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Chapter 4 and 5
Practice Problems Chap 4 and 5 <ul><li>Chapter 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Page 122-124 </li></ul><ul><li>39,44,48,50,52,59,65,81 ...
Chapter 4 <ul><li>The building blocks of Chemistry are called ___________ and are made up of ___________, ____________, an...
History Democritus: Tiny particles called atoms and empty space. GREEK Aristotle: Matter was continuous (Hyle) Boyle: Beli...
Atomic Theory <ul><li>John Dalton: - developed the modern atomic theory </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested three things: </li>...
John Dalton <ul><li>1: An element is composed of tiny particles called atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>2: In an ordinary chemical...
Electrons <ul><li>J.J Thomson:(1897) Determined electrons existed with the electrode ray tube. </li></ul><ul><li>Ernest Ru...
English cont. Robert Millikan: (1868-1953) Discovered electrons charge,  used Thomson’s ideas. French Lavosier and Dalton:...
History of Atomic Theory <ul><li>1. Name </li></ul><ul><li>2. Date of birth </li></ul><ul><li>3. Country and city </li></u...
<ul><li>16.  Robert Millikan </li></ul><ul><li>4.  Isaac Newton </li></ul><ul><li>11.  John Dalton </li></ul><ul><li>2.  D...
More information on page 79
Isotopes <ul><li>J.J Thomson observed that there were two types of neon atoms.  They were exactly alike chemically but the...
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons <ul><li>Atomic # (Z): the number of protons an atom contains.  </li></ul><ul><li>Z= number of...
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons <ul><li>Mass Number(A)  </li></ul><ul><li>A = number of protons + number of  neutrons </li></ul>
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons <ul><li>All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons </li></ul><ul><li>Isotop...
Nuclear Symbol <ul><li>The composition of the nucleus is shown as: </li></ul><ul><li>Mass # ------A </li></ul><ul><li>X --...
Nuclear Symbol <ul><li>1     2  3  235  238 </li></ul><ul><li>H  ,  H  ,  H  ,  U ,  U  </li></ul><ul><li>1  1  1  92  92 ...
Mass Number , Isotopes <ul><li>A)  An isotope of cobalt (Co) is used in radiation therapy for certain types of cancer.  Wr...
Mass # and Isotopes <ul><li>One of the most harmful components of nuclear waste is a radioactive isotope of strontium,  38...
Average Atomic Mass Neon has two isotopes.  Neon (20) has a mass of 19.992u; Neon (22) has a mass of 21.991u.  In an avera...
 
PARTY!!!!!
 
AMU  <ul><li>Atomic Mass Unit:   A mass exactly equal to 1/12 the mass of one carbon-12 atom. </li></ul><ul><li>1g =  x </...
Electrons?
Spectroscopy : Method of studying substances that are  exposed to some sort of excited energy. Consider Fluorescence light...
Chapter 4 Light particles <ul><li>Quantum Theory:  Energy is transferred in discrete units .  Electrons exist in energy le...
<ul><li>Planck’s Constant   (h): He said energy is given off not constantly but in little packs…Quanta.  </li></ul><ul><li...
The Theory in a nut shell. <ul><li>When electrons of an element are excited they move from their ground state to a higher ...
Electromagnetic Spectrum
The Aurora Borealis/Aurora Australis <ul><li>Solar Winds + Oxygen/Nitrogen + Magnetic Poles </li></ul><ul><li>Where? </li>...
Magnetosphere
Solar Winds on the Magnetosphere <ul><li>Teardrop (Magnetotail) </li></ul>
The Colors  <ul><li>O  -  green/red  N  -  blue/purple </li></ul>
Application
Images
Practice Problems <ul><li>The green light associated with the aurora borealis is emitted by excited (high energy) oxygen a...
Fun – For Friday
Quiz Chapter 4 <ul><li>1.   Buzz Light-Year has a very dangerous red laser weapon that protrudes from his right forearm.  ...
2) Sodium has 3 isotopes. Na23, Na25, Na21.  I have 59 atoms of Na; 5 atoms of  Na23, 30 atoms of Na25, and 24 atoms of Na...
Practice: <ul><li>Page 150 (44,45) </li></ul><ul><li>Page 140 (14 and 15) </li></ul>
Chapter 5
Atomic Structure: Quantum Mechanics De Broglie: Used Planck’s and Einstein’s theory when he studied electrons. E=MC ²  and...
De Broglie substituted V (General Velocity) for C (Velocity of Light) M(  V  ) ²=h  The equation above shows how electron...
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle <ul><li>It is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and position of a particle at ...
Where Are Electrons? Probability = Number of total positions Quantum Theory We know that when an electron moves to a highe...
Principle Quantum Number Energy level.  The symbol is  n . n= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 We can use the principle quantum number ...
Practice Problem <ul><li>#6 on page 118 </li></ul><ul><li>#29, 30 on page 133 </li></ul>
l:  The Second Quantum Number An energy level can have 5 sublevels:  s , p , d , f, g s , p , d , f , g : are identified b...
Third Quantum Number (m) <ul><li>M= The direction in space of the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><l...
Practice Problem <ul><li>7 and 8 Page 122 </li></ul>
Fourth Quantum Number <ul><li>S= The spin of the electron. </li></ul><ul><li>Spin = clockwise or counterclockwise. </li></...
Practice:  <ul><li>How many electrons can fit into the principle level for which n=4? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the capaci...
<ul><li>Quantum numbers  </li></ul><ul><li>n    l m s </li></ul><ul><li>1 0 0 +1/2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 0 +1 -1/2 </li></ul...
Energy Levels s , p , d , f : are identified by (l) The principle quantum number identifies  the number of sublevels. PQ #...
Electron Configuration and the Orbital Filling Diagram <ul><li>These are the two most helpful ways for chemists to identif...
Hund’s Rule : Every orbital in a sublevel is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied. ...
Exam <ul><li>Review your notes(All From Notes) </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Atomic Theory- Notes from each other. </li></ul><ul><...
Things You Need To Know <ul><li>Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons on the periodic table.  Atomic Mass, atomic number, and a...
8. Sublevels (l), Orbitals (m), Spin (s). 9. Number of possible electrons. 10. Lewis Dot Structure. 11. Isotopes. 12. Expl...
The Deal <ul><li>Turn in now: 1. Practice Problems </li></ul><ul><li>2. Homework with      signature </li></ul><ul><li>Mod...
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Chapter 4 and 5

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Chapter 4 and 5

  1. 1. Chapter 4 and 5
  2. 2. Practice Problems Chap 4 and 5 <ul><li>Chapter 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Page 122-124 </li></ul><ul><li>39,44,48,50,52,59,65,81 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Page 149-152 </li></ul><ul><li>28,29,30,34,36,37,39,47,48,50,51,54,56,57,62,63,64,68,70,75,76,81 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 4 <ul><li>The building blocks of Chemistry are called ___________ and are made up of ___________, ____________, and ____________. </li></ul><ul><li>Are you sure? </li></ul><ul><li>Key: Quarks </li></ul><ul><li>Other Leptons </li></ul><ul><li>Antimatter CERN </li></ul><ul><li>How do we know? ? </li></ul>
  4. 4. History Democritus: Tiny particles called atoms and empty space. GREEK Aristotle: Matter was continuous (Hyle) Boyle: Believed in atoms Newton: Believed in atoms. ENGLISH Dalton: Law of Multiple Proportions. JJ Thomson: Electrode. Anode (+), Cathode (-) Cathode Ray : Electrons that travel from Cathode (-) to Anode (+).
  5. 5. Atomic Theory <ul><li>John Dalton: - developed the modern atomic theory </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested three things: </li></ul>
  6. 6. John Dalton <ul><li>1: An element is composed of tiny particles called atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>2: In an ordinary chemical reaction, no atom of any element disappears. </li></ul><ul><li>3: Compounds are formed when atoms of two or more elements combine. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Electrons <ul><li>J.J Thomson:(1897) Determined electrons existed with the electrode ray tube. </li></ul><ul><li>Ernest Rutherford: (1911): Shot a proton at a piece of gold foil and determined atoms had a nuclei that was positively charged. </li></ul>
  8. 8. English cont. Robert Millikan: (1868-1953) Discovered electrons charge, used Thomson’s ideas. French Lavosier and Dalton: Law of Conservation of Mass Law of Definite Proportions Proust and Dalton observed that in chemicals or specific substances; The element ratio is always the same regardless of quantity. IE) NaCl = 1:1 Law of Multiple Proportions The ratio of one element that combines with another element can be expressed in small whole #’s. Concerned with elements that form more than one compound with each other. ( Dalton) IE) Tin (II) Oxide = Sn0 ; Tin (IV) Oxide = SnO 2
  9. 9. History of Atomic Theory <ul><li>1. Name </li></ul><ul><li>2. Date of birth </li></ul><ul><li>3. Country and city </li></ul><ul><li>4. President, Dictator, Monarch, (Ruler). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Major achievements(concepts) in chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>6. Other major historical events that coincide with time frame. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Interesting personal facts. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Internet resource citation </li></ul><ul><li>9. Relevant Artistic Rendition or Original Piece. </li></ul><ul><li>10. One page minimum. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Include apparatus(if applicable) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>16. Robert Millikan </li></ul><ul><li>4. Isaac Newton </li></ul><ul><li>11. John Dalton </li></ul><ul><li>2. Democritus </li></ul><ul><li>1. Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>6. Robert Boyle </li></ul><ul><li>12. Joseph Proust </li></ul><ul><li>13. Antoine Lavoiser </li></ul><ul><li>3. J.J Thomson </li></ul><ul><li>5. Ernest Rutherford </li></ul><ul><li>10. James Chadwick </li></ul><ul><li>14. Walter Bothe </li></ul><ul><li>15. Henry Moseley </li></ul><ul><li>7. Neils Bohr </li></ul><ul><li>8. Marie Curie </li></ul><ul><li>9. Williama Crooks </li></ul>
  11. 11. More information on page 79
  12. 12. Isotopes <ul><li>J.J Thomson observed that there were two types of neon atoms. They were exactly alike chemically but they had different atomic masses. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotope: Atoms of the same element that have a different atomic mass. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Protons, Neutrons, Electrons <ul><li>Atomic # (Z): the number of protons an atom contains. </li></ul><ul><li>Z= number of protons </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Z = 1 is hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Z = 56 is Barium </li></ul>
  14. 14. Protons, Neutrons, Electrons <ul><li>Mass Number(A) </li></ul><ul><li>A = number of protons + number of neutrons </li></ul>
  15. 15. Protons, Neutrons, Electrons <ul><li>All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons </li></ul><ul><li>Isotope : Atoms that contain the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. JJ Thomson </li></ul><ul><li>Isotope Z A #protons #neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>U-235 92 235 92 143 </li></ul><ul><li>U-238 92 238 92 146 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nuclear Symbol <ul><li>The composition of the nucleus is shown as: </li></ul><ul><li>Mass # ------A </li></ul><ul><li>X -------Element Symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic # ----Z </li></ul>
  17. 17. Nuclear Symbol <ul><li>1 2 3 235 238 </li></ul><ul><li>H , H , H , U , U </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1 92 92 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mass Number , Isotopes <ul><li>A) An isotope of cobalt (Co) is used in radiation therapy for certain types of cancer. Write nuclear symbols for three isotopes of cobalt (z= 27) in which there are 29,31, and 33 neutrons, respectively. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mass # and Isotopes <ul><li>One of the most harmful components of nuclear waste is a radioactive isotope of strontium, 38 90 Sr; it can be deposited in your bones, where it replaces calcium. How many protons are there in the nucleus of Sr- 90? How many neutrons? </li></ul><ul><li>Practice page 112 (17 and 18) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Average Atomic Mass Neon has two isotopes. Neon (20) has a mass of 19.992u; Neon (22) has a mass of 21.991u. In an average sample of 100 neon atoms, 90 will be Neon (20) and 10 will be Neon (22). Calculate the average mass of neon. Practice Problems Page 112 (17 and 18) 116 and 117(21,22, 23 and 24)
  21. 22. PARTY!!!!!
  22. 24. AMU <ul><li>Atomic Mass Unit: A mass exactly equal to 1/12 the mass of one carbon-12 atom. </li></ul><ul><li>1g = x </li></ul><ul><li>1 amu = </li></ul><ul><li>1 proton mass </li></ul><ul><li>1 neutron mass </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Deficit? </li></ul><ul><li>1 electron mass </li></ul>
  23. 25. Electrons?
  24. 26. Spectroscopy : Method of studying substances that are exposed to some sort of excited energy. Consider Fluorescence lights(Argon and Mercury Vapor) Spectrum : Pattern of radiant energy studied in spectroscopy. (Frequency ): Number of wave peaks that occur in a unit of time. Symbol (  ) Units: 1/s Hz (Hertz) Wave Length : Distance between peaks; symbol (Lambda)  C = Speed of Light; C =  x   = d x Sin  E = h  <ul><li>1) The sine of an angle is the ratio of the length of the opposite side to the length of the hypotenuse. In our case </li></ul>
  25. 27. Chapter 4 Light particles <ul><li>Quantum Theory: Energy is transferred in discrete units . Electrons exist in energy levels around the nucleus. The higher the energy level the greater the energy. When these electrons move to another energy level they emit a quanta of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Photon: Pack of energy with no charge and virtually no mass. </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Planck’s Constant (h): He said energy is given off not constantly but in little packs…Quanta. </li></ul><ul><li>h = 6.6260755 x 10 -34 J/Hz (Energy / Hertz) </li></ul><ul><li>Planck said that there is a direct relationship between energy and frequency . </li></ul><ul><li>E = h  where h is Planck’s constant. </li></ul>
  27. 29. The Theory in a nut shell. <ul><li>When electrons of an element are excited they move from their ground state to a higher energy level. Electrons release the energy that carried them up to the excited level and return to the ground state.The color of the light depends on the energy associated with the electron under consideration. Ground state: the electrons orbital when it is not excited. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Electromagnetic Spectrum
  29. 31. The Aurora Borealis/Aurora Australis <ul><li>Solar Winds + Oxygen/Nitrogen + Magnetic Poles </li></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><li>Ionosphere (located in the thermosphere) </li></ul>
  30. 32. Magnetosphere
  31. 33. Solar Winds on the Magnetosphere <ul><li>Teardrop (Magnetotail) </li></ul>
  32. 34. The Colors <ul><li>O - green/red N - blue/purple </li></ul>
  33. 35. Application
  34. 36. Images
  35. 37. Practice Problems <ul><li>The green light associated with the aurora borealis is emitted by excited (high energy) oxygen atoms at 557.7 nm. What is the frequency of this light? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the energy(J) emitted by an excited oxygen atom? </li></ul>
  36. 38. Fun – For Friday
  37. 39. Quiz Chapter 4 <ul><li>1. Buzz Light-Year has a very dangerous red laser weapon that protrudes from his right forearm. This red light has a wavelength of 658.85 nm. What is the energy associated with this light? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Write the nuclear symbol, # of protons, # of Neutrons, # of electrons for the following elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon –11, Platinum – 193, </li></ul><ul><li>Californium – 251, and Zinc- 67 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Carbon has three isotopes. Carbon-12 which occurs at 35.9%, Carbon-14 which occurs at 33.5%, and Carbon –10 which occurs at 30.6%. What is the average atomic mass? </li></ul>
  38. 40. 2) Sodium has 3 isotopes. Na23, Na25, Na21. I have 59 atoms of Na; 5 atoms of Na23, 30 atoms of Na25, and 24 atoms of Na21. What is the average atomic mass? 1) Complete the Chart
  39. 41. Practice: <ul><li>Page 150 (44,45) </li></ul><ul><li>Page 140 (14 and 15) </li></ul>
  40. 42. Chapter 5
  41. 43. Atomic Structure: Quantum Mechanics De Broglie: Used Planck’s and Einstein’s theory when he studied electrons. E=MC ² and E=h  Equal: MC ²=h  De Broglie Einstein Planck
  42. 44. De Broglie substituted V (General Velocity) for C (Velocity of Light) M( V ) ²=h  The equation above shows how electrons move in the same ways as light rays. Wave Particle Duality of Nature Electrons can have a two-sided nature: Particles and Waves . Momentum = (P) P= M x V V  Is Substituted for  M ( V ) ² = h V   = h__ M V _h_ = = M V P  h = P h 
  43. 45. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle <ul><li>It is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time. </li></ul>
  44. 46. Where Are Electrons? Probability = Number of total positions Quantum Theory We know that when an electron moves to a higher or lower energy level light is produced. For example: The Flame Test Quantum Numbers Numbers that describe the electrons in atoms. These numbers are defined by (n, l, m, and s) Number of times an electron is in a certain position.
  45. 47. Principle Quantum Number Energy level. The symbol is n . n= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 We can use the principle quantum number to determine the greatest number of electrons possible in any one level. The formula in use is: (2n ²) where n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 So how many electrons can the first energy level in an element hold?
  46. 48. Practice Problem <ul><li>#6 on page 118 </li></ul><ul><li>#29, 30 on page 133 </li></ul>
  47. 49. l: The Second Quantum Number An energy level can have 5 sublevels: s , p , d , f, g s , p , d , f , g : are identified by (l) The principle quantum number(n) identifies the number of sublevels (l). Orbitals n=1 : L= 0, where 0 means one sublevel (s) n=2: L= 0,1 where 0 and 1 means two sublevels (s,p) n= 3: L=0,1,2 sublevels (s,p,d) n= 4 L= 0,1,2,3 sublevels (s,p,d,f) n= 5 L= 0,1,2,3,4 sublevels (s,p ,d ,f ,g) s – Sublevel contains 1 pair of electrons p – Sublevel contains 3 pair of electrons d – Sublevel contains 5 pair of electrons f – Sublevel contains 7 pair of electrons g – Sublevel contains 9 pair of electrons
  48. 50. Third Quantum Number (m) <ul><li>M= The direction in space of the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>The value of m is related to L </li></ul><ul><li>Here is how it works: L=0 </li></ul><ul><li>m L = one value (0) </li></ul><ul><li>What sublevel is 0 associated with?____ </li></ul><ul><li>m l = L, … -1, 0, +1, ……, -L </li></ul><ul><li>L= 1 m L =(-1,0,+1) = 3 directions </li></ul><ul><li>L= 2 m L =(-2,-1,0,+1,+2) = 5 directions </li></ul><ul><li>L= 3 m L =(-3,-2,-1,0,+1,+2,+3) = 7 </li></ul>
  49. 51. Practice Problem <ul><li>7 and 8 Page 122 </li></ul>
  50. 52. Fourth Quantum Number <ul><li>S= The spin of the electron. </li></ul><ul><li>Spin = clockwise or counterclockwise. </li></ul><ul><li>S= +1/2 or –1/2 </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul>
  51. 53. Practice: <ul><li>How many electrons can fit into the principle level for which n=4? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the capacity for electrons for the d sublevel? </li></ul><ul><li>If the quantum # l is equal to 0 and 1, what sublevels are under consideration? </li></ul><ul><li>If the quantum # l is equal to 0 and 1, how many orbitals are there? </li></ul>
  52. 54. <ul><li>Quantum numbers </li></ul><ul><li>n l m s </li></ul><ul><li>1 0 0 +1/2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 0 +1 -1/2 </li></ul><ul><li>3 2 -2 -1/2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 1 -1 -1/2 </li></ul>
  53. 55. Energy Levels s , p , d , f : are identified by (l) The principle quantum number identifies the number of sublevels. PQ #_ = PQ #_ = _ Sublevel (_) _ Sublevels (_ , _) PQ #_ = _ Sublevels (_ , _ , _) PQ #_ = _ Sublevels (_ ,_ , _ , _) PQ #_ = _ Sublevels (_ , _ , _ , _ , _) s – Sublevel contains _ pair of electrons p – Sublevel contains _ pair of electrons d – Sublevel contains _ pair of electrons f – Sublevel contains _ pair of electrons g – Sublevel contains _ pair of electrons
  54. 56. Electron Configuration and the Orbital Filling Diagram <ul><li>These are the two most helpful ways for chemists to identify the position of and characteristics of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Periodic Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Practice # 14 Page 128 </li></ul>
  55. 57. Hund’s Rule : Every orbital in a sublevel is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied. Pauli Exclusion : No two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers. Lewis Dot Diagram: The Lewis Dot Diagram tells us the number and position of electrons in the outer most shell of an element. #15 Page 130 Models
  56. 58. Exam <ul><li>Review your notes(All From Notes) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Atomic Theory- Notes from each other. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Atomic Structure </li></ul><ul><li>3. Energy, frequency, and wavelength associated with the electromagnetic spectrum. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Electron configuration, Etc. </li></ul>
  57. 59. Things You Need To Know <ul><li>Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons on the periodic table. Atomic Mass, atomic number, and average atomic mass. </li></ul>2. Energy E=MC ² E=h •  3. De Broglie’s – wavelength of particle 4. Carbon 12  Bases for all elements on the periodic table: Atomic Mass is based on Carbon - 12 5. Know  Pauli Exclusion Principle (How many numbers can be the same) (3) 6. Electron configuration 7. Principle quantum number (n) C   = C = 3.00 x 10 M/S 8 h = 6.6 x 10 J/H z -34
  58. 60. 8. Sublevels (l), Orbitals (m), Spin (s). 9. Number of possible electrons. 10. Lewis Dot Structure. 11. Isotopes. 12. Explain difference between Newtonian and Quantum mechanics. Study for the test!
  59. 61. The Deal <ul><li>Turn in now: 1. Practice Problems </li></ul><ul><li>2. Homework with signature </li></ul><ul><li>Model Project due Monday. Extension of exam. (Evaluation) – 20 of 88 </li></ul><ul><li>Go FB </li></ul><ul><li>Go CC </li></ul><ul><li>Go VB </li></ul>

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