Job Analysis• The process of defining a job in terms of tasks or behaviours needed to perform the job successfully.
• A systematic way to gather and analyse information about the content and human requiremens of jobs, and the context in which jobs are performed.
• Job analysis identifies what the existing tasks, duties,a nd responsibilities of a job are.
• A task is a distinct, identifiable work activity composed of motions, where as duty is a larger work segment composed of several tasks that are performed by an individual.• Responsibilities are obligations to perform certain tasks and duties.• A job description indicates the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job.
• Job specifications lists the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) include education, experience, work skill requirments, personal abilities and mental and physical requirements.
Pervasive Use of Job Analysis Results• HR planning• Recruitment and selection• Compensation• Training and development• Performance appraisal• Health, safety and security• Union relations
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information• Observation method• Interview method• Conference with job analysts/Experts• Diaries kept by Job incumbents• Questionnaire method• Combination method
Job-Focused• Functional job analysis: Describing nature of job in terms of data (analyzing, computing etc), people ( monitoring negotiating, supervising etc) and things (operation controlling, manipulating, handling).
• Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ): This technique is specially designed to analyse managerial positions. While using this technique, the job analysts use a checklist containing 197 job factors related to the concerns and responsibilities of managers.
• The Hay Plan: This method is used by a number of organisations to analyse managerial and executive jobs. Since executives are engaged in numerous tasks it is difficult to specify their duties and responsibilities. They have to work on the broad areas of accountability objectives such as, organisation management, strategic planning, tactical planning, execution and directing the attainment of objectives and review and control.
• Methods Analysis: Originally developed from industrial engineering, method analysis focuses on the analysis of non- managerial jobs. The main purpose of methods analysis is analysing the job to help the employee to work more effectively and efficiently.
Person-focused• Position analysis questionnaire: Finding the personnel or behavioral requirements for performing jobs. ( to make decisions, communication, physical activities, information processing).
• Physical abilities analysis : Exert muscular force regularly, resistance strengths or trunk muscle etc.
• The critical incident technique: Occurred during last three months and find how actions are taken to improve.
• Guideline oriented Job analysis: listing job domain of the incumbent, list critical important. Duties, determine how frequently these critical duties are required to perform, determine requisite skills or knowledge, determine physical characteristics etc.