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Writing

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Writing

  1. 1. Considerations for teaching Second Language Writing (Sara Cushing Weigle) Chapter 15 By Muzaffer Çetin
  2. 2. What is L2 writing? • Writing is very crucial for second/foreign language curriculum. Globalization, internet have made written communication essential for biz, education and in many fields across cultures. • To teach writing effectively, we need to understand the nature of L2 writing ability. 2 sides: cognitive ( set of skills individual has) and sociocultural as a means of communication within a particular setting aimed at achieving specific goals)
  3. 3. Cognitive perspective, L2 writing is combination of writing ability in L1 and and L2 proficiency. Even in native language composing a text is highly complex task that involves the consideration of many factors at the same time. When L2 is added to the mix, the picture becomes much more complex: writers need to focus on finding appropriate word to express their ideas accurately. If one has good L1 skills he can transfer these skills to L2.
  4. 4. From sociocultural perspective writing is seen as part of a socially and culturally situated set of literacy practices shared by a particular community. Process of learning to write is the process of becoming a member of a discourse community. E.g. in academic writing there are different conventions for publishing articles in different disciplines/certain linguistic/stylistic choices such as passive voice. It can be good writing in one discourse community but not in another.
  5. 5. İn short • Writing teachers must have an understanding of both perspectives to plan and deliver instruction to address the writing needs of their sts
  6. 6. Student background and needs The goal of writing curriculum must start with the needs of sts. One important factor is age and educational background of writers. Foreign lang learners study english for personal enrichment for school/career reasons.
  7. 7. Eye/ ear learner • Ear learners those who have learned eng informally through oral interactions. • Eye learners those who have strengths in formal vocabulary/explicit knowledge of grammar but lack of fluency and naturalness of ear learners. • Teacher will have t adjust their lessons to accommodate the needs of these different learner types.
  8. 8. • Comparing L1 and L2 writers: L2 writing is more constrained more difficult less effective than L1 writing. • L2 writers need more of everything: more practice writing, more familiarity with genres, more practice with vocabulary, grammar, feedback
  9. 9. Process approach Instead of producing several different single-draft essays, emphasis is on supporting sts through various stages of writing: pre-writing, brainstorming, outlining, drafting, giving feedback, receiving feedback, revising. (activity time)
  10. 10. Reading&writing connections • One can not be taught without the other, intimately connected. Writing teachers’ responsibility is to teach certain aspects of reading • Reader response theory : readers’ active participation in understanding a text and develop effective reading strategies. Sts are active meaning makers. Reflecting on reading processes can lead to an understanding of composition processes.
  11. 11. Writing to read Involves using writing as a way of interpreting and understanding a text. Examples of writing to read activities include writing about a topic in preparation for reading about it.
  12. 12. • Students with limited proficiency/limited linguistic resources may have difficulty in paraphrasing, simplification, composing ideas.
  13. 13. The role of grammar and error correction in writing Beginning writing teachers tend to be very sensitive about correcting students’ errors in writing to avoid errors but there should be balance in error correction and production of a writing.
  14. 14. Syllabus provides a road map for sts and teachers to clarify expectations/class policies.
  15. 15. Scaffolding in writing
  16. 16. • Pre-writing- writing- revising-editing • Pre-writing phase: setting up assignment, providing input by texts, visual, videos, introducing grammar vocabulary • Writing phase drafting/ feedback(peer, teacher) ample time for incubation and rewriting
  17. 17. Pre-writing activities • Getting started is difficult • Get over initial anxiety, planning out their ideas, and start writing. • Target: linguistic development/fluency/idea generation/building up knowledge about topic • Free-writing activities nonstop writing generates list of ideas or thoughts associated with topic/mind-mapping
  18. 18. • In process approach, after finishing draft, sts need to receive feedback the revise and edit paper on the basis of this feedback. Good feedback is essential for revision. It is recommended commenting primarily on content before commenting on language issues. Process of idea generation is always one step ahead of accuracy of sentences. Then language issues come.
  19. 19. Peer feedback • Peer feedback reduce the amount of teacher workload. Benefits of peer feedback
  20. 20. • Over the past 20 years, writing increasingly involves keyboarding, social media, online discussion boards, blogs, wikis, more opportunities for genuine interaction with new audiences. • Synchronous real time, chat, skype, instant messaging, • asynchronous, email, • Hypermedia authoring designing webpages
  21. 21. New trends • Electronic media can be asset to writing courses. Teachers must be trained to use these new tech. Teacher education should include teaching them possibilities and limitations of using corpus tools for teaching. • Automated scoring system assessment/increased speed and reliability of using computers to score writing compared to human raters.
  22. 22. Cons to automated essay scoring system • Many writing teachers oppose it : they contradict nature of writing which is form of communication. Computers can not read they can count. Errors are not dealt with contextually. E.g. non standard linguistic forms such as double negatives, while often inappropriate in academic writing but perfectly acceptable in some less formal genres
  23. 23. Turnitin.com

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