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The role of the nurse in public health safety: Immunization


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NU588 Teaching Plan

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The role of the nurse in public health safety: Immunization

  1. 1. The Role of the Nurse in Public Health Safety: Immunization NU588 Teaching Plan Sacred Heart University Deanna Smith
  2. 2. Goals and Objectives Goals: Following completion of this learning activity, students will have the knowledge to discuss immunization promotion for public health safety and have the skills to safety administer vaccinations to the public. Objectives: Upon completion of this module, students will be able to: A. Define immunization and vaccination B. Describe the significance of immunization for public health safety C. Identify the risks and benefits of immunizations D. Recall the CDC guidelines for vaccination E. Discuss safety of immunization with the public F. Demonstrate safe administration of vaccinations to clients
  3. 3. Immunization and Vaccination • Immunization is the process by which a person becomes protected against a disease (CDC, 2012). • Forms of immunity • Active • Passive • Vaccination is the injection of a killed or weakened infectious organism in order to prevent the disease (CDC, 2012). • Vaccines are responsible for control and elimination of many infectious diseases once common in the U.S. (National Association of School Nurses [NASN], 2010).
  4. 4. Significance of Immunization • First vaccine developed in 1796 , many new vaccines developed and used in 20th century (Malone & Hinman, 2003). • Vaccination against childhood diseases is one of the greatest public health achievements (NASN, 2010). • Children in the United States are vaccinated against 11 diseases:
  5. 5. Significance of Immunization • Most diseases have declined 99% or more with vaccination (Malone & Hinman, 2003). • The viruses and bacteria that cause vaccine-preventable disease and death still exist and unvaccinated people are still at risk for these diseases. • Most vaccines provide individual and community protection (Malone & Hinman, 2003). • All states require immunization prior to entry into school and additional vaccines required during school age years. (NASN, 2010).
  6. 6. Vaccination Safety • Vaccines are safe and effective, but some persons who receive vaccines will be injured as a result, and some persons will not be protected (Malone & Hinman, 2003). • Most adverse effects are minor • Injection site redness or soreness • Low-grade fever • Fussiness • Serious adverse events are rare
  7. 7. Vaccination Risks and Benefits Benefits • Prevention of infectious diseases that once killed or harmed many infants, children, and adults. • Benefit community health as well as individual health. Risks • Side effects • Minor local reaction • Severe allergic reaction • Vaccine may not be effective
  8. 8. CDC Immunization Schedule • Review CDC 2013 recommended immunization schedule for birth to 18 years and catch-up hand out • Provides recommendations for routine vaccinations for children age 18 years and younger • Also available online at: •
  9. 9. Immunization and Public Safety • Public health nurses work with communities focusing on primary prevention and health promotion (Kulbok, Thatcher, Park, & Meszaros, 2012). • Individuals must recognize that vaccines are a safe and effective way to help defined against vaccine- preventable diseases (NASN, 2010). • Public health nurses are in a position to maintain and share knowledge and recommendations regarding vaccines with the communities they serve (NASN, 2010).
  10. 10. Immunization and Public Safety • Barriers to immunization: • Parents’ lack of awareness of immunization schedule • Parents’ lack of knowledge about vaccines and their importance • Misinformation about long-term side effects and safety concerns (Durham Region Health Department, 2011). • Access to reputable information about vaccines is important • Public health nurses are in a critical position to provide this information
  11. 11. Vaccine Administration To be completed during lab: •Review video •Instructor demonstration •Student practice •Return demonstration
  12. 12. References CDC. (2012). Immunization: The basics. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from Durham Region Health Department. (2011). Barriers to receiving and reporting childhood immunizations: Parents’ perspectives. Retrieved from immSurveyReport.pdf Kulbok, P. A., Thatcher, E., Park, E., & Meszaros, P. S. (2012). Evolving public health nursing roles: Focus on community participatory health promotion and prevention. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 17(2). Malone, K. M., & Hinman, A. R. (2003). Vaccination mandates: The public health imperative and individual rights. In Law in public health practice (pp. 262-284). Retrieved from vacgen/policies/downloads/vacc_mandates_chptr13.pdf National Association of School Nurses. (2010). Immunizations. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from /0/positions/2010psimmunizations.pdf