Slide sharenursing jan_2013


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Slide sharenursing jan_2013

  1. 1. Nursing:Searching for evidenceSharon KarasmanisFaculty Librarian (Health Sciences) La Trobe University Library 1
  2. 2. The Research Question• You cannot conduct an effective search without a well formulated question.• Think about the concepts within your research question• Identify and list the keywords and their synonyms that identify the concepts• Consider the ‘level of evidence’ to be sought – the research methodologies that will help eliminate bias La Trobe University Library 2
  3. 3. Levels of EvidenceEBM Pyramid copyright 2006 Trustees of Dartmouth College and Yale University. All rights reserved. La Trobe University Library 3
  4. 4. Developing a search strategy: PICO1. Break the research question down into concepts:• Population• Intervention• Comparison Intervention• Outcome• Research / Study design (Level of evidence)2. Identify for each facet:• Synonyms• Spelling variants• Subject headings La Trobe University Library 4
  5. 5. Formulating a PICO concept map will help La Trobe University Library 5
  6. 6. Example in PICO Map (or concept map)Does strength training reduce the incidence of falls in the elderly?P I C O RFalls Strength None Reduction of Therapy training fallsElderly La Trobe University Library
  7. 7. Databases• Electronic Indexes that help you identify journal articles in your research area• NO single database indexes every journal possible in a subject area - only those that match their selection criteria• Efficient, effective and less biased searching therefore requires multiple database searching La Trobe University Library 7
  8. 8. Types of databases• Citation databases: Entries have the citation, subject headings and often an abstract, sometimes they link to full text. Examples: CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE• Full Text databases: Entries have the citation and abstract and in most cases the full text of an article. Examples: Health & Medical Complete (Proquest), Informit Health• Pre-appraised evidence databases: – The Cochrane Library is a multi-database resource which varies in output e.g. the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews contains complete systematic reviews – Clinical Evidence - summarises the current state of knowledge and uncertainty about the prevention and treatment of clinical conditions, based on thorough searches and appraisal of the literature. La Trobe University Library 8
  9. 9. Accessing Nursing databases• On Campus: – Library Web Page > A-Z Databases/Journals > Subject Area - Health Sciences > Nursing and Midwifery• Off Campus: authentication as a La Trobe University student required: – University username and password La Trobe University Library 9
  10. 10. Generic search tips• Spelling - paediatric or pediatric, use the hash: p#ediatric• Truncation (*) - nurs* will find nurse, nurses, nursing• Wildcard (?) - randomi?ed will pick up randomized and randomised, or organi?ation etc.• phrase searching, use quotes - “Acquired brain injury” “Quality of life” “Type 2 diabetes” etc. La Trobe University Library 10
  11. 11. Linking terms: BOOLEAN operators• AND - retrieves records containing both of two terms: – Back pain AND exercise• OR - retrieves records containing any of the terms: – Back pain OR back ache La Trobe University Library 11
  12. 12. Systematic Searching• Systematic searches are a combination of using the terminology of the database (Subject Headings) combined with free text or keyword searching• While there may be some overlap, you will also find many different articles when using both ways of searching for the same concept.• Comprehensive systematic searching requires subject heading and keyword searching! La Trobe University Library 12
  13. 13. Systematic searching: Why use both methods?Controlled Vocabulary (Subject Searching) Keyword SearchingMEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL (amongst others) are Words not taken from a specific list. Can useindexed by subject experts who assign a subject words that you would normally use whenheading (or ‘tag’) that best describes the article. searching. Need to account for variations forThese subject headings are from a fixed list of spelling, terminology & clinical descriptions.terms that are arranged in a hierarchical structurethat show the relationships between terms. Thisallows searching at various levels of specificity.More efficient & precise way of searching where Broader way of searching where you will retrieveyou retrieve only those records which list the records which mention your keywords but may orsubject heading for your concept. may not be specifically about your concept.Searches only the subject field. Searches words used by the author in other fields such as the title or abstract.Provides consistency in the description of the Useful for searching for a specific term or phrasecontent of the articles. when there is not an appropriate subject heading.Do not need to think of synonyms for your topic. Useful for searching topics that use new concepts or terminology (subject headings take a while to be developed) 13
  14. 14. Database aids: Controlled vocabulary & scope notes• Subject Headings (Controlled vocabulary or Thesauri): used to overcome differences in individual authors’ use of terminology. e.g. back pain (CINAHL and MEDLINE), backache (Embase) – Click on the Subject Heading, scroll down to the ‘used for’. Provides ideas for other keywords to use!• Scope note: describes how the term is used in the database, the “scope” of the term; the history of the indexing• ‘Exploding’ a term: results will include the ‘exploded’ term (e.g. back pain) plus the conceptually narrower terms in the tree (low back pain) La Trobe University Library 14
  15. 15. Limits available in the databasesFor example:• Clinical Queries• Date of publication• Language• Publication types – CINAHL e.g. clinical-trial; masters-thesis; research; review; systematic-review – MEDLINE - e.g. controlled clinical trial; meta analysis; randomised controlled trial; review literature; review, academic; review La Trobe University Library 15
  16. 16. Increasing and decreasing results• For more hits: – Broaden your question – Find more search terms or different combinations of words – Use truncation * – Link more terms with OR – Combine free text and subject heading (or thesaurus) searches – Use ‘explode’ to select all subheadings – Search longer time span La Trobe University Library 16
  17. 17. Increasing and decreasing results• For less hits: – Narrow your question – Use more specific terms in free text (keywords) – Use subject heading (thesaurus) search rather than free text – Use more specific thesaurus headings and subheadings – Link more terms with AND – Use database ‘limits’ – Search shorter time span La Trobe University Library 17
  18. 18. Search results – finding the full text!• Some databases will have the Full Text Finder icon• If not, search the Journals from the Library home page and follow the links to the full text: – sometimes the article may only be in print copy in the Library• If not held by the Library, request the article via Document Delivery Services La Trobe University Library 18
  19. 19. Cochrane Library• To access a variety of search options, click on Search, Search Manager or Medical Terms (MeSH) to be directed to the appropriate search tab.• Further information at: > Cochrane La Trobe University Library 19
  20. 20. La Trobe University Library 20
  21. 21. Google Scholar -• Search scholarly literature for articles, theses, books, abstracts, professional societies, online repositories, universities and other web sites across the world of scholarly research. La Trobe University Library 21
  22. 22. Help!• Nursing and Midwifery LibGuide• Critical Appraisal LibGuide• EndNote LibGuide• Research Help Desk: 9479 2718• Student Learning Advisers: Available in the library during semester• Ask a Librarian:• Live Chat: 11am – 5pm• Faculty librarians: La Trobe University Library 22