 1973: 219 2009: 243 8th grade MATH score on NAEP 1973: 266 2009: 281 4th grade READING score on NAEP 1973: 208 2010: 220 8th grade READING score on NAEP 1973: 255 2010: 260 High School Dropout Rate 1973: 15.0% 2010: 7.4% PUBLIC CONFIDENCE IN SCHOOLS (Gallup Poll) 1973: 58% 2010: 29% TEACHERS JOB SATISFACTION (Pew Trust) 2008: 62% 2012: 39% Source: Education Week, 10/10/12, p. 22-23
  100. 100. SINGLE STRATEGY LESSON Monitor their comprehension Visualize Make connections Ask questions Draw inferences Determine importance Synthesize
  101. 101. Nonfiction Text #5
  102. 102. 4th grade MATH scores on NAEP 1973: 219 2009: 243 8th grade MATH score on NAEP 1973: 266 2009: 281 4th grade READING score on NAEP 1973: 208 2010: 220 8th grade READING score on NAEP 1973: 255 2010: 260 High School Dropout Rate 1973: 15.0% 2010: 7.4% PUBLIC CONFIDENCE IN SCHOOLS (Gallup Poll) 1973: 58% 2010: 29% TEACHERS JOB SATISFACTION (Pew Trust) 2008: 62% 2012: 39% Source: Education Week, 10/10/12, p. 22-23
  103. 103. --more nonfiction reading --more complex texts --more “cold reading” --de-emphasize strategies --de-emphasis on narrative --more student discussion CCSS “SHIFTS‟‟
  104. 104. 4th grade MATH scores on NAEP 1973: 219 2009: 243 8th grade MATH score on NAEP 1973: 266 2009: 281 4th grade READING score on NAEP 1973: 208 2010: 220 8th grade READING score on NAEP 1973: 255 2010: 260 High School Dropout Rate 1973: 15.0% 2010: 7.4% PUBLIC CONFIDENCE IN SCHOOLS (Gallup Poll) 1973: 58% 2010: 29% TEACHERS JOB SATISFACTION (Pew Trust) 2008: 62% 2012: 39% Source: Education Week, 10/10/12, p. 22-23
  105. 105. How smart readers think Cognitive Strategies for Comprehension
  106. 106. Smokey Daniels smokeylit@aol.com slideshare.net
  107. 107. TURN AND TALK: DISCUSS: What successes, problems, or questions about Lit Circles have come up since last time?
  108. 108. Lake Forest High School
  109. 109. National-Louis University Dominican University
  110. 110. COMPREHENSION, COLLABORATION, and LEADERSHIP Chicago, IL Harvey “Smokey” Daniels September 19-20, 2013
  111. 111. I pushed by her like I saw nothing, as if I were insensitive to her needs. I was like a rude animal walking on two legs just moving on, half running along the long the subway platform, leaving the children and the suitcase and the woman with the baby in her arms. I ran up the steps of that long concrete stairs in twos and when I reached the street, the cold air slapped my warm face. Perhaps the lady was not prejudiced after all. If you were not that prejudiced, I failed you, dear lady. If you were not that prejudiced I failed you; I failed you too, children. I failed myself. I buried my courtesy early on Memorial Day morning. So, here is the promise I made to myself back then: if I am ever faced with an occasion like that again, I am going to offer my help regardless of how the offer is going to be received. Then I will have my courtesy with me again.
  112. 112. Northwestern University, Evanston , IL
  113. 113. Westinghouse Area Vocational High School, Chicago
  114. 114. CPS: Nettelhorst, Washington Irving, Jenner, Byrd, Hendricks, Waters, Burley, Disney, Disney II, South Shore HS, Best Practice HS
  115. 115. Introductions: “Two truths and a lie.”
  116. 116. EXIT SLIP: FRONT: How‟s it going for you? BACK: Question or suggestion.
  117. 117. Let‟s make a list of Questions Concerns Topics Goals
  118. 118. To DJs, intro only before Lunch… Or single strat lesson
  119. 119. What kind of texts work for these lessons? “One-page wonders”
  120. 120. School Forces Students to Pray Monster Snakes on Killing Spree Girls More Dangerous Drivers Than Boys Goldilocks Planet May Harbor Alien Lifeforms Today’s Teens Most Dishonest Ever School: OK To Use Cellphones In Class Dress Code Violators Wear Prison Uniforms Coming To Your Cafeteria: “In Vitro” Meat
  121. 121. WHY 1PWS and TEXT SETS? - Supplement the textbook - Differentiate text - Activate prior knowledge - Evoke curiosity - Start conversations - Offer in-class reading - Provide strategy practice - Launch curricular lessons
  122. 122. Content Area Literacy: Comprehension, Collaboration, and Inquiry Smokey Daniels – March 6, 2014
  123. 123. Steve Renfro video Kindergarten, Burley School, Chicago from The Best Practice Video Companion WHAT DO YOU NOTICE? WHAT DO YOU WONDER?
  124. 124. SINGLE STRATEGY LESSON Monitor their comprehension Visualize Make connections Ask questions Draw inferences Determine importance Synthesize
  125. 125. Time for another one?
  126. 126. $1.1 million-plus Gates grant: „Galvanic‟ bracelets that measure student engagement by Valerie Strauss, June 11, 2012 The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is spending about $1.1 million to develop a way to physiologically measure how engaged students are by their teachers‟ lessons. This involves “galvanic skin response” bracelets that kids would wear so their engagement levels could be measured.
  127. 127. 1. Who is funding the development of these innovative student bracelets? The Gates Foundation
  128. 128. 2. How much money has Gates spent on this device so far? A: $1.57 B: $2,100.57 D: $20,000,000,000 E. A lot F: $1.1 million
  129. 129. 2. How much money has Gates spent on this innovation far? A: $1.57 B: $2,100.57 D: $20,000,000,000 E. A lot F: $1.1 million
  130. 130. 3. What “physiological state” would these bracelets measure? A: Paranoia B: Curiosity D: Toothache E. Stress F: Engagement
  131. 131. 3. What “physiological state” would these bracelets measure? A: Paranoia B: Curiosity D: Toothache E. Stress F: Engagement
  132. 132. 4. What technology does this device draw upon? A: geothermic subduction B: Bat sonar C: galvanic skin response D: water pic flushing E. trickle down economics
  133. 133. 4. What technology does this device draw upon? A: geothermic subduction B: Bat sonar C: galvanic skin response D: water pic flushing E. trickle down economics
  134. 134. 5. What are the chances that this bracelet will be re-engineered to deliver electric shocks to unengaged students? A: 100% B: 100% C: 100%
  135. 135. 5. What are the chances that this bracelet will be re-engineered to deliver electric shocks to unengaged students? A: 100% B: 100% C: 100%
  136. 136. BONUS EXTRA CREDIT QUESTION: What two other high-tech devices use “galvanic skin response” technology? 1. __________? 1. __________?
  137. 137. 1
  138. 138. 2

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