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The art of drawing people

  1. 1. The Art of•rawln eo e
  2. 2. © 2008, 201 1 Walter Foster Publishing, Inc. Photos on pages 8-9© 2001 , 2003 WFP. Artwork on page 10 © 2004 WFP, valuescales © 2006 Diane Cardaci. Photos on page 1 1 © 2006 DianeCardaci, artwork © 2004 WFP. Artwork on pages 1 2-13 © 2006Diane Cardaci. Artwork on pages 6, 14-15, 88-91 © 200 1 , 2003WFP. Artwork on pages 16-17 © 1999, 2003 WFP. Artwork onpages 1 8-23, 64, 66-88, 92-93 © 1997, 2003 WFP. Artwork onpages 24, 26-41 © 2004, 2005 Ken Goldman. Artwork on pages42, 44-63 © 1989, 1997, 2003 WFP. Artwork on pages 1 , 4,6, 96-123 © 2006 Debra Kauffman Yaun. Artwork on pages 3,94, 1 24-139 © 2007 Debra Kauffman Yaun. All rights reserved.Walter Foster is a registered trademark.Digital edition: 978-1-61059-81 7-0Softcover edition: 978-1-60058-069-7This book has been produced to aid the aspiring artist. Repro­duction of the work for study or finished art is permissible.Any art produced or photomechanically reproduced from thispublication for commercial purposes is forbidden without writtenconsent from the publisher, Walter Foster Publishing, Inc.10 9 8 7 6 5
  3. 3. The Art of•rawln eo eWALTER FOSTER PUBLISHING, INC.
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  5. 5. CONTENTSINTRODUCTION TO DRAWING PEOPLE • • • • • • • • • • • 7Tools &: Materials 8The Elements of Drawing 10Basic Pencil Techniques 1 1Other Ways to Shade 12Learning to See 14People in Perspective 16PlaCing People in a Composition 18Adding Complete Figures 20Beginning Portraiture 22ANATOMY WITH KEN GOLDMAN • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 25Exploring the Torso: Front View 26Exploring the Torso: Back View 27Exploring the Torso: Side View 28Exploring the Torso: Tips 29Depicting the Arm: Front View 30Depicting the Arm: Back View 3 1Depicting the Arm: Side View 32Portraying the Hand 33Sketching the Leg: Front View 34Sketching the Leg: Back View 35Sketching the Leg: Side View 36Drawing the FootStudying the Head &: SkullCapturing Facial Features373841FACES WITH WALTER T. FOSTER • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 43Peopk 44Women: Profile 46Women: Three-Quarter View 48Women: Frontal View 50Men: Three-Quarter View 52Elderly Women 54Elderly Men 56People of the World 58Developing Your Own Style 60Male Faces 62PEOPLE WITH WILLIAM F. POWELL• • • • • • • • • • • • • 65Adult Head Proportions 66Head Positions &: Angles 67Facial Features: Eyes 68Facial Features: Noses &: Ears 69Facial Features: LipsFacial Features: The SmileThe ProfileThe Three-Quarter ViewChild Head Proportions7071727374Mature Faces 76Adult Body Proportions 78Child Body Proportions 79The Body 80Hands &: Feet 8 1Clothing Folds 82Foreshortening 83Movement &: Balance 84Bending &: Twisting Figures 85Sports Figures in Action 86Children in Action 87Developing a Portrait 88Focusing on Foreshortening 90Applying Your Skills 92PEOPLE WITH DEBRA KAUFFMAN YAUN • • • • • • • • • 95Understanding Facial Anatomy 96Learning the Planes of the Face 97Adult Facial Proportions 98Exploring Other Views 99Depicting Adult Features 100Capturing a LikenessLife Drawing (Portrait)Approaching a Profile ViewWorking with LightingIncluding a BackgroundDeveloping HairDepicting AgeCreating Facial HairChildrens Facial ProportionsPortraying Childrens FeaturesDrawing a BabyChOOSing a Photo ReferenceIndicating Fair FeaturesReplicating Dark Skin TonesUnderstanding Body AnatomyAdult Body ProportionsHandsFeetShowing MovementForeshorteningUnderstanding LightingLife Drawing (Full Body)Bridal PortraitChildrens Body ProportionsChildren in ActionChOOSing a Pose1021031041061071081 101 1 11 121 141 161 18120122124125126127128129130132134136137138INDEX • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 140
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  7. 7. CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTIO N TOPeople are such interesting and varied subjects to draw. With thiscompilation of projects from some of the most popular titles in ourHow to Draw and Paint series, youll find in-depth information onevery aspect of drawing people. Featuring instruction from fouraccomplished artists, this book is filled with step-by-step demon­strations that show you how to re-create a range of people ofdiffering ages and ethnicities. Youll find plenty of helpful tips ontools and materials, shading, and other fundamental drawing tech­niques, as well as important information about the influences ofbone structure and musculature. And detailed examples of facialfeatures, hands, and feet will help guide you through the most chal­lenging aspects of drawing people. With practice, youll soon beable to capture amazing likenesses of family and friends in yourpencil drawings!7
  8. 8. 8TOOLS & MATERIALSDrawing is not only fun, it also is an important art form initself. Even when you write or print your name, you areactually drawing! If you organize the lines, you can make shapes;and when you carry that a bit further and add dark and lightshading, your drawings begin to take on a three-dimensionalform and look more realistic. One of the great things aboutdrawing is that you can do it anywhere, and the materials arevery inexpensive. You do get what you pay for, though, so pur­chase the best you can afford at the time, and upgrade yoursupplies whenever possible. Although anything that will make amark can be used for some type of drawing, youll want to makecertain your magnificent efforts will last and not fade over time.Here are some materials that will get you off to a good start.Sketch Pads Conveniently bounddrawing pads come in a widevariety of sizes, textures,weights, and bindings.They are particularlyhandy for making quicksketches and when drawing out­doors. You can use a large sketch­book in the studio for laying out apainting, or take a small one withyou for recording quick impressionswhen you travel. Smooth- to medium­grain paper texture (which is called the"tooth") often is an ideal choice.Drawing PapersFor finished works of art,using single sheets ofdrawing paper is best.They are available in arange of surface textures:smooth grain (plate andhot pressed), medium grain(cold pressed), and roughto very rough. The cold­pressed surface is the mostversatile. It is of mediumtexture but its not totallysmooth, so it makes a goodsurface for a variety of dif­ferent drawing techniques.Charcoal Papers Char­coal paper and tablets alsoare available in a varietyoftextures. Some of thesurface finishes are quitepronounced, and you canuse them to enhance thetexture in your drawings.These papers also come ina variety of colors, whichcan add depth and visualinterest to your drawings.•••••Work Station It is a good idea to set up a work area that has good lighting and enoughroom for you to work and lay out your tools. Ofcourse, an entire room with track lighting,easel, and drawing table is ideal. But all you really need is a place by a window for naturallighting. When drawing at night, you can use a soft white light bulb and a cool white fluo­rescent light so that you have both warm (yellowish) and cool (bluish) light.Tortillons These paper"stumps" can be used toblend and soften small areaswhere your finger or a clothis too large. You also canuse the sides to quicklyblend large areas. Oncethe tortilions becomedirty, simply rub themon a cloth, and theyreready to go again.Artists ErasersA kneaded eraser is amust. It can be formed intosmall wedges and pointsto remove marks in verytiny areas. Vinyl erasersare good for larger areas;they remove pencil markscompletely. Neither eraserwill damage the papersurface unless scrubbedtoo hard.Utility Knives Utilityknives (also called "craft"knives) are great forcleanly cutting drawingpapers and mat board.You also can use themfor sharpening pencils.(See the box on page 9.)Blades come in a variety ofshapes and sizes and areeasily interchanged. Butbe careful; the blades areas sharp as scalpels!
  9. 9. GATHERING THE BASICSHB,sharp pointHB,round point HB An HB with a sharp point produces crisp lines and offersgood control. With a round point, you can make slightlythicker lines and shade small areas.You dont need a lot of supplies to start; you can begin enjoyingdrawing with just a #2 or an HB pencil, a sharpener, a vinyleraser, and any piece of paper. You always can add more pencils,charcoal, tortillons, and such later. When shopping for pencils,notice that they are labeled with letters and numbers; these indi­cate the degree of lead softness. Pencils with B leads are softerthan those with H leads, and so they make darker strokes. An HBis in between, which makes it very versatile and a good beginnerstool. The chart at right shows a variety of drawing tools and thekinds of strokes that are achieved with each one. As you expandyour pencil supply, practice shaping different points and creatingdifferent effects with each by varying the pressure you put on thepencil. The more comfortable you are with your tools, the betteryour drawings will be!4B,---�!!!ADDING ONUnless you already have a drawing table, you may want to pur­chase a drawing board. It doesnt have to be expensive; just getone large enough to accommodate individual sheets of drawingpaper. Consider getting one with a cut-out handle, especially ifyou want to draw outdoors, so you easily can carry it with you.Spray Fix A fixative "sets" a drawing and protects it from smearing. Some artists avoidusing fixative on pencil drawings because it tends to deepen the light shadings and elimi·flat pointFlatsketchingcharcoalVinecharcoalWhitecharcoalContecrayonContepencilFlat For wider strokes, use the sharp point of a flat 4B. A large,flat sketch pencil is great for shading large areas, but the sharp,chiseled edge can be used to make thinner lines too.Charcoal 4B charcoal is soft, so it makes a dark mark.Natural charcoal vines are even softer, and they leave amore crumbly residue on the paper. Some artists use whitecharcoal pencils for blending and lightening areas in theirdrawings.Conte Crayon or Pencil Conte crayon is made from veryfine Kaolin clay. Once it came only in black, white, red, andnate some delicate values. However, fixative works well forcharcoal drawings. Fixative is sanguine sticks, but now its also available in a wide range ofavailable in spray cans or in bottles, but you need a mouth atomizer to use bottled fixative. colored pencils. Because its water soluble, it can be blendedSpray cans are more convenient, and they give a finer spray and more even coverage. with a wet brush or cloth.S H ARP E N I N G YO U R D RAW I N G IMPL E M E N TSA Utility Knife can be used to form different points(chiseled, blunt, or flat) than are possible with an ordi·nary pencil sharpener. Hold the knife at a slight angleto the pencil shaft, and always sharpen away from you,taking offonly a little wood and graphite at a time.A Sandpaper Block will quickly hone the lead intoany shape you wish. It also will sand down some ofthewood. The finer the grit of the paper, the more control·lable the resulting point. Roll the pencil in your fingerswhen sharpening to keep the shape even.Rough Paper is wonderful for smoothing the pencilpoint after tapering it with sandpaper. This also is agreat way to create a very fine point for small details.Again, it is important to gently roll the pencil whilehoning to sharpen the lead evenly.9
  10. 10. 10TH E ELEM ENTS OF DRAWI NGDrawing consists of three elements: line, shape, and form. The shape of an object can be described with simple one-dimensionalline. The three-dimensional version of the shape is known as the objects "form." In pencil drawing, variations in value (the rela­tive lightness or darkness of black or a color) describe form, giving an object the illusion of depth. In pencil drawing, values rangefrom black (the darkest value) through different shades of gray to white (the lightest value). To make a two-dimensional object appearthree-dimensional, you must pay attention to the values of the highlights and shadows. When shading a subject, you must always con­sider the light source, as this is what determines where your highlights and shadows will be.MOVING FROM SHAPE TO FORMThe first step in creating an object is establishing a line drawingor outline to delineate the flat area that the object takes up. Thisis known as the "shape" of the object. The four basic shapes­the rectangle, circle, triangle, and square-can appear to bethree-dimensional by adding a few carefully placed lines thatsuggest additional planes. By adding ellipses to the rectangle,circle, and triangle, youve given the shapes dimension and havebegun to produce a form within space. Now the shapes are acylinder, sphere, and cone. Add a second square above and tothe side of the first square, connect them with parallel lines, andyou have a cube.CR E AT I N G VAL U E S CAL E SJust as a musician uses a musical scale to measure arange of notes, an artist uses a value scale to mea­sure changes in value. You can refer to the value scaleso youll always know how dark to make your darkvalues and how light to make your highlights. Thescale also serves as a guide for transitioning fromlighter to darker shades. Making your own value scalewill help familiarize you with the different variationsin value. Work from light to dark, adding more andmore tone for successively darker values (as shownat upper right). Then create a blended value scale(shown at lower right). Use a tortillon to smudge andblend each value into its neighboring value from lightto dark to create a gradation.ADDING VALUE TO CREATE FORMA shape can be further defined by showing how light hits theobject to create highlights and shadows. First note from whichdirection the source of light is coming. (In these examples, thelight source is beaming from the upper right.) Then add theshadows accordingly, as shown in the examples below. The coreshadow is the darkest area on the object and is opposite the lightsource. The cast shadow is what is thrown onto a nearby surfaceby the object. The highlight is the lightest area on the object,where the reflection of light is strongest. Reflected light, oftenoverlooked by beginners, is surrounding light reflected into theshadowed area of an object.
  11. 11. BASIC PENCI L TECH N IQU ESYOU can create an incredible variety of effects with a pencil. By using various hand positions and shading techniques, you can pro­duce a world of different lines and strokes. If you vary the way you hold the pencil, the mark the pencil makes changes. Its justas important to notice your pencil point. The point is every bit as essential as the type of lead in the pencil. Experiment with differenthand positions and techniques to see what your pencil can do!GRIPPING THE PENCILMany artists use two main hand positions for drawing. The writing position is good for very detailed work that requires fine hand con­trol. The underhand position allows for a freer stroke with more arm movement-the motion is almost like painting. (See the captionsbelow for more information on using both hand positions.)Using the Writing Position This familiar position provides the most control. The accu­rate, precise lines that result are perfect for rendering fine details and accents. When yourhand is in this position, place a clean sheet of paper under your hand to prevent smudging.Using theUnderhand Position Pick up the pencil with your hand over it, holding thepencil between the thumb and index finger; the remaining fingers can rest alongside thepencil. You can create beautiful shading effects from this position.PRACTICING BASIC TECHNIQUESBy studying the basic pencil techniques below, you can learn to render everything from a smooth complexion and straight hair toshadowed features and simple backgrounds. Whatever techniques you use, though, remember to shade evenly. Shading in a mechani­cal, side-to-side direction, with each stroke ending below the last, can create unwanted bands of tone throughout the shaded area.Instead try shading evenly, in a back-and-forth motion over the same area, varying the spot where the pencil point changes direction.Hatching This basic method of shading involves fillingan area with a series of parallel strokes. The closer thestrokes, the darker the tone will be_Shading Darkly By applying heavy pressure to the pen­cil, you can create dark, linear areas of shading.Crosshatching For darker shading, place layers of paral­lel strokes on top of one another at varying angles. Again,make darker values by placing the strokes closer together.Shading with Texture For a mottled texture, use theside of the pencil tip to apply small, uneven strokes.Gradating To create graduated values (from dark tolight), apply heavy pressure with the side of your pencil,gradually lightening the pressure as you stroke_Blending To smooth out the transitions between strokes,gently rub the lines with a tortillon or tissue_11
  12. 12. 12OTH ER WAYS TO SHADEPRACTICING LINESWhen drawing lines, it is not necessary to always use a sharppoint. In fact, sometimes a blunt point may create a more desir­able effect. When using larger lead diameters, the effect of ablunt point is even more evident. Play around with your pencilsto familiarize yourself with the different types of lines they cancreate. Make every kind of stroke you can think of, using both asharp point and a blunt point. Practice the strokes below to helpyou loosen up.As you experiment, you will find that some of your doodles willbring to mind certain imagery or textures. For example, littleVs can be reminiscent of birds flying, whereas wavy lines canindicate water.I,,......,--�-�­�-----_............ ...--- .1 if /Il /ltf ��I"I �I �-till; �)I��(/1/- �Ii Jt!v �v<..-uVvvv("<-"-v <.J ....,� -- -----�=-- -- ---Iv VV; :/I/vv"v -IVvVV vDrawing with a Sharp Point First draw a series of parallel lines. Try them vertically;then angle them. Make some of them curved, trying both short and long strokes. Then trysome wavy lines at an angle and some with short, vertical strokes. Try making a spiral andthen grouping short, curved lines together. Then practice varying the weight ofthe line asyou draw. Os, Vs, and Us are some of the most common alphabet shapes used in drawing.�,---.....-Drawing with a Blunt Point It is good to take the same exercises and try them with ablunt point. Even if you use the same hand positions and strokes, the results will be differ·ent when you switch pencils. Take a look at these examples. The same shapes were drawnwith both pencils, but the blunt pencil produced different images. You can create a bluntpoint by rubbing the tip ofthe pencil on a sandpaper block or on a rough piece of paper."PAINTING" WITH PENCILWhen you use painterly strokes, your drawing will take on a newdimension. Think of your pencil as a brush and allow yourselfto put more of your arm into the stroke. To create this effect, tryusing the underhand position, holding your pencil between yourthumb and forefinger and using the side of the pencil. (See page1 1 .) If you rotate the pencil in your hand every few strokes, youwill not have to sharpen it as frequently. The larger the lead, thewider the stroke will be. The softer the lead, the more painterlyan effect you will have. These examples were all made on smoothpaper with a 6B pencil, but you can experiment with roughpapers for more broken effects.Starting Simply Firstexperiment with vertical,horizontal, and curvedstrokes. Keep the strokesclose together and beginwith heavy pressure. Thenlighten the pressure witheach stroke.Varying the PressureRandomly cover thearea with tone, varyingthe pressure at differentpoints. Continue to keepyour strokes loose.Using Smaller StrokesMake small circles for thefirst example. This is remi­niscent of leathery animalskin. For the secondexample (at far right), useshort, alternating strokesof heavy and light pressureto create a pattern that issimilar to stone or brick.Loosening Up Use longvertical strokes, varyingthe pressure for eachstroke until you start tosee long grass (at right).Then use somewhat loosermovements that couldbe used forwater (at farright). First create shortspiral movements withyour arm (above). Thenuse a wavy movement,varying the pressure(below).
  13. 13. FINDING YOUR STYLE WORKING WITH DIFFERENT TECHNIQUESMany great artists of the past can now be identified by theirunique experiments with line. Van Goghs drawings were a feastof calligraphic lines; Seurat became synonymous with pointillism;and Giacometti was famous for his scribble. Can you find youridentity in a pencil stroke?Below are several examples of techniques that can be done withpencil. These techniques are important for creating more paint­erly effects in your drawing. Remember that B pencils have softlead and H pencils have hard lead-you will need to use both forthese exercises.Using Criss-CrossedStrokes If you like agood deal of fine detail inyour work, youll find thatcrosshatching allows you alot of control (see page 11).You can adjust the depthofyour shading bychanging the distancebetween your strokes.Sketching CircularScribbles If you workwith round, loose strokeslike these, you are prob·ably very experimentalwith your art. Theselooping lines suggest afree-form style that is moreconcerned with evoking amood than with capturingprecise details.Drawing SmallDotsThis technique is called"stippling"-many smalldots are used to create alarger picture. Make thepoints different sizes tocreate various depths andshading effects. Stipplingtakes a great deal of preci­sion and practice.Simulating Brush­strokes You can createthe illusion of brush­strokes by using short,sweeping lines. Thiscaptures the feeling ofpainting but allows youthe same control youwould get from cross­hatching. These strokesare ideal for a morestylistic approach.Smudging is an importanttechnique for creating shadingand gradients. Use a tortillonor chamois cloth to blend yourstrokes. It is important to not useyour finger, because your hand,even if clean, has natural oilsthat can damage your art.S M U D G I N GSmudging on RoughSurfaces Use a 6B pencilon vellum-finish Bristol board.Make your strokes with theside ofthe pencil and blend. Inthis example, the effect is verygranular.Creating Washes Firstshade an area with a water­soluble pencil (a pencil thatproduces washes similarto watercolor paint whenmanipulated with water).Then blend the shading witha wet brush. Make sure yourbrush isnt too wet, and usethicker paper, such as vel­lum board.Rubbing Place paper overan object and rub the sideofyour pencil lead overthe paper. The strokes ofyour pencil will pick up thepattern and replicate it onthe paper. Try using a softpencil on smooth paper,and choose an object with astrong textural pattern. Thisexample uses a wire grid.Lifting Out Blend a softpencil on smooth paper, andthen lift out the desired areaof graphite with an eraser.You can create highlightsand other interesting effectswith this technique.Producing IndentedLines Draw a pattern ordesign on the paper with asharp, non-marking object,like a knitting needle orskewer, before drawing witha pencil. When you shadeover the area with the sideofyour pencil, the graphitewill not reach the indentedareas, leaving white lines.Smudging on SmoothSurfaces Use a 4B pencil onplate-finish Bristol board. Strokewith the side ofthe pencil, andthen blend your strokes with ablending stump.13
  14. 14. 14LEARNI NG TO SEEMany beginners draw without really looking carefully at theirsubject; instead of drawing what they actually see, theydraw what they think they see. Try drawing something you knowwell, such as your hand, without looking at it. Chances are yourfinished drawing wont look as realistic as you expected. Thatsbecause you drew what you think your hand looks like. Instead,you need to forget about all your preconceptions and learn todraw only what you really see in front of you (or in a photo).Two great exercises for training your eye to see are contourdrawing and gesture drawing.PENCILING THE CONTOURSIn contour drawing, you pick a starting point on your subjectand then draw only the contours-or outlines-of the shapesyou see. Because youre not looking at your paper, youre trainingyour hand to draw the lines exactly as your eye sees them. Trydoing some contour drawings of your own; youll be surprised athow well youre able to capture the subjects.To test your observationskills, stLldy an object verycloselyJar aJew minLltes,and then close your eyes andtry drawing itJrom memory,letUng your handJollow• Drawing "Blind" For the contour drawing on theleft, the artist occasionally looked down at the paper.The drawing on the right is an example of a blind contourdrawing, where the artist drew without looking at his papereven once. Its a little distorted, but its clearly a hand.Blind contour drawing is one ofthe best ways of makingsure youre truly drawing only what you see.the mental image.... Drawing with aContinuous Line Whendrawing this man pushing awheelbarrow, try glancing onlyoccasionally at your paper tocheck that you are on track, butconcentrate on really lookingat the subject and tracing theoutlines you see. Instead oflifting your pencil betweenshapes, keep the line unbrokenby freely looping back andcrossing overyour lines. Noticehow this simple techniqueeffectively captures the subject.Drawing Children Once you have trained your eye to observe carefully and can draw quickly, youll be able to capture actions such as this child looking and then reaching into the bag.
  15. 15. DRAWING GESTURE AND ACTIONAnother way to train your eye to see the essential elementsof a subject-and train your hand to record them rapidly-isthrough gesture drawing. Instead of rendering the contours,gesture drawings establish the movement of a figure. First deter­mine the main thrust of the movement, from the head, down thespine, and through the legs; this is the line oj action, or actionline. Then briefly sketch the general shapes of the figure aroundthis line. These quick sketches are great for practicing drawingfigures in action and sharpening your powers of observation.IIj--.;... Studying Repeated Action Group sports provide a great opportunity for practicinggesture drawings and learning to see the essentials. Because the players keep repeatingthe same action, you will be able to observe each movement closely and keep it in yourmemory long enough to sketch it correctly....(--- JI (�I IDrawing a Group in Motion Once you have compiled a series of gesture drawings, youll be able to combine them into a scene of football players in action.... Starting with anAction Line Once youestablish the line of action,try building a "skeleton"stick drawing aroundit. Here the artist paidparticular attention to theangles of the shoulders,spine, and pelvis. Then hesketched in the placementof the arms, knees, andfeet and roughly filled outthe basic shapes ofthefigure.... Working Quickly Tocapture the action accu­rately, work very quickly,without including evena suggestion of detail. Ifyou want to correct a line,dont stop to erase; justdraw over it.15
  16. 16. 16PEOPLE I N PERSPECTIVEKnowing the principles of perspective (the representation of objects on a two-dimensional surface that creates the illusion of three­dimensional depth and distance) allows you to draw more than one person in a scene realistically. Eye level changes as yourelevation of view changes. In perspective, eye level is indicated by the horizon line. Imaginary lines receding into space meet on thehorizon line at what are known as "vanishing points." Any figures drawn along these lines will be in proper perspective. Study thediagrams below to help you.VPVanishing pOint (VP) Horizon lineV�P �==�=====H�orizon�line �f��__-Note that objects appearsmaller and less detailed as theyrecede into the distance.->--"-- -- - - --IIIHorizon lineIIIII-
  17. 17. Try drawing a frontal view of many heads as if they were in atheater. Start by establishing your vanishing point at eye level.Draw one large head representing the person closest to you, anduse it as a reference for determining the sizes of the other figuresIf youre a beginner, you may want to beginwith basic one-point perspective, shown onthis page. As you progress, attempt toincorporate two- or three-pointperspective. For more in-depthinformation, refer to thebook Perspective (ALl3) inWalter Fosters ArtistsLibrary series.-[1------1i---VPVPin the drawing. The technique illustrated above can be appliedwhen drawing entire figures, shown in the diagram below.Although all of these examples include just one vanishing point,a composition can even have two or three vanishing points.Horizon line---7!-----./1/ :I I/ I��-- -} --PI,----�....,17
  18. 18. 18PLACI NG PEOPLE I N A COMPOSITIONThe positioning and size of a person on the picture plane (the physical area covered by the drawing) is of utmost importance tothe composition, or the arrangements of elements on your paper. The open or "negative" space around the portrait subject gener­ally should be larger than the area occupied by the subject, providing a sort of personal space surrounding them. Whether you aredrawing only the face, a head-and-shoulders portrait, or a complete figure, thoughtful positioning will establish a pleasing compositionwith proper balance. Practice drawing thumbnail sketches of people to study the importance of size and positioning.BASICS OF PORTRAITURECorrect placement on the picture plane is key to a good portrait, and the eyes of the subject are the key to placement. The eyes catchthe viewers attention first, so they should not be placed on either the horizontal or vertical centerline of the picture plane; preferably,the eyes should be placed above the centerline. Avoid drawing too near the sides, top, or bottom of the picture plane, as this gives anuneasy feeling of imbalance.Toofar rightr��,t�Too lowGood placement... Placement of a Portrait The smaller thumbnails here show the girls head placedtoo far to the side and too low in the picture plane, suggesting that she might "slide offthe page. The larger sketch shows the face at a comfortable and balanced horizontal andvertical position, which allows room to add an additional element of interest to enhance thecomposition.)Vanishing pOint Horizon line or eye levelID-- --- --Perspective lines (solid)�-c;________ _ _ _ _._Horizontal placementguidelines (dotted)Multiple Subjects If you are drawing several, similarly sized subjects, use the rules ofperspective to determine relative size (see pages 16-17) . Draw a vanishing point on a hori­zon line and a pair of perspective lines. Receding guidelines extended from the perspectivelines will indicate the top ofthe head and chin offaces throughout the composition. Theheads become smaller as they get farther from the viewer.ADDING ELEMENTS TO PORTRAITSMany portraits are drawn without backgrounds to avoid dis­tracting the viewer from the subject. If you do add backgroundelements to portraits, be sure to control the size, shape, andarrangement of elements surrounding the figure. Additionsshould express the personality or interests of the subject.� Depicting theSubjects InterestThis portrait of a youngman includes a back­ground that shows hisinterest in rocketry.The straight lines in thebackground contrast therounded shapes of thehuman form. Although thebackground detail is com­plex, it visually recedesand serves to balance themans weight. The focusremains on the man, butweve generated visualinterest by adding ele­ments to the composition.<III Repetition ofShapes within thePortrait The delicatefeatures of this youngwoman are emphasizedby the simple, abstractelements in the back­ground. The flowing curvesfill much of the negativespace while accenting theelegance ofthe womanshair and features. Sim­plicity of form is importantin this composition; theportrait highlights only herhead and neck. Notice thather eyes meet the eyes ofthe viewer-a dramaticand compelling feature.
  19. 19. Intentionally drawing your subject largerthan the image area, as in the examplebelow, can create a unique composition.Even if part of the image is cut off, thiskind of close-up creates a dramatic mood.You can create a flow or connectionbetween multiple subjects in a composi­tion by creatively using circles andellipses, as shown below.oCurved lines are good compositionelements-they can evoke harmony andbalance in your work. Try drawing somecurved lines around the paper. The emptyareas guide you in placing figures aroundyour drawing.Sharp angles can produce dramatic com­positions. Draw a few straight lines invarious angles, and make them intersect atcertain points. Zigzagging lines also formsharp corners that give the compositionan energetic feeling.Guiding the Eye Thecompositions above and tothe left illustrate how armposition, eyesight direc­tion, and line intersectioncan guide the eye to aparticular point of interestUsing these examples, tryto design some of your ownoriginal compositions.19
  20. 20. 20ADDING COMPLETE FIGU RESCreating a composition that shows a complete person can be challenging. A standing figure is much taller than it is wide, so the fig­ure should be positioned so that its action relates naturally to the eye level of the viewer and the horizon line. To place more thanone figure on the picture plane, use perspective as we did with the portrait heads. Remember that people appear smaller and less distinctwhen they are more distant. For comfortable placement of people in a composition, they should be on the same eye level as the viewerwith the horizon line about waist high.B. IHorizon line Perspective linesVanishing pointHorizontal placement guidelines----�r�r-:-�, rFull Figure Placement In thumbnail A,the subject is too perfectly centered in thepicture plane. In thumbnail B, the figure isplaced too far to the left. Thumbnail C is anexample of effective placement of a humanfigure in a composition.Sizing Multiple Figures For realisticcompositions, we need to keep figures inproportion. All the figures here are in pro·portion; we use perspective to determinethe height of each figure. Start by drawinga horizon line and placing a vanishingpoint on it. Then draw your main character(on the right here) to which all others willbe proportional. Add light perspectivelines from the top and bottom of the figureto the vanishing point to determine theheight of other figures. If we want figureson the other side of the vanishing point,we draw horizontal placement guidelinesfrom the perspective lines to determine hisheight, and then add perspective lines onthat side.Line of Sight Figures in a compositionlike this one can relate to one another orto objects within the scene through line ofsight (shown here as dotted lines). Youcan show line of sight with the eyes, butalso by using head position and even apointing hand. These indications can guidethe viewer to a particular point of interestin the composition. Though the man on theleft is facing forward, his eyes are lookingto our right. The viewers eye follows theline of sight ofthose within the drawingand is guided around the picture plane asthe people interact. The man at the top islooking straight up.
  21. 21. PLACEMENT OF SINGLE AND GROUPED FIGURESArtists often use the external shape and mass of figures to assist in placing elements within a composition-individual figures formvarious geometric shapes based on their pose, and several figures in close proximity form one mass. Establish a concept of what youwant to show in your composition, and make thumbnail studies before attempting the final drawing. The following exercise is basedon using the shape and mass of Single and grouped figures to create the drawing at the bottom of the page.Step One Begin by consideringthe overall setting-foreground, middle ground, andbackground-for a subject like these children at the beach. You can use elements from dif­ferent photos and place them in one setting. Block in the basic shapes of your subjects; theboy in the foreground is a clipped triangular shape, and the group of children forms a roughrectangle. Determine balanced placement ofthe two masses of people.- ..... --Step Two Next, sketch in outlines of the figures. The little boy with the shovel and pailoccupies an area close to the viewer. The three children occupy a slightly smaller mass inthe middle ground at the waters edge. Even though there are three children in this area,they balance the little boy through size and placement at the opposite corner. The wave andwater line unite the composition and lead the eye between the two masses....--..... .Step Three Place yourfigures so that they fitcomfortably on the pictureplane. Add detail andshading to elements thatare important in the com­position. Use an elementin the foreground to helpdirect the viewers eye toother areas, such as theoutstretched arm oftheboy. Placing the small rockbetween the middle- andforeground creates avisual stepping stone tothe three children at right.21
  22. 22. 22BEG I N N I NG PORTRAITU REAgood starting point for drawing people is the head and face.The shapes are fairly simple, and the proportions are easyto measure. And portraiture also is very rewarding. Youll feela great sense of satisfaction when you look at a portrait youvedrawn and see a true likeness of your subject, especially whenthe model is someone near and dear to you. So why not startwith children?DRAWING A CHILDS PORTRAITOnce youve practiced drawing features, youre ready for a fullportrait. Youll probably want to draw from a photo, though, aschildren rarely sit still for very long! Study the features carefully,and try to draw what you truly see, and not what you think aneye or a nose should look like. But dont be discouraged if youdont get a perfect likeness right off the bat. Just keep practicing!� Starting with aGood Photo Whenworking from photo·graphs, you may prefercandid, relaxed poses overformal, "shoulders square"portraits. Also try to get aclose·up shot of the faceso you can really study thefeatures. This photographof 2·1/2·year·old Gage fitsthe bill perfectly! /IJ(I... Sketching theGuidelines First pencilan oval for the shape ofthe head, and lightly drawa vertical centerline. Thenadd horizontal guidelinesaccording to the chart atthe top of the page, andsketch in the general out·lines of the features. Whenyoure happy with theoverall sketch, carefullyerase the guidelines.... Separating theFeatures Before youattempt a full portrait,try drawing the featuresseparately to get a feelfor the shapes and forms.Look at faces in books andmagazines, and draw asmany different features asyou can.... Finishing thePortrait With the sideofyour pencil, start layingin the middle values ofthe shadow areas,increasing the pressureslightly around the eye,nose, and collar. For thedarkest shadows andGages straight, black hair,use the side of a 2B andoverlap your strokes,adding a few fine hairsalong the forehead withthe sharp·pointed tip ofyour pencil.112114... Child ProportionsDraw guidelines to dividethe head in half horizon·tally; then divide the lowerhalf into fourths. Use theguidelines to place theeyes, nose, ears, andmouth, as shown.COMMONPROPORT I ON FLAWSQuite a few things are wrong with thesedrawings of Gages head. Compare themwith the photo at left, and see if you canspot the errors before reading the captions.Thin Neck Gage hasa slender neck, but notthis slender. Refer tothe photo to see wherehis neck appears totouch his face and ear.Not EnoughForehead Childrenhave proportionatelylarger foreheadsthan adults do. Bydrawing the foreheadtoo small, you will addyears to Gages age.Cheeks Too RoundChildren do haveround faces, but dontmake them look likechipmunks. And besure to make the earsround, not pointed.Sticks for EyelashesEyelashes should notstick straight out likespokes on a wheel. Anddraw the teeth as oneshape; dont try to draweach tooth separately.
  23. 23. DRAWING THE ADULT HEADAn adults head has slightly different proportions than a childshead, but the drawing process is the same: Sketch in guidelinesto place the features, and start with a sketch of basic shapes. Anddont forget the profile view. Adults with interesting features area lot of fun to draw from the side, where you can really see theshape of the brow, the outline of the nose, and the form of the lips.EXPRESSING EMOTION<III Adult ProportionsLook for the proportionsthat make your adultsubject unique; notice thedistance from the top ofthe head to the eyes, fromthe eyes to the nose, andfrom the nose to the chin.Look at where the mouthfalls between the nose andthe chin and where theears align with the eyesand the nose.Its great fun to draw a wide range of differ­ent facial expressions and emotions, especiallyones that are extreme. Because these are juststudies and not formal portraits, draw looselyto add energy and a look of spontaneity, asif a camera had captured the face at just thatmoment. You usually dont need to botherwith a background-you dont want anythingto detract from the expression-but you maywant to draw the neck and shoulders so thehead doesnt appear to be floating in space.� Happy Young childrenhave smooth complexions,so make their smile linesfairly subtle. Use lightshading with the sideofyour pencil to createcreases around the mouth,and make the eyes slightlynarrower to show howsmiles pull up the cheekmuscles.-I� Surprised Leave a lotof the face white to keepmost ofthe attention onthe eyes and mouth. Usethe tip of the pencil for theloose expression lines and ,the side for the mass ofdark hair.<III Portraying theProfile The artist likedthis fellows pronouncedfeatures, so he drew thesubject in profile. He usedthe point and the side ofan HB for this pose.Ifyou cantfinda photo ofan expressionyou want to draw, try lookingin a mirror and drawingyour own expressions.<III Shocked When youwant to show an extremeexpression, focus on thelines around the eyesand mouth. Exposingthe whole, roundshape ofthe irisconveys a sense of) shock, just as theexposed eyelidand open mouth do.That way you can"custom make" them!23
  24. 24. CHAPTER 2WITH KEN GO LDMANKen Goldman is a popular instructor at the Athenaeum Schoolof the Arts in La Jolla, California, where he teaches portraiture,artistic anatomy, and landscape painting classes. Ken also is theauthor of six Walter Foster books, including Pastel 1; Pastel:Landscapes; Acrylic 1; and Basic Anatomy and Figure Drawing inthe How to Draw and Paint series; as well as Charcoal Drawing inthe Artists Library series and Understanding Values in the DrawingMade Easy series. Ken received his training in New York at the ArtStudents League of New York, National Academy, and New YorkStudio School. A recipient of numerous awards, Ken has exhibitedwidely in group shows and in more than 30 one-man shows in theUnited States, Mexico, and Europe. His artwork is featured in thepermanent collections of several major museums. Ken lives in SanDiego, California, with his artist-wife Stephanie Goldman.25
  25. 25. 26EXPLORI NG TH E TORSO: FRONT VI EWjugular -----1����tc���J�������.:y----- acromionnotch process-;.----- humerus��-=7"";...",:c.rr-------- sternum::---41"6j-P..,ll.:::.......o;;,..40�---- xiphoid processthoracic arch ------;r,.�T""�,�t_------ lOth rib..,;::0-:--------- iliac crestpelvic girdle ------1+---- anterior superioranterior inJerior -------L�iliac spineiliac spinegreat trochanter ----" �tir--��!6�rao:!�.:--=----- symphysis pubisISkeleton Some parts of the skeletal system are important to the artist because theyare prominent and so serve as visual landmarks. Several bones ofthe torsos frontalskeleton are obvious even beneath the skin, including the clavicles, acromion processes,sternum, thoracic arch, 10th rib, anteriorsuperioriliac spines, and great trochanters.The spinal column comprises 24 vertebrae, divided into 3 sections: The cervical (or neck)region has 7 vertebrae, the thoracic (or chest) region has 12, and the lumbar (or lowerback) region has 5.clavicleacromion ___-.!rprocess(/---------.--f--- sternumdeltoid ---"Alatissimus ------+-----..,..-++---i--- xiphoiddorsiprocessserratus anterior -----"10th rib C7 linea alba- , -0)I/ )iliac spine -----+--A. {¥---------- ingUinalligamentDiagram of Landmarks The observable muscles and bony landmarks labeled on theillustration above are the most important forartists who want to draw the torsos surfaceanatomy from the front view. focus on accurately portraying these anatomical features toachieve a lifelike drawing, such as the example at right.stemomastoid .::..,--------- trapezius--:----- deltoid-,...:.:::...,e�-<-:"--:i--- pectoralismajor1.-11:---;-;:--;--- latissimusdorsi�fI----- serratus anteriorif.--�"--:l-i------- linea alba�;;:�iil�-lr----- external oblique-,"1"":-&1+---- rectus abdominusTrunk Muscles The torsos movement is dependent on and restricted by the spine­both the chest and the pelvis twist and turn on this fixed, yet flexible, column. And therelationship between the rib cage, the shoulders, and the pelvis creates the shape of thetrunk muscles. The pectoral (breast) muscles are divided by the sternum, the rectusabdominus is divided by the linea alba, and the external obliques-which are interwovenwith the serratus anterior-bind the eight lowest ribs to the pelvic girdle.-----==c;--:--- pectoralismajoranterior spines ----t-:-:-:--:.oj the iliac crestDrawing Tips Use the bony skeletal landmarks, which are apparent despite the layers ofmuscles, to guide the placement ofthe features. for example, the nipples align verticallywith the anteriorspines of the iliac crest. Note also that the pectoralis majorsweeps acrossthe chest and over to the arm, ending nearly horizontal to the nipples.
  26. 26. EXPLORI NG TH E TORSO: BACK VI EW7th cervical vertebraeclavicle _____________spine oj ------.,,�--7=:;.��,��E������;�;�;---- acromionscapula;:process-:!:----- humerusinner margin ---��-i�-tt������;,oj scapula1 1 th and 12th ribs ---==---�-r--_/ �I"d..,:;;,",,�,r-�T------ 12th thoracicvertebraelumbar region ----------iiliac crestl�i:1�t==�F==-- posterior superioriliac spine--j----;T.--------- sacrumgreat trochanter ----Skeleton The back is one of the most challenging parts of the body to draw because ofits skeletal and muscular complexity. From the artists point ofview, the most importantbones visible from the rear skeletal view are the 7th celVical vertebrae, the posteriorsupe·riariliacspines (dimples on the pelvic girdle), and the sacrum, which together form thesacral triangle-a major anatomical landmark at the base of the spine.trapeziusinJraspinatus �deltoidteres major 16 �I� <::::..... Iinner margin __-----=-7,oj scapulalatissimus dorsi -----+-iliac crest --------+."posteriorsuperior iliacspine---------- nuchal ligament7th cervical vertebrae.....,._---- acromionprocessspine ojscapula--------- serratus- -- anterior-t-----,f-------::,.- sacrospinalis,--,_�_ 4----- external oblique )....._..l....____ gluteus medius---,f-----+-------- sacrum--+(-�)�---gluteus maximusDiagram of Landmarks The observable muscles and bony landmarks labeled on theillustration above are the most important for artists who want to draw the torsos surfaceanatomy from the rear view. Focus on accurately rendering these anatomical markers toachieve a lifelike drawing, such as the example at right.7th cervical vertebraeacromion ------"7���p."""�processdeltoid ----...;;inJraspinatusinner marginoj scapula"�r,l--------- sternomastoid-..,...:"==------ trapezius"7"---:-.....-:-:-,.,---- spine ojscapula(;:o.-::=�=+-- teres minorteres majorserratusanterior12th thoracic _-----�-::��r-1t!:·t.,�=.....,q..---- latissimus dorsivertebraesacrospinalisposteriorsuperior iliacspine:"Il;l�I----- external oblique.I":�l------- iliac crest,.---- gluteus medius----:-.,---:-i,...------- sacrum� gluteus maximus�great trochanterTrunk Muscles The back has many overlapping muscles; our focus will be on the upperlayer, which is more immediately apparent to the eye. The trapezius connects the skullto the scapula (shoulder blade) muscles-deltoid, infraspinatus, teres minar, and teresmajor-which connect to the arm. The latissimus dorsi attaches under the arm, extendingto the pelvis. And the gluteus medius bulges at the hip before meeting with the gluteusmaximus.�--..:....,------ 7th cervical vertebraeinJraspinatus � =-:;;----"r---- spine ojscapula�<!.d::::----- delLoidteres major ---..:.:.---inner margin �oj scapula�_"-:-�::":-:-:-�T----- sacral triangleDrawing Tips Under the skin, back muscles are not easy to discern. However, thetrapezius, 7th celVical vertebrae, spine ofscapula, innermargin ofscapula, deltoid, infra­spinatus, and teres major are all fairly evident. To depict the nuchal ligament, 7th celVicalvertebrae, spinal column, and sacral triangle, draw a long line and an upside-down triangle.27
  27. 27. 28EXPLORI NG TH E TORSO: SI DE VI EWcervical curveacromion process clavicleinner margin humerusofscapulasternal anglethoracic curve10th riblumbar curveiliac crestsacrumsacral curvecoccyxgreat trochanter pubic boneSkeleton The visual landmarks ofthe skeleton in profile are the 7th cervical vertebrae,acromion process, innermargin afscapula, and backbone. The backbones four curves­cervical (forward), thoracic (backward), lumbar (forward), and sacral (backward)-arrangethe head, chest, and pelvic girdle over the legs for balance.deltoid --------t-L-�angle ofscapula ----.,latissimus dorsi -------t----"�---,,.------- deltoidfurrow---.::0..:------ pectoralis major--:--�---j----- mammaryfat---------- serratus anterior�)-------10th rib"iliac crest ----------+-----, ---+---- external oblique-,..<...--/------ iliacfurrowgluteus medius -------:-(-------lgluteus maximus----,great trochanter--------r---f+- abdominalfatDiagram of Landmarks It is lack offat in addition to degree of muscularity that deter­mines surface definition. To render the female form, its important to become familiar withfat deposit areas, including the flank (iliac crest); buttocks (gluteus); and stomach (abdo­min), especially below the navel. Mammary fat accounts for the smoothness of the breast.trapeziu.7::---------- sternomastoidacromion process clavicleinfraspinatusdeltoidteres majorpectoralis majorserratus anteriorlatissimus dorsirectus abdominussacrospinalisexternal obliqueiliac crestgluteus mediusanterior superioriliac spinegluteus maximustensorfasciae lataegreat trochanterTrunk Muscles The upper torso muscles-as well as the scapula, which is anchored bymuscle to the spine, ribs, and arms-follow and influence all arm movement. Mid·torsomuscles, such as external oblique, rectus abdominus, and latissimus dorsi, bend, twist, andstabilize the rib cage and pelvis. Muscles below the pelvicgirdle activate the legs.Drawing Tips Female figures display a more fluid contour than do male figures, largelybecause ofthe females extra fatty layer, which serves a reproductive purpose but alsoobscures muscular form. Muscular structure is basically the same for both sexes, but thewidth and angle of the pelvis makes the skeleton more recognizably male or female.
  28. 28. EXPLORI NG TH E TORSO:FRONT VIEWHeadProportion The pelvic girdleis about 1 head high, and thetorso-from trochanters to 7thcervical vertebroe-is about 3heads high.BACK VIEW321321Trapezoids represent the overallbone structure of the torso fromboth front and rear views. Hereyou can see the same three·partdivision.SIDE VIEW,I)/oj;321The simplified torso from the sideview has a bean-shaped appear­ance, but the same proportionaldivisions of the torso apply.Simplified FiguretteSketching with simple lines andbasic shapes is a good way toestablish the base ofa figuredrawing.This simplified sketch from theback view includes an importantfeature: a line from the 7thcervical vertebrae to the sacraltriangle.IThe simplified figurette in profilemakes use ofthe bean and ovalshapes that appear in the pro­portional drawing at left.Tips The nipples, 1 head-widthapart, are vertically aligned withpelvic landmarks and diagonallyaligned with the acromian pro­cesses.On an erect figure, the bonesof both the lower ribs and theupper spine are apparent, where­as the lumbar region looks likea furrow.cervicalcurvethoraciccurvelumbar �)curve �sacralcurve__�s.1.-=-_Each spinal segment curvesmore as the column descendstoward the sacrum. The thoracicregion has the longest curve.TI PSBDetail Note the relationship between the skeletal and muscular struc­tures (A). The linea alba (interrupting tendons) ofthe rectus abdominiscreate a "six pack" appearance as they arch progressively highertoward the sternum (B). Two ofthe interrupting tendons line up withthe 10th rib and the navel (e).BDThe shape of the trapezius is similar to that of a kite (A) or a four­pointed star (e). The simplified shape of the latissimus dorsi suggeststhe appearance of an upside-down triangle (B), with a diamond-shapedsheath removed from its upside-down apex (D).cThe serratus anterior muscle starts alongside the first eight ribs, thenends at the inner margin of the scapula (A). Its main mass appears asa bulge underneath the latissimus dorsi (B). At the muscles origin (onthe ribs), it looks a little like the fingers of a hand (e).29
  29. 29. 30DEPICTI NG TH E ARM: FRONT VI EW---:;:;-��i::.::::::;,L A. clavicleC;::;;�1--:-----:---- B. acromion processJP----------- L. phalangesFigure 1 Figure 2Bones The underlying skeletal structure determines much of the overall shape ofthearm (figure 1). Several elements of this substructure, such as the innerepicandyle (E), actas visual landmarks that are identifiable even under layers of muscle (figure 2) and skin(figure 3).Muscles The upper and lowerportions of the arm each consist ofthree major musclemasses. The bicep and brachialis of the upper arm bend the lower arm, the tricep (see page31) straightens it, and the deltaid raises the entire arm. In the lower arm, the flexars (flexorcarpi radiales, palmerus longus, and flexorcarpi ulnaris) bend the palm and clench the fin·deltoidFigure 3deltoid _____---1-gers; the extensors on the back of the arm (see page 31) straighten the palm and open the bicep -----1=--"-"--fingers; and the supinators (brachioradialis, see page 31), attached to the outer epicandyle(0, figure 1) on the outside arm, rotate the hand outward. A fourth, smaller muscle, the pra·nator teres, rotates the palm inward.brachialisDrawing Tips The bicep does not extend across the full width of the upper arm. The del­toid inserts in between the brachialis and the bicep.
  30. 30. DEPICTI NG TH E ARM: BACK VI EWA. clavicle�::�����:r"--B. acromion processC. humerusD. inner epicondyleE. outer epicondyleF. olecranonG. radiusH. ulnaI. head oj radiusFigure 1 Figure 2Bones Much of the overall shape of the arm in the back view is determined by the under­lying skeletal structure, just as with the front view. The inner and outerepicondyle (0 and(E), are again identifiable, even under layers of muscle. And from this view, the olecranon,or elbow (F), also is evident.Muscles Muscles work in opposing pairs: Flexors (see page 30, figures 2 and 3) pulland extensors extend, moving in the opposite direction. When a flexor or extensor musclebecomes active, its opposite becomes passive. From the back view, when the hand ispronate (illustrated in figures 2 and 3 above), extensor groups are the most prominentmuscles. On the upper arm, the tricep is the most visible extensor. On the lower arm,extensor carpi radialis langus, extensorcarpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum, which alloriginate on the outerepicondyle, are evident.deltoidtriceps (long head)triceps (outer head)brachialisbrachiaradialisDextensor carpi radialis longusanconeusextensor carpi ulnarisextensor digitorumabductor pollids longusextensor pollids brevisIFigure 3long headouter headtriceps tendonDrawing Tips The tricep has three heads (the long and outer heads are shown here; themedial head lies beneath). All share a common tendon: a flattened form on the back oftheupper arm.31
  31. 31. 32DEPICTI NG TH E ARM: SI DE VI EWCLENCHED FISTA. acromion processB. coracoid process-:------t-- c. humerus,,-_+-___ D. olecranon.�r---i--- E. outer epicondyle+--+--- F. radius....,.---t-t--:!--- G. ulnaH. head oj ulnaLT-"""" -+-r-- l. head oj radiusBones Here the arm is not viewed in full profile; rather it is seen from an angle that isa combination of a side view and a back view. Because of the angle, the bony landmarksmost apparent under the muscle are the olecranon, outerepicondyle, and headofulna.Muscles The side view provides a good angle for observing the extensors and flexorsof the upper and lower arm. The brachioradialis, located where the upper and lowerarms meet, is particularly important. It originates on the lateral side of the humerus (C),above the outerepicondyle (E), and then attaches to the lateral side of the wrist abovethe head ofradius (I).tfI) deltoidtriceps (long head)triceps (outer head)bicepsbrachialisbrachioradialisextensor carpi radialis longusanconeusextensor digitorumextensor carpi ulnarisflexor digitorumDRAWING TipsRotated armThe brachiaradialis is responsible forturningthe palm up (supinate), and the pronatorteres (see page 30) for turning the palmdown (pronate). The radius (shaded) rotatesaround the fixed ulna, permitting pronationand supination ofthe palm.Bent armThe span between the inside bend of theelbow and the wrist is usually about onehand length. The arrows show the inwardand outward curvature ofthe muscles, andthe dashed line shows the line of the ulna,called the "ulnar furrow."
  32. 32. PORTRAYI NG TH E HAN DOPEN PALM56789Bones The hand contains 8 wrist (carpal) bones: minormultangular (1), major multangular (2), navicular (3),lunate (4), triquetrum (5), pisiform (6), hamate (7), andcapitate (8). The hand also features 5 metacarpals (9) and14 phalanges (10).BACK4Bones From this view of the hand, all the same bonesare visible, but the carpal bones appear convex ratherthanconcave. From this angle, the bones have more influenceon the shape ofthe fleshed·out hand.h-f-- CD�4-- EMuscles The flexor tendons (A, B, C) from the forearm muscles (see page 30) extend into the hand. The teardrop-shapedmuscle masses, the thenareminence abductors ofthe thumb (I, J) and the hypothenareminence abductor (D) and flexor (E)of the little finger, are known as the "palmer hand muscles." The adductorof the thumb (G) lies under the flexortendons(F). The visible creases of the palm result from the way the skin folds over the fat and muscles of the hand.CMuscles Whereas the palm side of the hand is muscular and fatty, the back of the hand is bony and full of tendons. Theextensortendons ofthe thumb (A) are visible when contracted, as are the other four extensor tendons (C). The first dorsalinterosseous (B) is the largest of the four dorsal interosseous muscles, and it is the only one that shows its form throughthe skins surface; when the thumb is flexed, this muscle appears as a bulging teardrop shape.33
  33. 33. 34SKETCH ING TH E LEG: FRONT VI EWA-+---r-=/--r-- A. great trochanterIB. femurC. outer epicondyleD. inner epicondyleE. patellaF. tibial tuberosityG. head of thefibulaH. fibula1. tibia]. inner malleolusK. outer malleolusBones The femur (B), with its great trochanter at the top (A) and outerepicandyles (e)and innerepicandyles (D) at the base, is the heaviest and longest bone of the skeletal sys­tern. The knee cap (patella) sits in between the outer epicandyles and innerepicandyles onthe patellar surface. The lower leg consists ofthe thick tibia (I) and the slender fibula (H).The tibial tuberosity (F) and head ofthe fibula (G) are important landmarks at the top, asare the ankle bones (the innermalleolus and outer malleolus).Muscles The upper leg has four major muscle masses: vastus externus, which attachesto the knee cap (E); rectus femoris, which engulfs the patella (E) and continues toward thetibial tuberosity (F); vastus internus, a medial bulge; and the adductorgroup on the insideofthe leg. There also are two other masses: the tensorfascia lata and the sartorius. Thesartorius is the longest muscle in the body. The lower leg has six long muscles visible:gastrocnemius, protruding on both sides; tibialis anterior, running along the shin towardthe big toe; soleus; flexordigitorum longus; extensor digitorum longus; and peroneuslongus.tensorfascia lataadductor groupvasius exlernusreclusfemorisvastus internussartoriusDgastrocnemiustibialis anteriorsoleLlSflexor digitorum longusextensor digitorum longusperoneus longusDrawing Tips The legs angle in toward the middle, positioning the bodys weight overthe gravitational center. (See figures 1 and 2.) The muscle masses on the outside ofthe legare higher than those on the inside. (See figure 3.) The ankles are just the reverse-highinside, low outside.)Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3
  34. 34. SKETCH ING TH E LEG: BACK VI EW-+-.-- A. great trochanter.+-+--- B. femurC. inner condyle..,,-- D. outer condyle:H---- E. head of thefibula-i+-i--+---- F. tibia4--1---- G. fibula(�:;:::=tiMl----- H. inner malleolus1. outer malleolusBones From the back view, the same leg bones that appear in the front view are visible.Their appearance is slightly altered, however, because the bone attachments in the frontare designed to allow muscles to extend, and the back attachment is designed for musclesto flex.Muscles The upper leg consists of five large muscle masses: gluteus maximus; gluteusmedius; the hamstring group (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus);the adductorgroup; and the vastus externus, which can be seen peeking out from behindthe biceps femoris.The lower leg also features five masses: three larger ones and two smaller. The largermasses are the two heads of the calf: the gastrocnemius and the Achilles tendon, whichconnects to the heel bone. The two smaller masses are the innersoleus and outersoleus.Also notice the hollow area behind the knee where the calf tendons attach, called the"popliteal fossa"; this fatty hollow makes deep knee bends possible.gluteus mediusgluteus maximusadductor groupsemitendinosusvastus externusbicepsfemorissemimembranosuspoplitealfossagastrocnemiusinner soleusouter soleusAchilles tendonDrawing Tips The calf is lower androunder on the inside than it is on theoutside. (See figure 1.)The hamstring tendons grip below theknee on both sides, almost like a pair oftongs. (See figure 2.)Figure 1 Figure 235
  35. 35. SKETCH ING TH E LEG:�-...,....- A. great trochanter-i------ B. femurC. patella........-- D. outer condyleE. tibial tuberosityF head offibula-;--f-fjl----- G. fibulaH+------ H. tibiaI. outer malleolusBones and Muscles Because the long femur (B), and large tibia (H) carry the weight ofthe body, they sit directly on top of each other. But in a side-view drawing, the upper andlower leg appear staggered; the front of the shin lines up directly below the iIlio-tibial bandmuscles and behind the upper-leg masses of the rectus femoris and vastus externus.In the lower leg, the forms to look for are the gastrocnemius; the long, straight form of theAchilles tendon; the peroneus longus tendon, which passes behind the outermalleolus (I)and the bulk of the extensordigitarum longus; and the tibialis anterior, toward the front ofthe leg.SI DE VI EWtensorfasciae latareclusfemorisvastus externusillio-tibial bandbicepsfemorispopliteal fossapatellar ligamentgastrocnemiustibialis anteriorsoleusextensor digitorum longusperoneus longusAchilles tendonFigure 1 Figure 2 Drawing Tips The six arrows in figure1 show the overall gesture of the leg. Theupper thigh and lower calf create thegesture. (See figure 2.) Figure 3 showsthe pattern oftendons in the foot. (Seepage 19.)t Figure 3r
  36. 36. DRAWI NG TH E FOOTTopA. taluscalcaneus1 . extensor digitorum longus2. extensor digitorum brevisd!�;::::-"---t- D. cuboid-:-:I�:::::�- E. cuneif0rms 3. tibialis anterior..,-- F. metatarsals4. extensor hal/uds longusSIDEB. calcaneus�-- G. phalangesA. talusC. navicularcuneiformsD. cuboid5. peroneus tertiusmetatarsals2. extensor digitorum brevis1 . extensor digitorum longus6. peroneus longus 7. abductor digiti minimiBones like the hand, the foot also comprises three parts:seven tarsal bones (A-E), five metatarsals (F), and fourteenphalanges (G). The tarsal bones include the ankle, heel,and instep. The metatarsals are longer and stronger thanthe five metacarpals of the hand, and they end at the ballofthe foot. The phalanges of the toes are shorter thanthose of the fingers and thumb; the four small toes pressand grip the ground surface, and the big toe tends to havea slight upward thrust.Muscles When the foot is flexed upward, these tendonsare evident: extensor digitorum longus (1), extensordigi­torum brevis (2), tibialis anterior (3), and extensorhal/ucislongus (4). (From the side view, extensor digitorum brevisappears as a round shape inside a triangular pocket.)Peroneus longus (6) curves around the ankle, whereasabductordigiti minimi (7) appears as a bulge on the outerside of the foot.1Figure 2Figure 37Drawing Tips The tibialis anterior(3) is an obvious landmark on theinverted foot. (See figure 1, above.)In figure 2, dorsi·flexion makes visiblethe extensordigitorum (1). In figure 3,plantar·flexion lets you see the ten·dons ofperoneus (6).37
  37. 37. STU DYI NG TH E H EAD & SKU LL-Becoming familiar with the head and skull is an excellent way to improve your portraiture skills. If you purchase a plastic skull, you can practice drawing the skull from all angles, as shownin the charcoal pencil studies above. Start with an outline of the basic shape of the skull; then block in the shapes ofthe main features and refine the lines (shown in the upper·right corner).The important skull bones for an artist to know are the parietal eminence (A), frontal bone (B), frontal eminence (e), glabella (D), superciliary crest or "brow ridge" (E), temporal line (F),zygomaticprocess (G), orbit (H), zygomatic bone (I), maxilla 0), ramus ofmandible (K), mandible (l), and mental protuberance (M).
  38. 38. FRONT VIEWAA. frontalisB. temporalisC. obicularis oculiD. nasalisE. levator labii superiorisF. zygomaticus minorG. zygomaticus majorH. masseterl. risorius]. depressor anguli orisK. depressor labii inferiorisL. mentalisM. obicularis orisN. procerusO. occipitalisP. trapeziusQ. sternocleidomastoidNMMost of the facial muscles originate from bone and insert into muscle fibersof other facial muscles. They do not create surface form directly, as the skel­etal muscles do, because they are much more delicate and usually concealedby facial fat. The visible forms on the face are created by several factors­skin, fatty tissue, underlying skull, cartilage, eyeballs, and some muscles.SIDE VIEW39
  39. 39. 40STU DYI NG TH E H EAD & SKU LL (CONT.)FRONT VIEWVisualizing Light and Shadow In this final stage, light andshadow are translated from simple planes onto a more subtle, realisticportrait. Self-portraiture is a great way to practice identifying the planesofthe head from many different angles. Using a mirror as reference,focus on the placement of the light and dark values that create the formof your face. Just remember to draw what you really see in the mirror,not what you expect to see.Simplifying the Features When facial muscles contract, they affectthe shape of the fatty forms, skin, and other facial muscles, causingthe wrinkles, furrows, ridges, and bulges that convey various facialexpressions. Simplifying these complex shapes into easily recognizablegeometric planes (the "planes of the head") can help guide an artist inthe proper placement of light and shadow. As an artist, theres no needto actually sketch the planes, but it helps to understand the planes andvisualize them when approaching complex features and shading.-
  40. 40. CAPTU RI NG FACIAL FEATU RESA D EB cThe Eye The eyeball is a moist sphere. Because its surface is glossy, the carnea (E) often features a highlight.cThe Lips Because the lips curve around the cylinder of the teeth, its helpful to draw and shade the mouth as if it were a sphere.4--- A --*--"rbone�t------ Bc ---cartilageJ"rI---- EThe Nose The nose is made up of bone, cartilage, and fatty tissue. Halfway down from the eyebrows, cartilage replaces the bone.--- DThe Ear Think of the ear as an oval disc divided into three sections and placed on a diagonal angle.Drawing Tips The sclera (A) is the whiteof the eye. The iris (B) is a colored discthat controls the amount of light enteringthe round opening ofthe pupil (e). Thedomelike, transparent cornea (E) sits overthe iris. The innercanthus (D) at the cor­ner of the eye is an important feature ofthe shape of the eye.Drawing Tips The vertical furrowbetween the nose and upper lip is thephiltrum (A). The tubercle (B) ofthe upperlip is a small rounded form surrounded bytwo elongated forms; it fits into the middleofthe two elongated forms ofthe lowerlip. The node (e) is an oval muscular formon the outer edge of the mouth.Drawing Tips The bridge ofthe nose isformed by two nasal bones (A). The mid­dle section ofthe nose is made of a rigidseptal cartilage (B), surrounded by twolateral cartilages (e). The bulb of the noseis formed by two greateralar cartilages(D). Two wings (E) create the nostrils.Drawing Tips The cartilaginous helix(A) forms the outer rim of the ear. Theantihelix (e) lies just inside the helix,running roughly parallel to it; the two aredivided by the scapha (B). The tragus (D)is a cartilaginous projection, located overthe bowl (the cancha, G). The antitragus(E) is located opposite the tragus and justabove the fatty lobe (Fl.41
  41. 41. . ,•"•"II, ,••,,II•",• • Of ·� I,.�(� �I .� "",, ,•Po.,•t",•," """I ,... ."•.I,w,:" - ..,,� ,..f.".. " �T;,,�,.,:t�"�. . . ..� .# • • �. ,I � y.• . .... , 1 . " .t I �.., I,� ; . ( ,. :";r-t· ,� �., ./ ,A" -.:.v. ..� ... . """,, " • I •, ..�J"•".,,� ... .· . ,�r·� ", .. �••i..rI,�,- ...-:r,-I •..•//1�IOroJj/•--f:GIt./.� c-.���. .. �..,f ,1,•iII�IA�I
  42. 42. CHAPTER 3WITH WALTE R T. FOSTE RWalter T. Foster was born in Woodland Park, Colorado, in 189 l . Inhis younger years, he worked as a sign painter and a hog medicinesalesman. He also performed in a singing and drawing vaudevilleact. Mr. Foster invented the first postage-stamp vending machineand drew political caricatures for several large newspapers. In the1920s, while running his own advertising agency and instructingyoung artists, Mr. Foster began writing self-help art instructionbooks. The books were first produced in his home in Laguna Beach,California, where he wrote, illustrated, and printed them himself.In the 1960s, as the product line grew, he moved the operation toa commercial facility, which allowed him to expand the companyand achieve worldwide distribution. Mr. Foster passed away in198 1 , but he is fondly remembered for his warmth, dedication, andunique instruction books.43
  43. 43. 44PEOPLEMany people believe that drawingthe human face is difficult, but itsreally only a matter of proportion andproperly placing the features. The linesand forms involved are just simple curvesand basic shapes. The easiest way to learnto draw people is to start with individualfeatures such as the eyes and mouth. Itsbest to draw from a photo or a live model.A reference makes rendering the headmuch easier!EVEA�-�....."----�.......--.In this view, the irisis set somewhat oJJcenter, so place yourguidelinesjust to theright oj center.HighlightWhether from a frontal view or in profile,eyes and lips are drawn around horizontaland vertical gUidelines. Both gUidelinesare perpendicular in the frontal view, andthe vertical line is slanted slightly in theprofile view. Then you can build on theseguidelines with circles and simple curvedlines. Study the outlines on this page, andpractice drawing them several times.The dotted line indicatesthe shape oj the eyeballbeneath the eyelid. Thecurve oj the eyelidJollowsthe curve oj the eyeball.ABcDEVE I N PROFI LENotice that a good portionoj the eyeball is covered bythe eyelid, no matter whatthe viewpoint.MOUTH IN PROFILEAMost oj the upper lip Jails tothe leJt oj the vertical gUide­line, whereas most oj thelower lip Jails to the right. DMOUTHABc
  44. 44. These human profiles are built on twoslanted gUidelines: one for the line of theplane of the face, and one for the line ofthe nose. There is a variety of sizes andshapes of noses, eyes, and mouths; studyyour subject closely and make severalpractice sketches of his or her features.Then combine the features into a simpleprofile.A, I. .B,I I,,IIIII (I(c IvDTo draw the nose, block in a triangle, anddraw the basic outline of the nose withinthe triangle, as in steps A and B. Refinethe outline, and add a small curve tosuggest the nostril in step C.For the full profile, start with a slantedguideline from the eyebrow to the chin.Then add horizontal gUidelines to placethe features. In adults, the bottom of thenose is approximately halfway betweenthe eyebrow and the bottom of the chin.The bottom lip is about halfway betweenthe nose and the chin. Note that these arejust general rules of human proportion.The precise placement of features willvary slightly from individual to individualand between men and women.�--��--��----- --Then add the centerline for the eye at thetop of the bridge of the nose. Next placethe eye, eyebrow, and upper lip. Onceyou are satisfied with your sketches, trya complete profile.45
  45. 45. WOM EN : PROFI LEThese heads were drawn from photos(photos serve as good models becausethey hold still). Try profile views like theones you see here, keeping them fairlySimple. Dont worry about rendering thehair for now; spend time learning how todraw the face, and work on the hair later.Step A illustrates the proportions of theface. In this close-up profile, the bottomof the nose is about halfway between theeyebrows and chin. The mouth is abouthalfway between the bottom of the noseand the chin. Once the proportions areestablished, sketch the actual features.Study each one closely to achieve anaccurate resemblance. This drawing wasdone on plate-finish Bristol board, whichusually is used for pen and ink drawings.TortilionA tortilion is helpful for blendingthe contours of theface.112112Eyebrow/-------r- Nose114___-,=--_1MouthI114�ChinIWhen drawing portraits,make sure youre comfortably seatedand that the drawing board is ata good angle. Rotate the drawingoften to prevent your handsfrom smudging areas youvealready drawn.D--B- c----.1Allfigure and portrait renderings have been drawn directlyfrom the artists imagination orfrom paid professionalmodels. Any likeness to persons other than those hiredforthis purpose is purely coincidental.
  46. 46. Draw the guidelines in step A to lay out the correctproportions. Lay down each line in the numberedorder shown. In step B, sketch the nose, eyebrow,chin, and eyes on the guidelines; then refine theminto more recognizable parts of the face. All ofthese elements must be resolved before shading.Draw this �linefirst./•./ -</Kl//35 , :(I:Focus on the dark and light values of the lips instep C, as well as the direction of the strokes.The value contrasts make the lips appear soft andround, especially because the shading is lightertoward the middle of the lip. Note in the finalrendering that the hair is merely implied as asurrounding element..I,It...I .Keep the shading lightertoward the middle of thelips to create highlightsand make them appearfull.B,,./ /",.... I/ .-- ."....""( ,,,t.." ..,.-... ••",•I, .,, j,;....."..r,.��,,•>. �.��: /.. ...·..:.:".. . 1 1 � •."..... .......... . ..�..., . �.,......,-...-....•...h.... ....-...... -. -" , ....... �.-..("( .... .I",I1./,•,. �f"¥)I•,t.�,•t.,,,IThe type of paper you use will affect your drawings.This portrait was done on vellum-finish paper, whichhas a slight tooth that works well with pencil or crayon.•47
  47. 47. WOM EN : TH REE-QUARTER VI EWDrawing a three-quarter view is slightly more difficult than thefrontal view-but you can do it! Study your subject carefully,and follow the steps. Block in the basic shapes, and use guidelinesto place the features. Note that because the face is angled, thefeatures are all set off center, with the nose at the three-quarterpoint. Curve the line for the bridge of the nose all the way out tothe edge of the face, so it partially blocks her left eye.AB�•"1�.,.•r•,rIl:-.,.�r."/- ." --..---- ------:;::::::�./�-........ /{ �-" I t. ,J�,.-.......-- -... --- .... � -,. .. .!../,....1.......-... - - .---"" _.I- " ... - ......- -i(IWhen you block in the hair, thinkojit as one mass that has a curvedoutline. You can suggest some ojthe individual hairs later.•••I...-...-fI(.-• •e(••I••",�••,�/"/,,.,II;,;JII()"-.r" .".-•. .,,>- . ,. . ,. ... - ... "......--- ". - - .. . or..,.. ...... ...J. .,.,"J .l , �. "j , • •J .... . ,.•1I&1f,I. ",./ /��.:---...r;: /..- ... --,. ) I. ," . .0�/��,ICheck the proportions and the placement of the features. Whenyoure happy with your sketch, refine the features, and add somelight shading to finish off your drawing. Shade as much or aslittle as you like; sometimes simpler is better.. ..-...�....·-�rL-.r-...�ri.../# .,-....... .. ,t",:",....�//
  48. 48. Browse through books and magazines for subjects to draw, oreven look in the mirror and draw yourself. The more you practiceand the more diverse your subjects, the better your drawings willbecome. Young or old, male or female, all portraits start with thesame basic steps.A./.I[�..(�1f•f•- ------.....-- �------�-!7;I•. -,,J---B,•,•",.,•J•,1-•!•JIUse the ClIrved, verticalguidelines to help maintainthe roundness oj the lipsand chin.,rI/I/,,.I"�I.--{•IH•�-/�,.JI49
  49. 49. 50WOM EN : FRONTAL VI EWFor these frontal-view drawings, youwill need to pay special attention tothe position of the features. In a profile,for example, you dont have to worryabout aligning the eyes with each other.Study your subject closely, because asmall detail such as the distance betweenthe eyes may determine whether or notyour drawing achieves a strong likenessto your model.• •, /:; �I � (,. ."J . , ... . .I t .r. .� , .. .!. � : .. ."..�"Afew loose, curving strokeswith a chisel-tipped pencil cancreate the appearance ofafullhead of hair...", .•r -.��-.,,l". ... -.�..�.; .,.�J.�" - /,......-..---f, •. ,... ......� �"J ., .. ... , _ I. ,.....-"• .."t• ......- • • ..-;( I •.r -" _, • I --", .. ,• "t .,.� J. f · .:J ,,�v. " . � • ,.• " ...�..., . ," .� I �: .,..".,4; rI". -r� " . , ( . ....., �., " t�1/: .. .."" t! � . II � . �" : I."" """" .""AI,.•::>� � . "-. " iIl-�•�••�/1),-"�..,.. ""I//--I/---......,.,�,. �IJ,Notice that the nose is barelysuggested; the viewers eyefillsin theform.Step A shows minimal proportion guide­lines. You will be able to start with fewerlines as you become more comfortablewith your drawing and observation skills.Even the two lines shown are helpful fordetermining placement of the features.B)......--� .�i-<C"-:---- �1-•..In step B, make the facial features morerecognizable, and begin to suggest thehair. Notice that features rarely are sym­metrical; for instance, one eye usually isslightly larger than the other. To finishthe drawing, create depth by shading theeyes, nose, and lips. If you wish, practicedeveloping form by shading along theplanes of the face and around the eyes.
  50. 50. The features of this subjects face differfrom those in the previous drawing. Herethe nose is much thinner, and the eyesare closer together. You will need to makethese adjustments during the block-instage.In step A, use an HB pencil to block in theproportions. Use the gUidelines to placeand develop the features in step B. Noticethe types of strokes used for the hair; theyare loose and free. Quick renderings likethis one are good for practice; do manyof them!ARemember that your prelimi­nary drawing must be corree[before continuing. No amountof shading will repair thedrawing if the proportionsare not accurate.I/BThis rendering shows thefinest details in the eyes.Therefore, the eyes appear to be thefocus of thedrawing, with the hair acting as aframing element.� (;,-1Jr::-...-//,Y....-� --51
  51. 51. 52MEN: TH REE-QUARTER VI EWThe three-quarter view is more chal­lenging than the profile and frontalviews, but if you begin with the usualproportion guidelines, you shouldnt haveany trouble. Simply take your time, andobserve closely.Clothing can be used toidentify a character; herethe headdress emphasizesthe models Middle-easternheritage.A-.-•,• I1I, iI I" !••I,I• •, • It I l,� II Ii{Ittt"•B"Follow the steps as shown, using charcoalfor the block-in stage. When you beginshading, use dark, bold strokes for theeyebrows, mustache, and beard. Noticethis subjects facial expression; his darkeyes are intense. Fill in the irises with thedarkest values, but be sure to leave tinywhite highlights.("•, ." .. ,,-,,,i./The dark vertical strokesof the background are usedto define the outline of thesubjects faceUse photos frombooks or magazinesto draw people ofall typesand ethnicities invarious styles of dress.
  52. 52. This drawing was done after an old mas­ters painting. Copying a masters work isexcellent practice; it helps to improveyour artistic skills and understanding.When copying a great work, think .,•about the reasons the originalartist may have done certainthings, and then use yourinsights to better yourown works.A----------------1-------------Use overlappingbrush strokes tocreate the beard.Follow the steps as illustrated, blocking in /each of the features with quick, confidentstrokes. Look for the basic shapes in yoursubject; then refine them as necessary toachieve a likeness.B�...,"�... -" -.. ,: ...... ,• • •.,.:-.-.. " - � ...Notice this characterspiercing expression, whichis enhanced by the thick,dark eyebrows.. - ,....�r.. °0 . f .l1o. . .... ,. ... . . ...Most of the shading and details for thisdrawing were done with a brush and Indiaink, although charcoal was used for theguidelines and initial sketching. Brush andink is a good choice for creating the thick,dark facial hair.•. . .•...• ...•.........The tip of the bmsh isused to createfine lines.�: .f" •- .•Keep practicingifyou want to become amodern-day master!53
  53. 53. 54ELDERLY WOMENThese more advanced renderings bringout the character of the subjects. Theelderly woman on this page, for example,appears stern and serious, whereas thewoman on the opposite page evokes acertain kindness and gentle spirit.Using the usual proportion guidelines,block in the face. Remember to includethe hat as part of the initial sketch, asshown in step A. Add shapes to indicatethe wrinkles and loose skin in step B.As people age, certain features will beginto sag and perhaps become less symmetri­cal. Notice that the shading strokes arerather harsh and bold. This techniquecreates the appearance of rough, weath­ered skin.Be sure to include the pronounced creasesaround the mouth and under the eyes; thesedetails give your SLlbject character_. -:��:.:.�����::=�:A/ ../. -,......./The shapes of the woman·seyes differ slightly•.-.. .,.•
  54. 54. The small, sparkling eyes and fragile handof this woman create an entirely differentmood from the previous subject. Here thefacial expression is more delicate, giving afeeling of compassion and sympathy.AIn step A, lay down the guidelines for thefeatures, and lightly block in the ears,nose, and mouth. In steps B, C, and D ,continue to develop the features, addingcraggy lines for the wrinkles. In the finaldrawing, shade the face to create the agedappearance.cHands can be difficult to draw. Study yourown hands, and practice drawing themon scrap paper. Check the proportionsto make sure your drawings are accurate.For example, the length of the hand isapproximately equal to the length of theface. What other hand-proportion rules doyou see?Occasionally step backfrom your drawingto get a new perspective.Ask yourselfifyouve createdthe right mood and personality.If not, make adjustments!Keep the head wrapsimple; it provides acontrastingframefortheface.Dark hatching strohesenhance thefragile, bonyappearance of the hand.o55
  55. 55. ELDERLY MENElderly men are good subjects for practicing a variety oftechniques, such as drawing wrinkles, thinning white hair,and aging features. Pay close attention to the details to createan accurate rendering.--Minimal shading on the headsuggests thinning white hair..� /;/.:"Notice the loose skin onthe neck; the neck blendsinto the chin.Indicate the shirt and tie tofinish thedrawing; the head shouldnt appear asthough its }loating on the paper.ABCoarse shading overthe entireface createsthe rough skin texture.---IThis model exhibits a somewhat wor­ried expression; notice how the eyebrowangles down slightly in step A. Use boldlines to develop the features and hairlinein step B. Begin shading with diagonalstrokes, changing direction slightly toaccommodate the uneven surface.-_ ......-._...cOl
  56. 56. ,I,Two media were used for this drawing.A chisel-tipped 6B pencil was used forthe shading on the face, and a brush andblack India ink were used for the darkestdetails. Experiment with different drawingmedia to create new effects.- - --..•--.---� --4- -��A,-- I. ..IWhen observing yoursubject, look for uniquecharacteristics such asthe pronounced brow andthe bump on the nose.. ..�J B;{I /, :(I.I(,: / I I .fI,r/".�.I , I ( 1 _ .( - "",,: ) )� _ .A- �1/c... .,/o�,/As always, begin with quickproportion guidelines. Then sketchthe basic shapes of the features,including the bushy mustache. Keepreferring to your subject, checkingthe proportions and shapes. When thesketch is to your liking, create formthrough shading.11-r_F.Use a brush and ink to bring outfinestrands in the hair, eyebrow, andmustache. Keep the shading to aminimum to indicate the white hair.Practice will allowyou to develop yourown artistic style.Keep at it!Shade the darkest areasfirst. Be sure to leave lightareas for highlights.<J-:.v 57
  57. 57. 58PEOPLE OF TH E WORLDWhen drawing subjects of ethnic background, it is important to studytheir features and proportions closely. Although you may find somecharacteristics typical of a certain ethnicity, there still are many variancesbetween individuals. Your observation skills will be tested with these drawings!For this young boy, begin as usual with gUidelines and a block-in sketch. Lookfor the features that make the subject unique-for example, large, round eyes,a wide nose, and full lips. Notice that the eyes are especially dark in value,providing a striking contrast to the white highlights.AB--, ......----------------���II- -"�----/!I/I- . ... ._ -..,�... cThe diverse populationprovides endless opportuniLiesJor drawing subjects;continue to observe peoplearound you to challenge andimprove your skills.The slightly darkerarea here illustratesthe cast shadow createdby the bill oj the cap..J..-" .(. 1J !! .10 •...t•To render the dark skin, use charcoal ora soft-lead pencil to shade over the facewith even, parallel strokes. Leave areas ofwhite for highlights, especially on the tipof the nose and the center of the lower lip.. .
  58. 58. This Asian girl has her head tilted for­ward, which requires you to adjust theproportions. In this position, where thechin is close to the chest, the length ofthe face should be shortened, leavinga larger area for the top of the head.This adjustment is an example of fore­shortening. For further information onforeshortening, see Perspective (ALl3)in Walter Fosters Artists Library series.A 0"n�. /B/,/The length of theface must_ . -:..;::.-�, ---..,----...--- !--/be shortened because her headis tiltedforward. The best wayto masterforeshortening isthrough plenty ofpractice!Notice how the guidelines are altered in step A. Observeyour subject closely to determine the differences. In stepsB and C, develop the features, and suggest the hair andcostume. Try using a brush and India ink, as shown instep D, to achieve the shiny black hair. Leave small whiteareas for highlights, enhancing the sheen of the hair.Draw curved linesfor the closed eyes,adding short, thickstrokesfor the lashes./IDont try to drawfrom your imagination;always use a live modelor photographforreference.-59
  59. 59. 60DEVELOPI N G YOUR OWN STYLEThese two subjects have distinctive characteris­tics that will lead to interesting artistic works.As you follow the steps, notice the manner in whichthe facial features are developed and how shading isused to add depth and create interest..•,•I"•1.••. .•To develop your own artistic style, experiment with differenttechniques, and use all kinds of media. Try minimal shading orheavy shading; keep your lines loose or make them deliberate.Its all up to you!, _ .. _...•.!...·•!·•IIA�I;-.II!II"I -.,;,-......../-"- .. . .�A dark background can beused to create the shape ofthe profile• •�f,cI,I.II•II-1••·III--.:..�......,- -. ..-- .... ...-"t--....,, - ­... -� - . --- ... �-•,
  60. 60. B/",I ,iII I� -c /•"jIt..f·••iA· "...i•r -/The unJinished areas oj this drawin d. .Jocusing the viewer on th (. dg a d an arLlsl!c element,e J me etads oj theJace..j..,..,. ,-� •"/"", .,:/,i/-•,,• -,61
  61. 61. 62MALE FACESAphoto of a well-known artist served as the model for thissketch. In steps A and B, place the facial features accordingto the proportions. Develop some of the details in step C; thenadd some outlines for the hair.A..... ..,. . - ..- -.. - ;� ...-..... "" .#3 roundwatercolor brush... .!.... ..-.;�. ....i) ._.... .; ..WIT.r.., ,./BIIi. .. ,� #, . . • .� 3.• ./-........,r-As you can see, the final drawing is fairly simple, yet it preservesthe likeness of the person. More detail easily could be added, butyou might lose the pleasing artistic quality the drawing has atthis stage.c/"-"Use a dry brush anda liule ink to create"shading" lines JortheJinal.. � . .G_- . .�,k� .,,i)!
  62. 62. Although this face appears to be a difficult drawing subject, ifyou follow the step-by-step illustrations, you may be surprisedat how well you do. When you reach step B, lightly sketch thewrinkles. Step C demonstrates how to use the paper stump toblend and shade the crevices. This combination of both lines andshading creates a terrific aged effect.HB pencilA�o::::::-----..::-...�"" .�...J-=---�--."""--" "_. ..... ..._-- -----------.........�"#3 round watercolor brushB-You can emphasize thewrinkles by drawingheavy lines over theblended shading.cRemember, one of the most common faults ofbeginners is lack of patience. Dont expect yourworks to be as good as those of an experienced artistCharcoalPaperstumpwho has spent years learning the craft. Take your time,practice, and youll improve. Good luck, and enjoy yourself!." .. ..."/ . ,"