Public Sector Agility Accelerator

Technical Leader / Agile Coach / Software Developer at Unbound DNA
May. 23, 2021

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Public Sector Agility Accelerator

  1. Public Sector Agility Accelerator Craig Smith & Julian Smith
  3. “More agile and more responsive to the public where they live”
  4. 6 “We know we can do better. We know we can build a more modern, agile and adaptive public service.”
  5. Australian Public Service (APS) Review Objective: “APS Needs to be apolitical and professional, agile, innovative and efficient.” (December 2019)
  6. APS Workforce Strategy 2025
  7. Agile Nations Charter
  8. Public Sector Agility “Today’s complex economic and societal challenges, accelerating technological change and instant communication are forcing governments to change. It is vital for governments to be agile to not only maintain, but even improve, public services, and the capacity of the public sector to answer tomorrow’s challenges in a time of fiscal restraint.” Source: OECD (2015), Achieving Public Sector Agility at Times of Fiscal Consolidation, OECD Public Governance Reviews, OECD Publishing.
  9. What is “Agile” anyway?
  10. UNOFFICIAL UNOFFICIAL Image: © Talkback Thames We traditionally started in IT…
  11. UNOFFICIAL UNOFFICIAL Agile is 20 years young…
  12. Adaptive Software Development Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) DSDM Framework Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) NEXUS Framework Large Scale Scrum (LeSS) Crystal Lean Extreme Programming (EP) SCRUM “Agile” can send you into a spin… Prince2 Agile Kanban Spotify IC Agile DevOps Flow
  13. AGILE is a mindset
  14. What is NOT Agile US Department of Defence No Agile BS Guide
  16. Agile Doesn’t Come Easy or in a Box
  17. The Satir Model of Change Satir, Virginia, et. al., The Satir Model: Family Therapy and Beyond, ISBN 0831400781, Science and Behavior Books, 1991
  18. Why Agile?
  19. UNOFFICIAL UNOFFICIAL We Need to Embrace Change
  20. UNOFFICIAL UNOFFICIAL Socio-Economic Changes Rapid Technology Change Market/Industry Forces Changing Citizen Expectations 4th Industrial Revolution
  21. Value Realisation Time Value Agile Traditional Cost In Agile, as higher business value is delivered earlier, this allows business owners to reduce wastage.
  22. Reduce Risk Time Risk Agile Traditional In Agile, risks are exposed early, while for traditional projects. risks can be hidden until later.
  23. UNOFFICIAL UNOFFICIAL 28 Case Studies • 100-fold increase in yearly production deployments with 98% cost reduction, enabling iterative product development • Programme to deliver 20m cash savings through faster deliver and benefits realisation • 400% productivity increase over 18 months • Net Promoter Score rose by 8 points • Strong overall delivery predictability of 80%+ • Doubled of digital adoption (from ~20% to ~40%) on key program of work. • Business Satisfaction - 80% of staff rated there experience as ‘Reasonable’ to ‘Excellent’, up from 53%.
  24. Value & User Centricity
  25. Scope Schedule Cost Traditional Triple-Constraints Triangle Source: Jim Highsmith, Agile Project Management : Creating Innovative Products, 2009
  26. Agile Triangle Value Quality Scope Schedule Cost Constraints Source: Jim Highsmith, Agile Project Management : Creating Innovative Products, 2009 Value (Extrinsic) Value to the customer in terms of a current releasable product Constraints (Scope, Cost, Schedule) Important project parameters, but are not the goal Quality (Intrinsic) Deliver continuous value to the customer, in terms of a reliable, adaptable product
  27. UNOFFICIAL UNOFFICIAL Citizen Centric Value “The heart of public sector agility is no less than the very reason we exist: our Citizens.” Adapted from: Domains of Business Agility, Business Agility Institute, 2019
  28. The Elements of Value…
  29. 35 Digital Service Standards
  30. Digital Service Standard
  31. A Focus on User Centered Delivery
  32. As Used by Governments Around the World
  33. Human Centered Design
  34. Design Thinking + Agile Mindset
  35. It Often Turns Into Faux Agile
  36. As Described Discovery generally takes a few weeks Alpha generally takes a few weeks to a few months Beta generally takes a few months Live lasts as long as the service is viable
  37. Turns Into This
  39. It Meant This Discovery generally takes a few weeks to mobilise and understand the problem Alpha generally takes a few weeks to a few months with continuous iterations every couple of weeks to Beta when user needs are understood or experiments need to be validated Beta generally takes a few months ideally with continuous delivery to Live Live lasts as long as the service is viable Measure Learn Learn Continuous HCD and Agile iterations / valuable delivery Lightweight Governance Lightweight Governance
  40. UNOFFICIAL UNOFFICIAL DSS Criteria Discover Alpha Beta Live 1. Understand user needs CreateValueProposition Canvas Develop personas CreateEmpathy maps CreateUser Journey Map Develop User Research Plan Design hypothesis and experiments Conduct user research and validation Test and iteratelo-fi prototypes with real users Identify user need gaps in theservice/ product Test iterativebuild ofservice/ product with real users Conduct user experiencetesting Demonstratecompleted user research and continuing roadmap Develop user usageand satisfaction metrics Monitor service/ product usageand user satisfaction metrics Identify next problems / opportunities 2. Have amultidisciplinary team Createcoreteam and identify primary roles Identify extended team and service/ product sponsor Onboard discovery team members Conduct team mobilisation Createteam charter / canvas Agreeteam standards and ways ofworking Onboard delivery team members Onboard delivery vendors / suppliers Build / identify coreskills gaps Build initial MVP Build / iteratelive Support beta / live Build / iteratelive Support live 3. Agile and user-centered process Workshops and short design sprints Short design sprints Createuser story map / prioritised backlog Createproduct backlog (with defined user stories for first MVP / beta) Definedefinition of done Sprints / Kanban Ongoing refinement and prioritisation of product backlog Sprints / Kanban (for new features and existing support) Ongoing refinement and prioritisation of product backlog 4. Understand toolsand systems Develop high level system architecture Identify high level infrastructure Identify internal / external system dependencies Investigatetechnical feasibility Calculatecost for required tools / systems Develop detailed system architecture Develop information architecture Providerationalefor tools of choice/ platform Setup technical tools / DevOps / automated testing Procuresoftware/ vendor management AgreeSLA for technical support Perform Continuous Integration / Continuous Delivery pipeline Setup production monitoring Createoperational procedures Secureongoing funding for tools and platforms Monitor / updatetools and platforms 5. Make it secure Conduct high level security assessment Develop security architecture Identify security levels and profiles Conduct data mapping and collection Identify legal constraints (eg. FOI, IP, privacy, copyright) Conduct IRAP Assessment with vendor/s Develop security plan and policies (to meet legislativerequirements) Build security in Conduct security testing (eg. penetration, OWASP) Setup users and access control levels Conduct security monitoring Conduct ongoing security testing (eg. penetration, OWASP) 6. Consistent and responsive design Determineaccessibility and design patterns Investigatechannels and touchpoints Consider existing design systems Develop prototypes using design systems and components Createwritten content with consistency in toneand easy to understand language Build consistent and responsivedesign in Updatefor new design patternsand components 7. Use open standardsand common platforms Document high level technical and product standards Consider any open standards, design systems or common shared architectures Consider other experiences from international counterparts Determinetechnical standards and metrics Identify systems/ tools / processes that can beshared Build using technical standards and open platforms (whereappropriate) Updatefor new technical standards / platforms 8. Make source code open Consider open sourcesoftware Consider open sourcecontributions Consider usageof an public open sourcerepository for codeand other artefacts Develop open sourcecontribution and user guide/s Contributeback to open source Commit relevant codeto a public open sourcerepository Contributeback to open source Document reasons for codethat is open and private 9. Make it accessible Investigateaccessibility options Develop prototypes using accessibility best practiceand test with a rangeof diverseusers Createan accessibility tetst strategy Test accessibility (eg. WCAG compliance2.0 AA) Monitor accessibility compliance 10. Test the service Determinequality and test requirements Develop test strategy Identify required test tools / environments Develop business continuity plans / roll back / data recovery Preparetesting / deployment environment/s Build quality in Test iteratively with useoftest automation Test continuity plans / roll back / data recovery Prepareliveenvironment (ifrequired) Conduct continuous testing and monitoring 11. Measure performance Discuss performancemetrics and definemeasures of success (eg. user satisfaction, digital uptake, completion rate, cost per transaction) Investigateexisting data and metrics Develop performancetest plan Consider serviceload capacity ofservice Collect baselinedata Consider reporting performanceon theGov Performancedashboard Conduct performancetesting -iterativeand load / scale Preparereadiness to report performanceto Gov Performancedashboard Record key learnings from qualitative/ quantitativedata Conduct continuous testing and monitoring ofperformanceand load 12. Don't forget the non-digital experience Identify business process changeand impact Develop communications plan Identify user journey touch points, context ofuse, digital limitations Design business process changes and process improvement metrics Understand serviceinteraction and channels Implement and test business process change Integrateservicewith other channels to ensureuser support and information is consistent Monitor process improvement 13. Encourage everyone to use the digital service Engagecommunications and marketing teams Review communications and marketing plans Design digital uptakeand target metrics Support communications and marketing plan rollout Review digital uptakeand targets Develop retirement strategy for legacy systems and non-digital channels Support communications and marketing plan rollout Review digital uptakeand targets Commenceretirement strategy for legacy systems and non-digital channels Delivery Management Createservice/ product vision Establish business caseand cost and timewishes Estimatehigh level cost / timefor service/ product Createhigh level service/ product roadmap Estimatecost / timefor discovery Conduct procurement activities Createinitial product / servicebudget and reporting Confirm that product / serviceisadding value, is meeting needs only government can meet, and is not duplicating existing government service/ products Estimatecost / timefor alpha Refineestimatecost / timefor service/ product DefineMVP / beta scope CreateFeatures level stories for serviceand break down user stories for beta Createreleaseplans Cost / timeestimatefor beta Createongoing service/ product support budget Updateservice/ product roadmap Continuously updateservice/ product roadmap Stakeholder Management Identify stakeholders Setup steering committee/ reporting requirements Obtain support from senior stakeholders and ensurethey understand theproblem you aretrying to solve Ongoing stakeholder management and reporting Conduct regular reviews / showcases Ongoing stakeholder management and reporting Conduct regular reviews / showcases Ongoing stakeholder management and reporting Conduct regular reviews / showcases When to stop Thereis no need for what you areexploring Theneed is already been met by another serviceor product from government or industry Adapting or developing another serviceis a better solution Therearetechnical or policy constraints that outweigh thetimeframeor cost wishes It not cost-effectiveto do this Thenon-digital solution is sufficient for user needs DSS Assessments & Governance
  41. Reduce Waste
  42. Project Waste Australia waste an average of $139 million for every $1 billion ASEAN waste an average of $86 million for every $1 billion Brazil waste an average of $122 million for every $1 billion Canada waste an average of $77 million for every $1 billion China waste an average of $76 million for every $1 billion Europe waste an average of $127 million for every $1 billion India waste an average of $81 million for every $1 billion Latin America waste an average of $102 million for every $1 billion Middle East waste an average of $85 million for every $1 billion North America waste an average of $102 million for every $1 billion Source: (2018). 2018 Pulse of the Profession Survey. [online] Available at:
  43. Too much is spent on waste
  44. Bets < Big vs Small > Traditional Project 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Etc. Features Product Management Feature 1 Experiment 100% Committed Work 3% Committed Work Feature 2 Backlog 3 4 5 6 Etc. Value
  45. UNOFFICIAL UNOFFICIAL Your organisation is a value factory - make sure it flows smoothly and efficiently
  46. Shorten the Value Stream 2019/20 2020 / 2021 2020 / 21 Discovery Alpha ? Concept IT Investment Analysis Development Testing Release IDEA VALUE
  47. Source: Dr Matthew R. Kennedy, Program Executive Office, Defense (Army), Defense Acquisition University, 2018 “You plan it, you build it, you launch it, you get feedback. And you do this constantly,” Gen. Ellen M. Pawlikowski, Commander of Air Force Material Command
  48. UNOFFICIAL UNOFFICIAL Value Stream Mapping
  49. 56 Government Agility Accelerated
  50. It’s About Business Agility … We are about here on our journey
  51. Reinventing Organisations Conway’s Law
  52. Public Sector Agility is… Adapted from: • Nikos C. Tsourveloudis & Kimon P. Valavanis. (2002). On the measurement of enterprise agility. Journal of Intelligent and Robotics Systems, 33(3), 329-342. • Dahmardeh Nazar & Pourshahabi Vahid, Agility evaluation in public sector (2009). Chinese Business Review, ISSN 1537-1506, USA. Oct. 2009, Volume 8, No.10 (Serial No.76) “The ability of Government entities to operate successfully in a rapidly changing and complex operating environment by producing high-quality, high-performance, citizen- centric goods and services”
  53. Elements of Public Sector Agility
  54. Systems Approach to Agility • Take a Systems based approach to Digital/Agile Transformation • View your organisation as a complex ecosystem • Push / Pull Factors • Most common barrier is “Culture” (not ‘how to do scrum’) • Consider different elements – moving parts in a networked ecosystem • Influence and collaborate across the ecosystem to move dials
  55. 62 Government Agility Model
  57. Activity: Gov Agility Model 7 minutes Identify Key Issues using the Gov. Agility Model 0QvN7ius163ESnJPML9Z2/01c5cdb8- 8047-4e70-925b-1e84c1059c6e
  58. Find it here: 65
  59. Wrap Up Header 67 Touch Down…
  60. How Can We Accelerate Agility? We need to focus on understanding and realizing Value continuously The world is focused on achieving greater Agility in the public sector to operate effectively in this rapidly changing, complex and fiscally constrained operating environment Our citizens need a seat at the table, to not only understand their needs but design the future with too We need to adopt the Digital Service Standard as the default way of operating. We need to seek to reduce waste in the system which exists today. We need to seek to reduce the size of our projects and see work as smaller ‘experiments’ to test our hypotheses Focus not only on Agile Teams, but also on Government (Business) Agility
  61. Thankyou for helping us to Accelerate Public Sector Agility! Craig Smith Julian Smith