Full chapter redox

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Full chapter redox

  1. 1. Elements of Chemistry Chapter 2
  2. 2. 2.1 Matter Has Physical and Chemical Properties
  3. 3. “ Physical properties” describe the look or feel of a substance.
  4. 9. During a “ physical change” a substance changes some physical property…
  5. 10. … but it is still the same material with the same chemical composition.
  6. 11. Chemical Property: The tendency of a substance to change into another substance.
  7. 12. Oxygen Carbon
  8. 13. Carbon dioxide
  9. 14. Carbon dioxide Oxygen Carbon
  10. 15. Animation “CO2Flask.mov”
  11. 16. Chemical Change: Any change involving a rearrangement of atoms.
  12. 17. Chemical Reaction: The process of a chemical change...
  13. 18. During a “ chemical reaction” new materials are formed by a change in the way atoms are bonded together.
  14. 19. Physical Change
  15. 20. Chemical Change
  16. 21. 2.2 Atoms Are the Fundamental Components of Elements
  17. 22. Element: Any material consisting of only one type of atom.
  18. 26. The Periodic Table
  19. 27. Atomic Symbol: One or two letters used to designate an element.
  20. 28. Carbon, C Calcium, Ca
  21. 29. Silver, Ag (Argentum) (Hydrargyrum) Mercury, Hg
  22. 30. Elemental Formula: Used to show how atoms within an element are grouped
  23. 32. N 2
  24. 33. 2 Oxygen, O
  25. 34. 3 Ozone, O
  26. 35. Oxygen Ozone
  27. 36. Oxygen Ozone Physical or chemical change?
  28. 37. 2.3 Elements Can Combine to Form Compounds
  29. 38. Compound A material in which atoms of different elements are bonded to one another.
  30. 39. Sodium chloride
  31. 40. Sodium chloride Na
  32. 41. Sodium chloride Cl
  33. 42. Ammonia
  34. 43. Ammonia N
  35. 44. Ammonia H
  36. 45. A compound is represented by its…
  37. 46. chemical formula The combination of atomic symbols of the elements of a compound
  38. 47. Ammonia
  39. 48. Ammonia, NH 3
  40. 49. Sodium chloride
  41. 50. Sodium chloride, NaCl
  42. 51. Iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 Compound Chemical Formula
  43. 52. Iron oxide Sulfuric acid Fe SO 2 O 3 H 2 4 Compound Chemical Formula
  44. 53. Iron oxide Calcium chloride Sulfuric acid Fe SO Cl 2 O 3 H Ca 2 2 4 Compound Chemical Formula
  45. 54. Compounds have properties that are uniquely different from the elements from which they are made.
  46. 55. Iron oxide Calcium chloride Sulfuric acid Fe SO Cl 2 O 3 H Ca 2 2 4 Compound Chemical Formula
  47. 56. Iron oxide Calcium chloride Sulfuric acid Fe SO Cl 2 O 3 H Ca 2 2 4 Compound Chemical Formula
  48. 57. Iron oxide Calcium chloride Sulfuric acid Fe SO Cl 2 O 3 H Ca 2 2 4 Compound Chemical Formula
  49. 58. Sodium chloride Cl Na Compound Chemical Formula
  50. 59. Sodium metal, Na
  51. 60. Chlorine gas, Cl 2
  52. 61. Reaction
  53. 62. Sodium chloride, NaCl
  54. 63. Sodium chloride, NaCl
  55. 64. Diversity! From so few elements…
  56. 65. The Periodic Table
  57. 66. Naming Compounds
  58. 67. Guideline 1 Start with the element farthest to the left in the periodic table…
  59. 68. Guideline 1 … for the element farthest to the right, add the suffix -ide
  60. 69. Example NaCl
  61. 70. The Periodic Table
  62. 71. Example NaCl Sodium ine Chlor
  63. 72. Example NaCl Sodium ide Chlor
  64. 73. Example NaCl sodium chloride
  65. 74. Guideline 2 With different possible combinations of elements…
  66. 75. Guideline 2 … use prefixes to remove any ambiguity.
  67. 76. mono- di- tri- tetra- 2 3 4 1
  68. 77. Example CO CO 2 carbon monoxide carbon dioxide
  69. 78. Example H O H O 2 dihydrogen monoxide dihydrogen dioxide 2 2
  70. 79. Example H O H O 2 dihydrogen monoxide dihydrogen dioxide 2 2 Would you drink this??
  71. 80. H O H O 2 dihydrogen monoxide dihydrogen dioxide 2 2 (water) (hydrogen peroxide)
  72. 81. Guideline 3 Common names are also sometimes used for convenience.
  73. 82. 2.4 Most Materials are Mixtures
  74. 83. Mixture A combination of two or more substances…
  75. 84. Mixture … in which each substance retains its properties.
  76. 85. Examples
  77. 86. “ salt water” Examples NaCl H O 2 +
  78. 87. “ Air” Examples N O 2 + 2
  79. 88. “ white gold” Examples Pd Au +
  80. 89. A mixture of a gas and a liquid?
  81. 90. The formation of a mixture is different from the formation of a compound.
  82. 91. The formation of a mixture The formation of a compound Chemical Change Physical Change
  83. 92. The formation of a mixture
  84. 93. The formation of a mixture
  85. 94. 2.5 Chemists Classify Matter as Pure or Impure
  86. 95. Pure Consisting of only a single element or a single compound.
  87. 96. Pure Consisting of only a single element or a single compound. “ Ideal state”
  88. 97. Impure “ not pure”
  89. 98. Impure A mixture…
  90. 99. Impure … containing two or more elements or compounds.
  91. 100. Impure … containing two or more elements or compounds. Reality
  92. 110. Impure water can be purified by… a) removing the impure water molecules.
  93. 111. Impure water can be purified by… a) removing the impure water molecules.
  94. 112. Impure water can be purified by… b) removing everything that is not water.
  95. 113. Impure water can be purified by… b) removing everything that is not water.
  96. 114. Impure water can be purified by… c) breaking down the water to its simplest components.
  97. 115. Impure water can be purified by… c) breaking down the water to its simplest components.
  98. 116. Impure water can be purified by… d) adding some disinfectant such as chlorine.
  99. 117. Impure water can be purified by… d) adding some disinfectant such as chlorine.
  100. 118. Impure water can be purified by… ?
  101. 119. 2.6 Elements Are Organized in the Periodic Table by Their Properties
  102. 133. interval
  103. 184. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18 Groups
  104. 186. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Seven Periods

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