Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Civil Rights Movement Timeline

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all
  • Be the first to comment

The Civil Rights Movement Timeline

  1. 1. The Civil Rights Movement: A Timeline
  2. 2. 1954 <ul><li>May 17 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court rules in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segregation in US public schools ruled unconstitutional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision overturns 1896 “separate but equal” Plessy v. Ferguson ruling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marks a victory for NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marshall later returned to the Supreme Court as the nation’s first black justice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 1955 <ul><li>August 28 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14-year-old Chicago, IL native Emmett Louis Till murdered in Mississippi while visiting his family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Killed for allegedly whistling at a white woman </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutilated body found in Tallahatchie River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two suspects were later acquitted by an all white jury for Till’s murder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case becomes catalyst for Civil Rights Movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>December 1 st </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NAACP member Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her seat at the front of the “colored section” of a Montgomery bus to a white passenger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Montgomery community launches a bus boycott </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boycott lasted 381 days (12/5/55 to 12/20/56) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buses desegregated 12/21/56 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 1957 <ul><li>January – February </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., Charles K. Steel, & Fred L. Shuttlesworth establish the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King is made first president of SCLC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCLC becomes major force in organizing the movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King urges participants to “forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. … 1957 <ul><li>September </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central High School, Little Rock, AR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nine black high school students set out to integrate the all-white school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students were blocked from entering the school – Governor Orval Faubus’ orders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal troops & National Guards sent to intervene on behalf of the “Little Rock Nine” – President Dwight Eisenhower’s orders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 1960 <ul><li>February 1 st </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woolworth’s segregated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lunch counter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 black students from North Carolina Agricultural & Technical College conduct sit-in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refused service, but allowed to stay at counter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Event triggers many similar nonviolent protests throughout the South </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parks, swimming pools, theaters, libraries and other public facilities integrated because of similar efforts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same 4 students were actually served lunch at the same Woolworth’s 6 months later </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. … 1960 <ul><li>April </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) founded at Shaw University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gave black youth a place in the movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grows into a more radical organization led by Stokely Carmichael </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later coined the term “Black Power” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 1961 <ul><li>May 4 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom Riders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both black and white student </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>volunteers (1,000+) took trips to South during spring and summer to analyze segregation laws of interstate travel facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsored by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the SNCC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked by angry mobs along the way </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 1962 <ul><li>October 1 st </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Meredith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5,000 Federal troops sent to Mississippi due to violence and riots stemming from integration – orders of President John F. Kennedy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 1963 <ul><li>May </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birmingham, AL Public Safety Commissioner Eugene “Bull” Connor uses fire hoses & police dogs on black demonstrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Images televised and published nation-wide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>April 16 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King arrested & jailed in Birmingham, AL during anti-segregation protests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writes legendary “Letter from Birmingham Jail” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Letter argues that “individuals have the moral duty to disobey laws” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>June 12 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson, MS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>37-year-old Medgar Evers, Mississippi’s NAACP field secretary, gunned down outside his home </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Byron De La Beckwith tried twice, both resulting in hung juries; convicted 30 years later </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>August 28 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>200,000+ March on Washington, congregating at Lincoln Memorial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his legendary “I Have a Dream” speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>September 15 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 young girls murdered while attending Sunday School when Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, AL was bombed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Riots following bombing resulted in deaths of 2 more black youths </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 1964 <ul><li>January 23 rd </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24 th Amendment abolishes the poll tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally instituted in 11 southern states to make </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it difficult for poor blacks to vote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom Summer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network of civil rights groups that includes CORE & SNCC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Launches massive effort to register black voters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>July 2 nd </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Lyndon B. Johnson signs Civil Rights Act of 1964 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>August 2 nd </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodies of 3 civil rights workers (2 white, 1 black) found in earthen dam in Neshoba County, MS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Murdered by police officers/members of Ku Klux Klan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had been working to register black voters & investigating the burning of a black church in Mississippi </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 1965 <ul><li>February 21 st </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malcolm X shot to death in Harlem, NY by members of the Black Muslim faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founder of the Organization of Afro-American Unity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>March 7 th - “Bloody Sunday” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selma, AL marchers tear-gassed, whipped, and clubbed by police </li></ul></ul><ul><li>August 10 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress passes Voting Rights Act of 1965 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes registering to vote easier for Southern black voters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>August 11 th – 17 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watts/Los Angeles, CA race riots erupt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>September 24 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Lyndon B. Johnson enforces affirmative action (Executive Order 11246) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 1966 <ul><li>October </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Militant Black Panthers organization founded in Oakland, CA by Huey Ne wton & Bob by Seale </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 1968 <ul><li>April 4 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King, Jr. shot to death at age 39 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shot as he stands on balcony outside his hotel room in Memphis, TN </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 1971 - Present <ul><li>1971 - Busing becomes legitimate means for achieving integration of public schools </li></ul><ul><li>1988 – Congress passes Civil Rights Restoration Act (overrides President Reagan’s veto) </li></ul><ul><li>1992 – First race riots in decades erupt in South-Central Los Angeles after acquittal of 4 white police officers accused in Rodney King beating </li></ul><ul><li>2004 – Emmett Till’s murder case reopened </li></ul><ul><li>2005 – Rosa Parks dies at age 92 </li></ul><ul><li>2006 – Coretta Scott King, wife of Martin Luther King, Jr., dies of a stroke at age 78 </li></ul><ul><li>2007 – Emmett Till’s 1955 murder case is officially closed </li></ul>
  16. 16. 2008 We Shall Overcome!