ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR – an Overview Prof. Jairaj Kochavara August ‘ 08
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR - Course Content- 100 marks1. Introduction to O.B.: Origin, Nature and Scope of Organizational Behaviour and its relevance to Organizational Effectiveness and contemporary issues2. Personality: Meaning and determinants of Personality; process of Personality formation; Personality Types;Assessment of Personality Traits for increasing Self-Awareness3. Perception: Attitude and Value, Perceptual Processes, Effect of perception on Individual decision-making, Attitude and Behaviour. Sources of Value, Effect of Values on Attitudes and Behaviour,Effects of Perception, Attitude and Values on Work Performance
4. Motivation Concepts: Motives, Theories of Motivation and their applications for behavioural Change5. Group Behaviour : Work groups, formal and informal groups and stages of & Group Dynamics group development: Concepts of Group Dynamics, group conflicts and group decision-making. Team Effectiveness: High Performing Teams, Team Roles, Cross-functional and self-directed Teams6. Organizational Design: Structure, size, technology, environment of Organizations: Organizational Roles: concept of Roles; role dynamics, role Conflicts and stress and organizational conflicts
7. 7. Leadership: Concepts and skills of Leadership; Leadership and Managerial roles, Leadership styles and effectiveness; contemporary issues of leadership. Power and Politics; sources and uses of Power; politics at workplace; tactics and strategies Reference Texts 1. Understanding Organizational Behaviour- Udai Pareek 2. Organizational Behaviour- Stephen Robbins 3. Organizational Behaviour- Fred Luthans 4. Organizational Behaviour- Newstrom 5. Organizational Behaviour- Uma Sekaran
Organisational BehaviourDefinition-O.B. is a systematic study of the actions and reactions of individuals,groups and subsystems PEOPLE-consist of individualemployees, dyads, groups and teams who have to get the work done aswell as those outside the organization like customers and government officials
Organisational Behaviour JOBS AND TASKS-JOB- is the sum total of an individual’sassignment at the workplaceTASKS-are the various activities that needto be performed to get the job done.TECHNOLOGY-is the mechanismthrough which the raw input is convertedinto finished productsSTRUCTURE-refers to how the workplacein terms of job positions is 7PROCESS- is the way things get done
Organisational Behaviour Job Requirements, Group, Behaviour and Outcomes Requirements of Jobs Tasks Activities Division of Labour Coordination of Activities Formal Group Informal Group Psychological GroupRequired Behaviour Emergent Behaviour “We Feeling” -Activities -Activities -Psychological -Interactions -Interaction awareness and -Sentiments identification with group Group Processes Outcomes - Norms - Performance - Cohesion etc. - Productivity - Satisfaction of organisational members
Difference between WorkGroups and Teams Work groups Teams
Managers and their Internal and External Environments External Environment Labour Market Market Internal Environment PEOPLECultural Individuals Economic Dyads Groups EE Political STRUCTURE MANAGERSGovt. Roles & Managerial JOBS Position Processes Tasks Hierarchy ActivitiesTechno- TECHNOLOGYlogical Machines & other Social Mechanisms Internal Environment External Environment
Types of GroupsFormal- hierarchicalInformal-interest groups or cliques-horizontal, vertical or randomVirtual Groups- facilitated through I. T.(a) Information Sharing(b) Decision Making(c ) Solving Complex ProblemsPsychological Group-’we’ feeling, sensitivity, affinity, understanding ofindividual strengths and personalities, sense of belonging and loyaltyOther types of Groups1. (a)Interacting- assembly-line(b) Co-acting- work independently(c ) Counter-acting- union/ management2. (a)Open-Matrix(b) Closed- Fixed Roles3. (a)Membership- belongsReferent-Would like to belong4. (a)In and Out groups- Gang Wars, rivalry, competition,politics
Virtual Organization Brazil USARaw Materials Marketing Singapore Core Group 5exes.& 5 staff India Japan I.T.Manufacturing Support Rs.100 Cr. Turnover Possible through I.T. Linkages
Organizational Behaviour- GROUPSystem- an orderly group of logically related facts,principles, beliefs etcan orderly method, plan or procedureA group or arrangement of parts, facts, phenomena that relateto or interact with each other in such a way as to form awholeDefinition of Organizational Behaviour‘ O. B is an interdisciplinary behavioural science studyingphenomena and dynamics( processes) of organizations andtheir various human units.Stages of Small Group DevelopmentFORMINGSTORMINGNORMINGPERFORMINGADJOURNING
Stages in Group Development- Summary Knowledge Knowledge Is Hidden Creation Performing SynergiesTrust FormingUnknown K CollaboratDistrust Norming Storming Knowledge Knowledge Hoarding Sharing
DIFFERENT ROLES PLAYED BY GROUP MEMBERSAs per BELBIN-1981 As per Margerison&McCann- 19901. Chairman/ Coordinator 1. Creator-initiates creative ideas2. Shaper 2. Promoter-champions ideas after they are initiated3. Plant 3. Assessor- offers insightful analysis of options4. Monitor/ Evaluator 4. Organizer- provides structure5. Company Worker 5. Producer-provides direction and follow-through6. Resource Investigator 6. Controller-examines details and enforces rules7. Team Worker 7. Maintainer-fights external battles8. Completor/Finisher 8. Advisor-encourages the search
Leadership Role & Functions Achieving the Task Task Needs Building and Team Individual Developing the Maintaining Needs Needs Individual the Team
Model of Team-BuildingStage Theme Task Outcome Relationship OutcomeOne Awareness Commitment AcceptanceTwo Conflict Clarification BelongingThree Cooperation Involvement SupportFour Productivity Achievement PrideFive Separation Recognition Satisfactionn.b. The above is similar to the stages of forming,storming,norming performing and adjourning.Effective teams take time to build in an organization and comprisethree steps viz.(a) Team Development(b) Team Roles(c) Team Effectiveness
Differences between Work Groups and TeamsS. No. Aspect Work Groups Teams 1. Roles& Respon. Set of behaviours Understands roles 2. Identity No identity Norms & values 3. Cohesion ‘me’ feeling ‘we” feeling 4 Communication self-centered member-centered 5. Flexibility rigid flexible 6. Morale Maybe Enthusiasm/pride 7. Idea generation Old ways New/creative ways
Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams Work Groups Work TeamsShare information Goal Collective PerformanceNeutral(s.t.negative) Synergy PositiveIndividual Accountability Individual and mutualRandom and varied Skills Complementary
TYPES OF TEAMS technoProblem-solving Self-managed Cross-functional Virtual
Characteristics of Effective Work Teams1. Commitment and inspiring goals2. Role Clarity3. Self- disclosure (incl.confrontation)4. Openness to feedback5. Competence6. Creativity with constructive confrontation7. Collaboration /Support/Trust8. Congruence between individual and group goals9. Supportive leadership10. Management of power Team Functioning Team Empowerment a)Cohesion- amongst team members a)Clarity of Roles b)Confrontation-solving problems b)Autonomy c)Collaboration-working together c)Resources provn. d)Accountable-goals
TEAM EFFECTIVENESS MODELContext Work Design-Adequate resources -Autonomy-Leadership and structure -Skill variety-Climate of trust -Task identity-Performance evaluation & -Task significance reward systems TEAM EFFECTIVENESSComposition Process-Abilities of members -Common purpose-Personality -Specific goals-Allocating roles -Team efficacy-Diversity -Conflict levels-Size of teams -Social loafing-Member flexibility
Basic Definitions connected with O.B. Organization: An organization has four essential elements (a) Group of people (b) Interacting with each other (c )In a structured manner (d) Towards a common objective Management: Implies getting things done through and with people Manager: He is the dynamic, life-giving element in every organization. And it is the quality and performance of its managers which is the only effective advantage an enterprise in a competitive economy can have and particularly in a business enterprise.
Basic Definitions (contd..) Three elements stand out in a manager- competence, integrity and performance Who is a manager? The CEO or the middle manager or the supervisor? A manager’s decision-making,action and behaviour are all geared towards ‘Economic Performance’.The objective of a business enterprise could be Survival, Profit and /or Growth ? Peter Drucker feels otherwise-’creating a customer’.
Basic Definitions connected with O.B.The Manager has the following responsibilities:1. Managing Managers2. Managing Worker and Work3. Managing a Business4. Managing TimeA Manager has to manage Resources- 5 Ms- Money, Materials, Machines, Methods and Man. One of these resources is different from the others. Which one and why? What about Time as a resource?A manager also performs the following functions:Planning, Organizing.Staffing, Directing and Controlling orLeading,Planning,Organizing and ControllingPlanning –determines what results the organization will achieveOrganizing- specifies how it will achieve the resultsControlling –determines whether the results will be achievedLeading- through planning, organizing and controlling managers exercise leadership
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOURTo provide an understanding of what goes on at the workplace. Four aspects need to be explained viz.Definition, goals,forces and O.B.’s major characteristics1. O.B. is the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people- as individuals and as members of groups –act within organizations.It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively.2. O.B. provides managers with the tools to: (a) to understand the behaviour of individuals (b) to understand the complexities of inter-personal relations (c )to examine the dynamics of relationships within small groups – both formal teams and informal groups (d) organizations can be viewed as whole systems that have interorganizational relationships
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOURGOALS:Most sciences share four goals-to describe, understand,predictand control some phenomena. O.B. has the following goals1.Describe, systematically, how people behave under a variety ofcircumstances2.Understand why people behave as they do.3.Predicting future employee behaviour4.Control at least partially, and develop some human activity at work Managers can utilize the tool of O.B.to influence humanbehaviour.skill development, team effort and productivityFORCES: There are a wide array of issues and trends that affect thenature of organizations today. They can be classified under four areasPEOPLE, STRUCTURE, TECHNOLOGY and the ENVIRONMENT
O. B. Definitions1. O.B. is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals , groups and structures have on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness.2. O.B. can be defined as the systematic study of the actions and reactions of individuals, groups and sub-systems.3. O.B. is the study and understanding of individual and group behaviour, patterns of structure in order to to help improve organizational performance and effectiveness.4. O.B. is one of the most complex and perhaps least understood academic elements of modern general management, but since it concerns the behaviour of people within organizations it is also one of the most central- its concern with individual and group patterns of behaviour makes it an essential element in dealing with the complex behavioural issues thrown up in the modern business world.5. O.B. is an inter-disciplinary behaviour science studying phenomena and dynamics(processes) of organizations and their various units.
Bases of Organizational Behaviour1.Psychology: The science or study of individual human behaviour2. Sociology: The study of group human behaviour3. Social Psychology:Studies influences of people on one another4. Anthropology:Study of the human race, and culture5. Political Science:Behaviour of individuals in political env.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOURPersonality affects workplace behaviour. Persons need to be placed injobs which match their SKILLS, ABILITIES and TEMPERAMENT orPERSONALITY.Personality is that dynamic organization within the individual, of thosepsychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to theenvironment. Besides a study of personality is helpful in ensuringeffective job performance.Personality of an individual represents personal characteristics and traitswhich can lead to consistent patterns of behaviour.‘Personality’ comes from the Latin word per sona which means to speakthrough- the role a person is playing in public.A comprehensive definition of Personality is given by SalvatoreMaddi-’Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies thatdetermine those commonalities and differences in the psychologicalbehaviour( thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuityin time and that may not be understood as a sole result of the social andbiological pressures of the moment.’
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOURFrom the above definition the following points arise:1) Describes all behaviour at all times2) Some behaviours are common while others are unique3) Thus managing people becomes all the more challenging4) Personality is stable and has continuity in time5) But an individual’s personality can undergo change in time SELF CONCEPTSelf concept is when people try to understand themselves because personality would essentially mean:(a) How people affect others(b) How they understand and see others(c) What is the pattern of their inner and outer measurable traits(d) What is the person-situation interaction Self is very relevant to the concepts of self efficacy and self-esteemSelf Esteem is based on one’s perceived competence and self imageSelf Efficacy is concerned with how well a person can cope with situations as they arise. In other words, self esteem is a generalized trait whereas self-efficacy is situation specific.
THEORIES ON PERSONALITY1. Type Theories2. Trait Factor Theory3. Psychoanalytic Theory4. Socio-psychological Theory5. Self Theory
PERSONALITYCattell is also credited with having developed the 16 PF test which is used to assess personality. At firstpersonality and behaviour were identified by 5000 words from the dictionary which was then reduced to200 words and finally to 16 factors.Cattell’s 16PF Profile- FACTOR DESCRIPTORS A-Warmth Reserved/ Outgoing B-Reasoning Less Intelligent/ More Intelligent C-Emotional Stability Affected by feelings/ Emotionally stable E- Dominance Humble/ Assertive F-Liveliness Sober/Happy-go-lucky G-Rule Consciousness Expedient/Conscientious H-Social Boldness Shy/ Venturesome I-Sensitivity Tough-minded/Tender-minded L-Vigilance Trusting/ Suspicious M-Abstractedness Practical/ Imaginative N-Privateness Straightforwardness/ Shrewd O-Apprehension Self-Assured/ Apprehensive Q1-Openness to Change Conservative/ Experimenting Q2-Self-Reliance Group-dependent/ Self-sufficient Q3-Perfectionism Self-confident/ Self-control Q4-Tension Relaxed/ Tense
There are 5 Super Traits which are-1. Extroversion( sociable, assertive )2. Emotionality ( anxious, insecure)3. Agreeableness ( conforming, helpful to others)4. Conscientiousness ( persistent, organized )5. Intellect ( curious, open to experience )
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AVOIDANCE APPROACHResignation Appeasement Confrontation- win-lose(a) Fatalistic Concessions with trap(b) Ignore hope of resolution e.g. Strike and Lockout Arbitration- third partyWithdrawal Diffusion intervention(a)No opportunity (a) Time e.g. award or formula to fight (b) Good sense Compromise- give and tak(b)Physical separation (c ) Buffer e.g. adjustment(c )Define boundaries Negotiation- bargaining(d) Actually withdraw e.g. demands and Counter-demands and reaching a settlement