Chapter Diez.Pptx The Reproductive System


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Chapter Diez.Pptx The Reproductive System

  1. 1. Author: Shawna Miller<br />Chapter Ten: The Reproductive System<br />
  2. 2. Female Reproductive System<br />Provides ova(female reproductive cell)<br />Provides location for fertilization/growth of baby<br />Secretes female sex hormones<br />Nourishes the newborns with milk produced by the breasts<br />
  3. 3. Internal Genitalia<br />Ovaries(one on each side of the uterus) that produce the ova<br />Estrogen and progesterone are also produced by the ovaries(primary female sex hormones)<br />Fallopian tubes(uterine tubes or oviducts)<br />5 and ½ inches long<br />Finger-like projections at the ends called fimbriae that direct the ovum into the fallopian tube<br />Conception takes place here<br />Uterus: lies in the center of the pelvic cavity<br />Three sections: fundus(upper), corpus(central), cervix(lower)<br />Vagina: lined with mucous membrane<br />Passage of menstral flow here, receives the male penis, is the birth canal<br />
  4. 4. External Genitalia<br />Vulva: group of structures<br />Labia majora and labia minora: folds of skin that protect the vaginal orifice and the urinary meatus.<br />Clitoris: erectile tissue aroused during sexual stimulation<br />Perineum: area between the vaginal orifice and the anus.<br />
  5. 5. The Breast<br />Mammary glands<br />Produce milk(lactation) for the newborns<br />Lactiferous glands(what milk produced by)<br />Nipple: where milk is carried<br />Areola: pigmented area around the nipple<br />
  6. 6. Pregnancy<br />Gestation: length of time a baby grows and develops in the uterus(40 weeks).<br />Embryo: implantation til 8 weeks.<br />Fetus: 9 weeks until birth.<br />Placenta:where baby gets nourishment from<br />Spongy, blood filled organ formed in the uterus.<br />Also called afterbirth.<br />Fetus attaches to placenta by umbilical cord.<br />Amnion and chorion sacs: <br />Amnion(inner) floats the fetus<br />Chorion(outer) protective part that forms part of placenta.<br />
  7. 7. Labor and Delivery<br />Labor: actual process of expelling the fetus from the uterus through the vagina.<br />Three stages<br />Dilation: uterine contractions dilate cervix<br />Expulsion: birth of baby<br />Placental: delivery of placenta<br />
  8. 8. Male Reproductive System<br />Responsible for producing sperm(male reproductive cell)<br />Secreting the male sex hormones<br />Delivering sperm to the female reproductive tract<br />Organs include:<br />Bulbourethral glands<br />Epididymis<br />Penis<br />Prostate gland<br />Seminal vesicles<br />Testes<br />Vas deferens<br />
  9. 9. External organs<br />Testes: responsible for producing sperm.<br />Seminiferous tubules: where spermatogenesis (sperm production)takes place.<br />Scrotum: a sac outside the body that holds the testes.<br />Epididymis:location for sperm maturation and storage.<br />Penis: male sex organ<br />Glans penis- soft tip<br />Prepuce- foreskin<br />Ejaculation- ejection of semen<br />Sphincter- closes to keep urine from escaping.<br />
  10. 10. Internal Organs<br />Vas deferans: carry sperm from epididymis into pelvic cavity (2).<br />Seminal vesicles: secrete fluid that nourishes the sperm (2).<br />Prostate gland: important for reproduction because it secretes alkaline fluid that causes neutralizing of the pH of the urethra and vagina.<br />Bulbourethralglands:also called Cowper’s glands, produce a mucuslike lubricating fluid that blends with semen and becomes part of ejaculate.<br />
  11. 11. Some Common Terms<br />Cervical: pertaining to the cervix<br />Hysterectomy: surgical removal of the uterus<br />Mastectomy: removal of the breast<br />Neonate: newborn<br />Testicular: pertaining to the testes<br />Aspermia: condition of no sperm<br />Erectile dysfunction: inability to engage in sexual intercourse due to inability to maintain an erection (impotence)<br />Chancroid: highly infectious nonsyphilitic venereal ulcer<br />Castration: removal of the testicles in the male or the ovaries in the female<br />
  12. 12. Pathology<br />Fibrocystic breast disease: benign cysts in the breast<br />Stillbirth: birth in which a viable-aged fetus dies shortly before or at the time of delivery<br />Preeclampsia: metabolic disease of pregnancy<br />Fibroid tumor: benign tumor or growth that contains fiber- like tissue<br />Hydrocele: accumulation of fluid around the testes or along the spermatic cord.<br />Testicular torsion: a twisting of the spermatic cord<br />Cryptorchidism: failure of the testes to descend into the scrotal sac before birth<br />
  13. 13. Tests and Procedures<br />Digital rectal exam: manual examination for an enlarged prostate by palpating the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum<br />Prostate-specific antigen(PSA): a blood test to screen for prostate cancer<br />Cervical biopsy: taking a sample of tissue from the cervix to test for the presence of cancer cells.<br />Mammography: using x-ray to diagnose breast disease, especially breast cancer<br />Colposcopy: examination of vagina using an instrument called a colposcope<br />Pap smear: test for the early detection of cancer of the cervix<br />
  14. 14. Medications<br />Abortifacient: medication that terminates a pregnancy<br />Oral contraceptive pills: birth control medication that uses low doses of female hormones to prevent conception by blocking ovulation<br />Oxytocin: a natural hormone that begins or improves uterine contractions during labor and delivery<br />Spermatocide: medication that destroys sperm<br />Erectile dysfunction agents: medication that temporarily produces an erection in patients with erectile dysfunction<br />Androgen therapy; replacement of male hormones to treat patients who produce insufficient hormone naturally<br />
  15. 15. An indepth over view by Shawna Miller<br />Chapter Ten: Reproductive System<br />