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  1. 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevrolet_Volt. 2012-7-15.Chevrolet VoltFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search Chevrolet VoltManufacturer Chevrolet division of General MotorsAlso called Holden Volt Opel Ampera Vauxhall AmperaProduction Dec 2010–presentModel years 2011-presentAssembly Detroit, Michigan, United States (Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly)Class Compact carBody style 5-door hatchbackLayout Front engine, front-wheel drivePlatform Delta II / VoltecCombustion 1.4 L (1398 cc) 4-cylinder LUU [1]engineElectric motor One 111 kW (149 hp): One 55 kW (74 hp) permanent magnet motor/generatorsTransmission variable ratioDrivetrain 4ET50 electric drive unit[2]Battery 16 kWh lithium-ion battery (2011/12) 16.5 kWh (2013)Range 379 miles (610 km) (EPA)Electric Range 35 miles (56 km) EPA - 2011/12 models 38 miles (61 km) EPA - 2013 model 83 km (52 mi) Europe/AmperaWheelbase 105.7 in (2,680 mm)[1]Length 177.1 in (4,500 mm)Width 70.4 in (1,790 mm)Height 56.6 in (1,440 mm)Curb weight 3,781 lb (1,715 kg)
  2. 2. The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle manufactured byGeneral Motors, and also sold as the Opel/Vauxhall Ampera in Europe,and marketed as the Holden Volt in Australia and New Zealand. Volt salesin the U.S. began in mid-December 2010 and in international markets sinceSeptember 2011. Customer deliveries of the Opel Ampera in Europe began inFebruary 2012, and the Vauxhall Ampera was released in the UK in May2012. As of June 2012, the Volt and the Ampera have sold more than 20,000units, and the top selling markets are the U.S with 16,814 Volts delivered, [3][4]and Europe with almost 3,000 Amperas sold, [5] led by the Netherlands with1,282 Opel Amperas sold.[6][7]The Volt is the most fuel-efficient compact car with a gasoline engine sold inthe United States, as rated by the United States Environmental ProtectionAgency (EPA).[8][9] The Volt operates as a pure battery electric vehicle until itsplug-in battery capacity drops to a predetermined threshold from full charge,at which point its gasoline engine powers an electric generator to extend thevehicles range. The Volts regenerative braking also contributes to the on-board electricity generation. In order to further improve energy efficiency, theinternal combustion engine may at times be linked mechanically to assist itstraction motor to propel the Volt.The Chevrolet Volt has won numerous awards such as the 2009 Green CarVision Award, 2011 Green Car of the Year, 2011 North American Car of the
  3. 3. Year, 2011 World Green Car and 2012 European Car of the Year. Howeverthere has been some controversy and concerns regarding the Volt expressedin the media. These include the extent of the federal government participationin the Volt development during General Motors 2009 government-ledbankruptcy[10][11][12] and concerns about the battery pack fire risk in the weeksfollowing a crash test that the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration(NTHSA) performed on a Volt in 2011. [11][12][13] At the completion of itsinvestigation NHTSA stated that it has concluded that no discernible defecttrend exists.[14][15]Contents[hide] • 1 Terminology • 2 History o 2.1 Concept vehicle o 2.2 Production model • 3 Specifications o 3.1 Drivetrain o 3.2 Battery o 3.3 Others • 4 Performance o 4.1 Range  4.1.1 United States  4.1.2 Europe o 4.2 Fuel economy o 4.3 Operating cost and payback period o 4.4 Tailpipe emissions o 4.5 Safety o 4.6 Other features • 5 Production and sales o 5.1 North America  5.1.1 United States  5.1.2 Canada
  4. 4. o 5.2 Europe o 5.3 China o 5.4 Other markets • 6 Related concept cars • 7 Controversies and criticism o 7.1 EPA fuel economy testing o 7.2 EPA fuel economy rating o 7.3 Production cost and sales price o 7.4 Battery pack fire risk • 8 Reception o 8.1 Awards and recognition o 8.2 Reviews and test drives • 9 See also • 10 References • 11 External links • 12 Bibliography[edit] TerminologyFurther information: Hybrid vehicle drivetrainThe Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) definition of a hybrid vehiclestates that the vehicle shall have "two or more energy storage systems bothof which must provide propulsion power, either together or independently. "[16]General Motors has avoided the use of the term "hybrid" when describing itsVoltec designs, even after the carmaker revealed that in some cases thecombustion engine provided some assist at high speeds or to improveperformance.[17] Instead General Motors describes the Volt as an electricvehicle equipped with a "range extending" gasoline powered internalcombustion engine (ICE) as a genset and therefore dubbed the Volt an"Extended Range Electric Vehicle" or E-REV. [18][19] In a January 2011
  5. 5. interview, the Chevy Volts Global Chief Engineer, Pamela Fletcher, referredto the Volt as "an electric car with extended range." [20]Basic powertrain configuration of a series hybrid vehicle, one of the possible modes of theChevrolet VoltAccording to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) definitions, the Voltis a plug-in hybrid vehicle, due to the combination of an internal combustionengine and two electric motors, along with a battery that can accept off-boardenergy.[21] The Volt operates as a purely electric vehicle for the first 25 to 50miles (40 to 80 km) in charge-depleting mode. At low speeds and high loads,the vehicle is powered by a single motor; at high speeds and low loads, aclutch in the powertrain connects the generator to the wheels and the vehicleis propelled by both electric machines to increase efficiency. When the batterycapacity drops below a pre-established threshold from full charge, thevehicles enters charge-sustaining mode, and the Volts control system willselect the most optimally efficient drive mode to improve performance andboost high-speed efficiency.[21][22][edit] History[edit] Concept vehicle
  6. 6. The Chevrolet Volt concept car was unveiled at the January 2007 NorthAmerican International Auto Show, becoming the first-ever series plug-inhybrid concept car shown by a major car manufacturer.[23][24] The Volt conceptvehicle had four doors with a rear liftgate and seating for four passengers.This was a significant change in design when compared to the GeneralMotors EV1 of the 1990s, which only seated two to reduce weight and tomake the necessary room for the lead-acid battery pack. The top speed wasalso increased on the Volt, from the electronically limited 80 miles per hour(130 km/h) to 100 miles per hour (160 km/h). The battery pack size wasreduced, from about 10.6 cu ft (300 L) in volume in the EV1, to just 3.5 cu ft(100 L) in the Volt.[23][25]Then General Motors Vice Chairman Robert Lutz said the two-seat sports carbeing developed by Tesla Motors, the Roadster, and the rapid advancementof lithium-ion battery technology inspired him to push the carmaker to developthe Volt after the 2006 Detroit Auto Show.[26][27][28] Lutzs initial idea was todevelop an all-electric car, but Jon Lauckner, General Motors Vice Presidentfor Global Vehicle Development, convinced him that to avoid an expensivebattery, range anxiety concerns, and lack of public charging infrastructure,they could use a smaller battery pack with a small gasoline engine driving agenerator acting as a backup to extend the range, but without a mechanicalconnection between the gasoline engine and the drive wheels, so it would be
  7. 7. a pure electrically driven vehicle without many of the limitations GeneralMotors learned from the EV1 experience.[27]The Chevrolet Volt concept car was unveiled at the January 2007 North American InternationalAuto ShowMost of the Volt initial design parameters defined for the development of theconcept car, then referred as the "iCar" in homage to the iPod, were keptthroughout the process up to the final production version. A key designparameter was a target of 40 miles (64 km) for the all-electric range, selectedto keep the battery size small and lower costs, and mainly because researchshowed that in the U.S. 78 percent of daily commuters travel 40 miles or less.This target range would allow most travel to be accomplished electricallydriven and the assumption was made that charging will take place at homeovernight. This requirement translated using a lithium-ion battery pack with anenergy storage capacity of 16 kWh considering that the battery would be used
  8. 8. until the state of charge (SOC) of the battery reached 30%. This limit to theSOC was necessary in order to maintain operational performance under awide range of environments, and to minimize the battery degradation to allowat least a ten year life span. The initial target range for the gasolineengine/generator was set between 250 to 300 miles (400 to 480 km) and thevehicle had to be family size for four or five passengers. [27][29]Another key design decision was to develop the concept car based on a newfamily of common powertrain components for electric propulsion, whichinitially was called the E-Flex Systems, “E” stands for electric drive and “Flex”for the different sources of electricity, but later was renamed Voltec drivesystem. The E-Flex or Voltec platform is an attempt to standardize manycomponents of possible future electrically propelled vehicles, and to allowmultiple interchangeable electricity-generating systems. The E-Flex platformhas the potential to adapt the vehicles to pure battery electric, to fuel cell-powered or to several other sources of energy to create electricity on board,such as engine-generator sets (genset) fueled by gasoline, diesel, biodiesel,ethanol fuel (E100), or flex-fuel (E85). Regenerative braking would alsocontribute to the on-board electricity generation. [24][30][31] On October 2006 theE-flex platform was selected for the new propulsion architecture and the nameVolt was chosen by General Motors.[30]
  9. 9. The Volt concept car became the first application of the E-Flex (Voltec) drivesystem with a combination of an electric motor, the same used in theChevrolet Equinox Fuel Cell, a 16 kWh (58 MJ) lithium-ion battery pack with136 kW of peak power, and a genset consisting of a small 1.0 L, 3-cylinderturbocharged flex-fuel capable engine linked to a 53 kW (71 hp) generator.General Motors called this genset an electric vehicle (EV) range extender.The vehicle was propelled by an electric motor with a peak output of 120 kW(160 hp) delivering 236 lb-ft (320 N-m) of motoring torque. The concept carfeatured several advanced materials from GE Automotive Plastics whichallowed GM to reduce the vehicle weight up to 50 percent.The Volt concept featured a 12 US gal (45 l; 10.0 imp gal) fuel capacityproviding the vehicle a total driving range of around 640 mi (1,030 km), whichconsidered a gasoline fuel efficiency of about 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km;60 mpg-imp) and a 40 mi (64 km) all-electric range. According to GeneralMotors estimates, a daily drive of 60 mi (97 km), combined with an overnightrecharge to support the first 40 all-electric miles, would yield an effectivegasoline fuel economy of 150 mpg-US (1.6 L/100 km; 180 mpg-imp).[24][31] GeneralMotors also emphasized that the Volt would further reduce dependence onimported oil if E85 ethanol was used instead of gasoline to power the on-board generator engine. Robert Lutz added that if the driver used E85, " thefuel economy figure became 525 miles per (equivalent) petroleum gallon", as
  10. 10. only 15% of gasoline is used in this blend. [32][33] General Motors also noted thatactual production of the Volt depended on further battery development,because the required rechargeable batteries needed to make the Volt a viablevehicle did not exist in the market and had yet to be developed. [24][27][33] Theconcept car was actually powered by two 12-volt conventional car batteries,just enough power to allow the vehicle to move at low speeds in the stand. [34][edit] Production modelThe production design model officially unveiled on September 16, 2008, aspart of General Motors centennial celebration at the Wintergardenheadquarters in Detroit.[35] The production model differed greatly in designfrom the original concept car. The carmaker cited necessary aerodynamicchanges needed to reduce the concept cars high drag coefficient ofCd=0.43[36] down to a more efficient Cd=0.28,[37] though still somewhat higherthan the Toyota Prius Cd=0.25. Another reason was to use of General Motorsnew global compact vehicle platform Delta II to keep costs reasonable, andshared with the 2010 model year Chevrolet Cruze.[38] Another significantdifference with the concept car is the seating, as the production Volt seatsfour rather than five passengers. This change was due to the higher-than-usual central tunnel that runs from the front console to the rear seat thathouses the cars T-shaped battery pack.[39]
  11. 11. First production version of the Chevrolet Volt at the 2008 Australian International Motor ShowAfter the concept was put into the pipeline for production, General Motorsbegan looking for a partner to develop the Volts lithium-ion battery pack. Thecarmaker evaluated about twenty-five different battery cell chemistries andconstructions from around two dozen lithium-ion battery makers around theworld.[40] Due to their more promising cell technologies, two companies wereselected in June 2007, Compact Power (CPI), which uses a lithiummanganese oxide (LiMn2O4) cell made by its parent company, LG Chemical;and Continental Automotive Systems, which uses lithium iron phosphatebased cylindrical cells made by A123Systems.[40][41][42] By the end of October2007 CPI (LG Chem) delivered their finished battery pack prototypes, andA123 delivered theirs by January 2008. General Motors testing process wasconducted at the laboratory the carmaker had created for the GM EV1program. The battery packs included monitoring systems designed to keepthe batteries cool and operating at optimum capacity despite a wide range ofambient temperatures.[40][42] In order to make sure the battery pack would lastten years and 150,000 miles (240,000 km) expected for the battery warranty,
  12. 12. the Volt team decided to use only half of the 16 kW·h capacity to reduce therate of capacity degradation, limiting the state of charge (SOC) up to 80% ofcapacity and never depleting the battery below 30%. [42][43] General Motors alsowas expecting the battery could withstand 5,000 full discharges without losingmore than 10% of its charge capacity.[42]In April 2008 General Motors started extensive battery testing. In two yearsthe carmaker put the battery packs to the equivalent of 150,000 real-worldmiles (240,000 km) and ten years of use.[42] The durability of the battery packwas tested for a broad range of extreme ambient conditions including ashaker table to simulate potholes and a thermal chamber, to simulatetemperatures varying from 116 °F (47 °C), typical of the Southwest deserts, to−40 °F (−40 °C) typical of the Alaska tundra.[40] In April 2008 the lithium-ionbattery pack was placed in Chevrolet Malibus fitted with the Volt powertrain tobe used as test mules for further real-world testing. [42][44] In October 2008General Motors chose CPI (LG Chemical) to provide the battery systems forthe first production version of the Volt. [45][46] In July 2008 General Motorsconfirmed that a non-turbocharged, 1.4-liter 4-cylinder engine would be usedas the range extender, and that the intention was to build it in Flint, Michigan.[47] In April 2009, General Motors allowed journalists to test the Volt powertrainin the body of Chevrolet Cruze sedans used as test mules which lacked the
  13. 13. range-extending generator at the GM Technical Center in Warren, Michigan.[48]Final production vehicle, the 2011 Chevrolet VoltThe first pre-production test car based on the final Volt design was built inJune 2009, in Warren, Michigan,[49][50] and by October 2009, 80 Volts had beenbuilt and were tested under various conditions.[50][51] On March 31, 2010, thefirst factory-built Volt was produced at the Detroit Hamtramck Assembly Plantin order to test the production line and for quality control purposes, both of thetooling and the pre-production vehicles produced before regular productionbegan.[52][53]Official introductionGeneral Motors held a ceremony at its Detroit Hamtramck Assembly Plant onNovember 30, 2010, to introduce the first Chevrolet Volt off the assembly line.The first Volt built for retail sale was earmarked for display at General MotorsHeritage Center museum in Sterling Heights, Michigan.[54] The second unitwas offered at a public auction, with an opening bid of US$50,000 and it waswon by Rick Hendrick who paid US$225,000. The proceeds went to fund
  14. 14. math and sciences education in Detroit through the Detroit Public SchoolsFoundation.[55] Sales and deliveries began in mid December 2010.[edit] Specifications[edit] DrivetrainSee also: GM Voltec powertrainRight side: power inverter on top of the electric motor used for traction; left side: the 1.4-litergasoline engine used as a generator to keep the battery at minimum charge.The 2011 Chevrolet Volt has a 16 kW·h / 45 A·h (10.4 kW·h usable) lithium-ion battery pack that can be charged by plugging the car into a 120-240 VACresidential electrical outlet using the provided SAE J1772-compliant chargingcord. No external charging station is required.[56] The Volt is propelled by anelectric motor with a peak output of 111 kW (149 hp) delivering 273 lb·ft(370 N·m) of torque.While driving, after the Volt battery has dropped to a predetermined thresholdfrom full charge, a small naturally aspirated 1.4-liter 4-cylinder internalcombustion engine (Opels Family 0) with approximately 80 horsepower,
  15. 15. burns premium gasoline to power a 55 kW (74 hp) generator to extend theVolts range. The vehicle also has a regenerative braking system. Theelectrical power from the generator is sent primarily to the electric motor, withthe excess going to the batteries, depending on the state of charge (SOC) ofthe battery pack and the power demanded at the wheels. [1][57]The Volt requires premium gasoline because the higher octane rating fuelallows the 10.5:1 compression ratio engine to maximize its fuel efficiency by 5to 10% as compared to regular gasoline.[58][59] For users who drive mostly inelectric mode and to avoid maintenance problems caused by storing the samegasoline in the tank for months, the 2011 Volt has a sealed and pressurizedfuel tank to avoid evaporation, and as a result, the fuel filler has to bedepressurized before opening the tank. Also the engine management systemmonitors the time between engine running and it is programmed to prompt thedriver to run past the 40-mile (64 km) all-electric range before recharging inorder to consume some gasoline. If the driver does not run on gasoline, thesystem will automatically run the maintenance mode which starts the engineto consume some of the aging fuel and circulate the fluids within the engine. [60]A configuration with an E85 flex-fuel capable engine is under developmentand is expected to be available in 2013. [21]
  16. 16. Powertrain cut-away of the Volt showing both engines and the underfloor T shape tunnel wherethe battery pack is locatedThe Volt seats four people as the battery runs down the center of the car preventing a rear benchOperating and driving modesTechnically the Voltec drivetrain has three power converting elements: [61] • Primary traction motor, provides good acceleration for driving at lower speeds, its maximum output of 111 kW setting the maximum output of the whole system. • Secondary motor/generator, assists the primary motor or works as generator capable of producing 54 kW. • Combustion engine of 63 kW power,[62] engaged when the batteries reach the predetermined threshold.These units are connected via a planetary gear and electric clutches toprovide power output for propulsion in four programmed operating modes: [61] 1. Single motor electric - The primary motor runs solely on battery power, maximum propulsion power is 111 kW. 2. Dual motor electric - At higher vehicle speeds the secondary motor engages over the planetary gear such that it reduces the speed of the primary motor. This facilitates higher efficiency and better mileage for the combined system, without increasing the maximum power. 3. Single motor extended - The battery reaches its minimum charge which triggers the combustion engine. This drives the secondary motor which is now used as a generator,
  17. 17. via the charging electronics, to keep the minimum battery charging level. The primary motor can still provide its 111 kW for short acceleration, albeit not sustained. 4. Dual motor extended - The electric motors are used again in dual configuration with increased efficiency at higher speeds. Additionally the gasoline engine contributes propulsion power via the planetary gear. While power is drained from the battery the amount is less than in mode 2 for the same propulsion power, thus extending the range.The drivetrain platform permits the Volt to operate as a pure battery electricvehicle until its battery capacity has been depleted to a defined level, at whichtime it commences to operate as a series hybrid design where the gasolineengine drives the generator, which keeps the battery at minimum level chargeand provides power to the electric motors. The full charge of the battery isreplenished only by loading it on the electrical grid.While in this series mode at higher speeds and loads, (typically above 30miles per hour (48 km/h) and/or under hard acceleration) the gasoline enginecan engage mechanically to the output from the transmission and assist bothelectric motors to drive the wheels, in which case the Volt operates as apower-split or series-parallel hybrid. After its all-electric range has beendepleted, at speeds between 30 to 70 miles per hour (48 to 110 km/h), theVolt is programmed to select the most efficient drive mode, which improvesperformance and boosts high-speed efficiency by 10 to 15 percent. [21][63]While operating modes are switched automatically the Volt allows the driver tochoose from three drive modes: normal, sport and mountain. The mountainmode, which is expected to be required only under unusual power demandconditions, increases minimum battery state of charge (SOC) to around 45%,
  18. 18. thus maintaining performance on steep and long grades. The driver will hearmore engine noise here due to the higher rate of power generation required tomaintain this mode.[63] The sport mode causes the engine to rev higher, andthe response to the throttle pedal is quicker. [64] The Ampera has an additionaloption, the "City Mode" or "battery hold", which allows battery management tothe needs of the driver, allowing to save the energy currently stored in thebattery for use when traveling urban areas or restricted zones. [65][66] The 2013model year Volt will include the "Hold Drive" button to provide the samechoice.[67][edit] BatterySee also: Electric vehicle batteryThe 2011 Volts lithium-ion battery (Li-ion) battery pack weighs 435 lb (197 kg)and consists of 288 individual cells arranged into nine modules. Plastic frameshold pairs of lithium-ion cells that sandwich an aluminum cooling fin. Thedesign and construction of that aluminum plate was critical to ensuring aneven temperature distribution with no hot or cool spots across the flat,rectangular cell. The battery pack has its own cooling circuit that is similar to,but independent from, the engine cooling system. [57][68]
  19. 19. Inlet for the electrical charger in the left side of the Chevrolet Volt with the manufacturersprovided charging cordFor the 2011/2011 model years, the battery pack stores 16 kW·h of energybut it is controlled or buffered via the energy management system to use only10.3 kW·h of this capacity to maximize the life of the pack. For this reason thebattery pack never fully charges or depletes, as the software only allows thebattery to operate within a state of charge (SOC) window of 65%, after whichthe engine kicks in and maintains the charge near the lower level. Theminimum SOC varies depending on operating conditions. When more poweris required, such as mountain mode, the lower limit of the SOC will rise to45% to ensure there is enough power available. [57][63] The battery capacity willbe increased to 16.5 kW·h for the 2013 model year, the SOC window will beincreased to use 10.8 kW·h of the total battery energy, and the buffer toensure battery life will be reduced. These changes will increase the Volts all-electric range but charging will take slightly longer. The improved batteryperformance and durability were achieved through minor changes to thematerial composition of the battery cell chemistry.[67][69]
  20. 20. Despite containing near identical energy (+/- 0.5kWh), the Volts battery packis over 70% lighter than the EV1s original 1,310 lb (590 kg), 16.5 kW·h ACDelco lead-acid battery pack, mainly because the Volt uses higher specificenergy Li-ion batteries. Li-Ion batteries are expected to become lessexpensive as economies of scale take effect.[70][71][72]Because batteries are sensitive to temperature changes, the Volt has athermal management system to monitor and maintain the battery packtemperature for optimum performance and durability. The Volts battery packprovides reliable operation, when plugged in, at temperatures as low as −13°F (−25 °C) and as high as 122 °F (50 °C). Because the Volt features abattery pack that can be warmed or cooled, in cold weather the battery ispreheated during charging to provide full power capability; in hot weather thebattery can be cooled during charging. The Volt’s thermal managementsystem can also be powered during driving either by the battery or engine. [57][73]The Volts battery is guaranteed by General Motors for eight years or 100,000miles (160,000 km), and will cover all 161 battery components. [73][74] GMestimates that the Volt batteries will degrade by 10 to 30% after 8 years or100,000 miles.[75] GM has filed for a patent that may allow technicians toquickly and cheaply recover some of the performance of degraded batterypacks.[76] The Volt’s battery management system runs more than 500
  21. 21. diagnostics at 10 times per second, allowing it to keep track of the Volt’sbattery pack in real-time, 85% of which ensure the battery pack is operatingsafely and 15% monitor battery performance and life. [73]The Volt uses a new plug specification, SAE J1772-2009, that is beingproposed as a standard for electric cars. [56] A full charge takes approximatelyten to twelve hours from a standard North American 120V, 15 A householdoutlet and about three hours from a standard 240 VAC outlet. The Volt comeswith a 20 ft (6.1 m) 120V charging cord. If plugged in, recharging can becontrolled remotely through a smartphone application. [57][edit] OthersIn order to save energy, the Volt will sometimes heat the seats instead ofblowing heated air through HVAC system, as heating the vehicles cabindraws significant power, and can even exceed what is needed to move thevehicle on occasions.[77] A power-saving stereo system that uses amplifiersthat switch on and off rapidly to save power. It uses 50 percent less energy.The system is also lighter because the use of high grade neodymiummagnets.[77][edit] Performance
  22. 22. The Volt has a top speed of 100 mph (160 km/h).[21] According toEdmunds.com road tests, the Volts 0 to 60 mph (0–97 km/h) accelerationtime is 9.2 seconds running on electric-only mode, and 9.0 seconds with thegasoline engine assisting propulsion.[78] Motor Trend reports the Volts quartermile (402 m) time is 16.9 sec @ 84.3 mph (135.7 km/h),[79] while Edmundsreports a quarter mile (402 m) time of 16.8 sec @ 81.5 mph (131.2 km/h) inelectric-only operation, and 16.6 sec @ 85.5 mph (137.6 km/h) with thegasoline engine assisting.[78] Motor Trend reports a 60 to 0 mph (97 to 0 km/h)braking distance of 112 ft (34 m) and Edmunds.com of 124 ft (38 m).[78][79][edit] Range[edit] United StatesMonroney label showing EPAs fuel economy and environmental comparison label for the 2013Chevrolet Volt2011/2012 model yearAccording to General Motors the Volts all-electric range with fully chargedbatteries varies from 25 to 50 miles (40 to 80 km) depending on terrain,driving technique, and temperature.[21][80] The Environmental Protection
  23. 23. Agency (EPA) official all-electric range is 35 miles (56 km) with an energyconsumption of 36 kWh per 100 miles (810 kJ/km). This range is based on theagencys five-cycle tests using varying driving conditions and climate controls.The total range with a full tank of gasoline and a fully charged battery is 379miles (609.9 km) according to EPA tests.[81][82]The Volts fuel tank capacity is 9.3 US gallons (35 l; 7.7 imp gal) and once thecar runs out of fuel, the gasoline-powered generator shuts down, and the Volttaps into the battery for extra power. The reserve battery power is designed toprovide an extra 3 to 4 mi (4.8 to 6.4 km) of range once the gasoline tank isdepleted. When the reserve battery power is low, the Volt slows to a stop. [83]2013 model yearAs a result of its improved battery chemistry, the 2013 model year Voltincreased its EPAs rated all-electric range to 38 miles (61 km) with an energyconsumption of 35 kWh per 100 miles (788 kJ/km), down from 36 kWh (810kJ/km) in the 2012 model. The total range with a full tank of gasoline and afully charged battery will be 380 miles (611.6 km).[67][69][edit] EuropeThe Opel Ampera official all-electric range under the EU-approved UN ECER101 standard for plug-in hybrids is 83 km (52 mi). Opel prefers to state thatthe Amperas EV ranges is 40 to 80 kilometres (25 to 50 mi) [84] which is
  24. 24. confirmed in tests carried out by ADAC Motorwelt.[85] The Vauxhall Ampera isreported to have a total range of 310 mi (500 km) miles.[86][edit] Fuel economy2012 Volt EPA/DOT Windows sticker showed potential fuel cost saving.The Volt digital panels keep track of energy usage by fuel source and average fuel economy.United StatesThe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officially rated the 2011model year Volts combined city/highway fuel economy in all-electric mode at93 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (2.5 L gasolineequivalent/100 km; 112 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent) and 94 MPG-e for the2012 model year.[87] This rating considers a conversion factor of 33.7 kW-hr ofelectricity being the energy equivalent of a gallon of gasoline. The EPA ratingin gasoline-only mode is 37 mpg-US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg-imp). The overall
  25. 25. combined city/highway gasoline-electricity fuel economy rating is 60 mpg-US(3.9 L/100 km; 72 mpg-imp) equivalent (MPG-e),[81][88] making the Volt the mostfuel-efficient compact car with a gasoline engine sold in the United Statessince its introduction in December 2010.[8][9][89] The EPA also included in the2011 Volts fuel economy label a table showing fuel economy and electricityconsumed for five different scenarios: 30, 45, 60 and 75 miles (121 km) drivenbetween a full charge, and a never charge scenario. This information wasincluded in order to make the consumers aware of the variability of the fueleconomy outcome depending on miles driven between charges. Under thegasoline-only scenario (never charge), the 37 mpg-US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg-imp ) figure results from 35 mpg-US (6.7 L/100 km; 42 mpg-imp) city driving and40 mpg-US (5.9 L/100 km; 48 mpg-imp) on the highway.[81]For the 2012 model year, EPA revised the Volts fuel economy ratings,increasing the combined city/highway rating in all-electric mode from 93 MPG-e to 94 MPG-e, and the highway rating was increased from 90 MPG-e to 93MPG-e.[87] As a result of its improve battery pack, the 2013 model year EPArating will increased to a combined city/highway fuel economy of 98 miles pergallon gasoline equivalent (2.4 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 118 mpg-impgasoline equivalent). The EPA rating in gasoline-only mode will be the same37 mpg-US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg-imp) as the previous models.[67][69]
  26. 26. In April 2011 General Motors reported, based on data collected through itsOnStar telematics system since Volt deliveries began in December 2010, thatVolt owners drive on average 800 miles (1,300 km) before they need to fill upthe gasoline tank. The analysis also found that the average period betweenfill-ups is 30 days.[90] According to Chevrolets real time tally of miles driven byVolt owners, cumulative miles reached the 100 million mark on July 17, 2012,and the OnStar data shows that more than 63% of miles driven were inelectric mode.[91]EuropeThe Opel Ampera official equivalent fuel consumption under the EU-approvedUN ECE R101 standard for plug-in hybrids is1.2 L/100 km (196.0 mpg-US;235.4 mpg-imp) (83.3 km/l).[92] However, a leading Opel engineer prefers saying169 Wh/km while battery-powered, and then 20 km/l petrol-powered. TheECE R101 standard weights charge-depleting mode as 76% and gasoline-only driving as 24%.[84][edit] Operating cost and payback periodAccording to Consumer Reports in December 2011, the Chevrolet Volt fuelcost in electric mode was 3.8¢/mile, while the Nissan Leaf had a cost of3.5¢/mi. The Volts higher cost per mile was attributed to its heavier weight.Their estimates used the U.S. national average electricity rate of 11¢/kWh and
  27. 27. energy consumption rates as measured on their own, unofficial tests. Whencomparing the Volt in range-extended mode with the four most fuel efficientgasoline-powered cars as tested by the magazine, the plug-in hybrid had acost of 12.5¢/mi (using premium gasoline) while the Toyota Prius had a costof 8.6¢/mi., the Honda Civic Hybrid 9.5¢/mi., the Toyota Corolla 11.9¢/mi.,and the Hyundai Elantra 13.1¢/mi. The analysis also found that, on trips up to100 mi (160 km), the Volt was cheaper to drive than the other four carsbecause the Volt was able to drive 35 mi (56 km) using less expensive electricpower. Consumer Reports found that, using their proprietary testing, the Voltoverall fuel efficiency was 99 mpg-US (2.4 L/100 km; 119 mpg-imp) equivalent(MPG-e), and using only range-extended mode the overall fuel economy was32 mpg-US (7.4 L/100 km; 38 mpg-imp) and equivalent to the Toyota Corolla. Thereport noted that, as of 2011, plug-in electric cars are more expensive to buy,and the previous operating costs do not include maintenance, depreciation orother costs.[93]Chevrolet Volt (left) and Chevrolet Cruze Eco (right)According to Edmunds.com, the price premium paid for the Volt, afterdiscounting the US$7,500 U.S. federal tax credit, takes a long time for
  28. 28. consumers to recover in fuel savings, often longer than the normal ownershiptime period. Edmunds compared the Volt (priced at US$31,712) with thesame-size gasoline-powered Chevrolet Cruze (priced at US$19,656) andfound that the payback period for the plug-in hybrid is 15 years for gasolineprices at US$3 per gallon, 12 years at US$4 per gallon, and drops to 9 yearswith gasoline prices at US$5 per gallon. At February 2012 prices, the breakeven period is 14 years. These estimates assume an average of 15,000 miles(24,000 km) annual driving and vehicle prices correspond to Edmunds.comstrue market value estimates.[94]In a similar comparison carried out by TrueCar in April 2012 for The New YorkTimes, the analysis found that the payback period for the Volt takes 26.6years versus a Chevrolet Cruze Eco, assuming it was regularly driven fartherthan its battery-only range allows, and with gasoline priced at US$3.85 pergallon. The analysis assumes an average of 15,000 miles (24,000 km) drivena year, a fuel economy of 34.3 mpg-US (6.86 L/100 km; 41.2 mpg-imp) for theCruze Eco, priced at US$19,925, and a Volt price of US$31,767, afterdiscounting the US$7,500 federal tax. TrueCar also found that with gasolinepriced at US$5 per gallon, the payback time could drop to about 8 years if theVolt were to be operated exclusively on battery power. The newspaper alsoreported that according to the March 2012 Lundberg Survey, gasoline priceswould need to reach US$12.50 a gallon for the Volt to break even, while the
  29. 29. Nissan Leaf would be competitive with a similar gasoline-powered compactcar at US$8.53 a gallon.[95][96][edit] Tailpipe emissionsSee also: Greenhouse gas emissions in plug-in hybridsSee also: Air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in plug-in electric vehiclesWhile operating in all-electric mode the Volt produces no tailpipe emissions.However, the clean air benefit is mostly local because, depending on thesource of the electricity used to recharge the batteries, air pollutant emissionsare shifted to the location of the electricity generation plants.[97] The amount ofcarbon dioxide emitted depends on the emission intensity of the power sourceused to charge the vehicle. When the Volts battery is depleted and thegasoline-powered engine kicks in, the plug-in emissions are similar to otherinternal combustion engine vehicles. The amount of total local emissionsdepends on how much the Volt is driven in all-electric mode and how much incharge-sustaining mode.[98]United StatesEPA rating for the Volts tailpipe emissions is 84 grams of carbon dioxide permile, (52.5 CO2 g/km),[89][98] which puts the Volt ahead of the Toyota Prius interms of low greenhouse emissions as measured at the tailpipe. CO2emissions are produced by the internal combustion engine in extended-rangemode, and only after the Volts primary battery charge has been depleted. In
  30. 30. the other air pollutants category, the Volt rates six out of ten, with ten beingbest.[98]The California Air Resources Board (CARB) classified the Volt as Ultra LowEmission Vehicle (ULEV), as CARB tests do not account for the Volt electricrange. With all tests conducted under conditions where the engine is runningthe CARB rated the Volts carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at 1.3 g/mile(0.81 g/km), missing the limit for SULEV classification by 0.3 g/mile (0.19g/km).[99]EuropeThe Amperas official EU-approved UN ECE R101 carbon dioxide emissionrating is 27g/km.[92][edit] SafetyThe 2011 Chevrolet Volt standard features include 4-wheel anti-lock brakeswith traction control; StabiliTrak electronic stability control system with brakeassist; tire-pressure monitoring system; and 8 total airbags: dual-stage frontal,side-impact and knee for driver and front passenger, and roof-rail side-impactfor front and rear outboard seating positions, with a passenger sensingsystem. There is also available an optional emergency assistance system. [1][78]A safety cage, built with high-strength and ultra high-strength steel, surroundsthe passenger compartment to keep the space intact in the event of a crash.
  31. 31. Crush zones framing the trunk and the engine crumple to absorb crashenergy before it reaches occupants. Door hinges and latches in harmony withdoor structure and its steel reinforcements to keep doors closed during animpact.[100] The 2011 Chevrolet Volt was named "Top Safety Pick" by theInsurance Institute for Highway Safety. The Volt received the top ratings of"Good" for front, side, and rear impact crash tests, and also on rolloverprotection. All injury measurements except one were rated good, indicating alow risk of significant injuries in crashes according to the scale of severityemployed in the IIHS’s testing. The Volts lower rating of "Acceptable" was fortorso injuries.[101]The Volt received a five-star overall crash safety rating from the NationalHighway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the highest-possible score.This rating was obtained with NHTSAs New Car Assessment Program whichis used for 2011 model year vehicles.[102]Accident and rescue handlingIn August 2010, General Motors began a training program for first responderswhen performing rescue duties involving the Chevrolet Volt. The programbegan at the 2010 Fire-Rescue International in Chicago, using a pre-production Volt for a live extrication exercise. Chicago firefightersdemonstrated the sequence of tasks required to safely disable the vehicle’spowertrain and its 12-volt electrical system, which controls its high-voltage
  32. 32. components, and then proceed to extricate injured occupants. [103] As ofJanuary 2011, additional training workshops had taken place in several othercities corresponding to the Volts initial launch markets. [104] An EmergencyResponse Guide for the 2011 Volt was made available at its ServiceTechnical College for use by emergency responders. The guide alsodescribes methods of disabling the high voltage system and identifies cutzone information.[105]GM recommends that a Volt battery fire be fought with water rather than drychemicals, and rates the Volt battery as having no explosion or electrocutionhazard as the result of a collision. The high-voltage system is designed toshut down automatically in the event of an airbag deployment, and to detect aloss of communication from an airbag control module. During the Voltdevelopment the lithium-ion battery pack was subjected to a wide range oftests, including overcharge, discharge, vibration, excessive heat and cold,short circuit, humidity, fire, crush, water immersion, salt water immersion, andnail penetration.[103]Warning soundsDue to significant noise reduction typical of vehicles traveling in all-electricmode at low speeds, the Volt is fitted with a manually activated electronicwarning sound system called Pedestrian-Friendly Alert System for use when
  33. 33. the car is operating at low speeds to alert pedestrians to the cars presence.[106][edit] Other featuresSmartphone display for tank level and fuel rangeSmartphone display of total and EV rangeConnectivityThe Volt features OnStar Mobile application for owners to access vehicleinformation without being in or near the car. This smartphone applicationfeatures the ability to check fuel efficiency as well as the vehicles currentelectric range. It also helps monitor the charging, giving owners keyinformation about the current charge level and the amount of time it will takeuntil it is fully charged. The application also is able to control features such aslocking/unlocking doors, and acts as a remote starter.[107] A five-year OnStar
  34. 34. Directions and Connections service was bundled into the 2011 Volts baseprice, which was reduced to three years for the 2012 model year. [108]2011 model yearThe 2011 Chevrolet Volt comes standard with cruise control; remote vehiclestart-up system; 17-inch 5-spoke forged painted aluminum wheels; Bluetoothwireless technology for select phones; audio and navigation system with acenter console capacitive touch panel and DVD and MP3 playback, with voicerecognition; OnStar with five years of service; BOSE premium speakersystem, with six speakers and sub-woofer; 30 GB hard drive for audio datastorage; USB ports; three auxiliary, 12-volt, power outlets; power door locksand windows; power adjustable mirrors; programmable time of day chargecontrol; and a 110-volt charge cord.[1]Available options include; 17-inch 5-spoke forged polished-aluminum wheels;rearview camera system, parking assist package; leather-wrapped steeringwheel; and heated leather front seats with selectable automatic activation. [1][109]2012 model yearThe 2012 Volt standard features include a remote keyless access withpassive locking allowing the car to automatically lock and unlock with the keyfob in close proximity of vehicle; OnStar turn-by-turn navigation for three
  35. 35. years, and available in-dash navigation system; and Chevrolet MyLinkincluding Bluetooth streaming audio for music and select phones. The 2012Volt has seven option packages while the 2011 model had only three. [110][111]2013 model yearThe low-emission package standard available on later 2012 Volts destined forthe California market will be included in the 2013 Volts sold in New York stateto allow their owners access to high-occupancy lanes. The liftgate and roof ofthe 2013 model will be body-colored rather than black, and a new interiorcolor "Pebble Beige" will be available in both cloth upholstery and leatherseats with suede inserts. A removable rear-seat center armrest is included inthe premium trim package. Other changes include an improved audio systemwith GPS-based navigation; a comfort package that includes heated driverand front passenger cloth seats and leather-wrapped steering wheel; andthere will be a pair of available safety packages. [67][112][edit] Production and sales[edit] North AmericaAssembly of the Volt was assigned to Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly plantfollowing the conclusion of the 2007 UAW-GM contract talks.[113] For initialproduction the gasoline engine is being imported from the Opel engine plantin Aspern, Austria.[114] In November 2010, General Motors began investing
  36. 36. US$138.3 million at its engine operations plant in Flint, Michigan to supportincreased production of the Ecotec 1.4-liter engine that is used in theChevrolet Cruze, the upcoming 2012 Chevrolet Sonic, and the variant used inthe Chevrolet Volt. The Flint plant was expected to start production of 400engines a day in early 2011, ramp up daily production to 800 engines in late2011, and to increase its capacity to 1,200 a day by late 2012. [115] In May2011, General Motors decided to invest an additional US$84 million at theFlint plant to further increase 1.4-liter engine production capacity. [116]In 2010, General Motors planned an initial production for calendar year 2011 Chevrolet Volt sales price by market (without any government tax credits or grants) Country Model year/Version Sales Equivalent Launched/ price US$(1) scheduled [117] United States 2011 Volt US$40,280 Dec 2010 [110] 2012 Volt US$39,995 Sep 2011 Canada [118] Chevrolet Volt CAD 41,545 US$40,720 Sep 2011 Eurozone (2) Chevrolet Volt €41,950[119] US$54,290 Nov 2011[120] Opel Ampera €42,900 [65] US$55,520 Feb 2012 United Kingdom Vauxhall Ampera GB£37,250[121] US$57,500 May 2012[121] Chevrolet Volt GB£33,545[122] US$51,785 May 2012 China [123] Chevrolet Volt CN¥ 498,000 US$79,050 Not available Australia[124] Holden Volt A$59,990 US$61,537 4Q 2012Notes (1): Exchange rates as of December 31, 2011. (2) Price in the Eurozone countries includes VATof 10,000 Volts and 45,000 units for 2012, up from the 30,000 units initiallyannounced.[125] In May 2011, the carmaker again raised its production targets,as Volt and Ampera production capacity was increased to 16,000 units in2011, including 3,500 units for exports and 2,500 demonstration unitsdestined to U.S. dealerships, and the rest for U.S. sales. However, in
  37. 37. November 2011 GMs sales chief announced that they would not meet itssales goal of 10,000 vehicles in 2011.[126]Out of the 2012 production, General Motors expected to produce 10,000Amperas for sale in Europe, 6,000 destined for Opel and 4,000 for Vauxhall inthe UK. In addition, 2,000 Volts will be made available for the region. [127] Byearly 2012 GM abandoned its sales target to deliver 45,000 Volts in the U.Sand instead announced that production in 2012 will depend on demand. [128][129]By March 2012 the Volt plant has a global production capacity of 60,000vehicles per year.[129]The Volts battery cells are produced by LG Chem in South Korea and thenshipped to the US, where the battery packs are assembled at a purpose-builtfacility in Brownstown Township, Michigan owned and operated by GeneralMotors.[130] Compact Power, the North American subsidiary of LG Chem, isbuilding a battery plant in Holland, Michigan to manufacture the advancedbattery cells for the Volt and other carmakers, with capacity to produceenough cells for 50,000 to 200,000 battery packs per year. [131] The US$303million Holland plant was funded by 50% U.S. Department of Energy matchingstimulus funds and is planned to open by mid 2012. [132]The 2011 Chevrolet Volt was officially launched on November 30, 2010 at aceremony at the Hamtramck plant, where the first production unit for retail
  38. 38. sale came off the assembly line.[54] The first retail vehicle was delivered to acustomer in Denville, New Jersey on December 15, 2010.[133] GM reported ithad built 12,400 Volts in total through December 2011, including dealersdemos in North America and Amperas in dealerships in Europe, crash testvehicles and other unavailable Volts owned by GM.[134][135] Cumulative sales ofthe Volt and the Ampera in North America and Europe surpassed the 20,000unit mark in June 2012, with the U.S as the top selling market with 16,814Volts delivered,[3][4] and Europe with almost 3,000 Amperas sold through June2012,[5] with sales led by the Netherlands with 1,268 Amperas, [6][7] followed byGermany with 826 Amperas.[136][137] The other top selling market is Canadawith 814 Volts sold through June 2012. [138]GM halted production for about one month at the Detroit/HamtramckAssembly plant by mid June 2011 to complete some upgrades, including theinstallation of new tooling, equipment and overhead conveyor systemsthroughout the facility. These upgrades allowed GM to triple the rate of Voltproduction and prepared the plant for 2012 Volt and Ampera production. [139]After the plant retooling, the production rate reached 150 units per day fourdays a week by August 2011.[140] The Volt plant was also down during January2012 in preparation for building the California lower-emission version. [128] Afour week shutdown due to slow sales took place between March and April2012.[141] GM said it had around 3,600 Volts in inventory and needed to reduce
  39. 39. dealer inventories as production is expected to meet market demand. [128][142]GM also plans to extend the traditional two week summer vacation by anextra week at the Hamtramck plant.[143] Production of the 2013 model year Voltis scheduled to begin in July 2012 and customer deliveries are expected tobegin the following month.[67][edit] United States2011 Volts frontal view2011 Volts rear viewSales of the 2011 Chevrolet Volt began in selected markets due to limitedinitial production, as General Motors original target for 2011 was 10,000 units.[144] The first cars were delivered in Washington D.C., the New York Citymetropolitan region, California, and Austin, Texas.[145] By May 2011 the Volthad been launched also in Connecticut, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, and
  40. 40. Virginia.[146] Deliveries in Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, North Carolina,Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Washington began on the thirdquarter of 2011.[118] In June 2011, Chevrolet dealers nationwide began takingorders for the 2012 Volt, and deliveries in all 50 states began in November2011.[110][111]The suggested retail price (MSRP) for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt in the U.S.started at US$40,280 which excluded destination freight charge, tax, title,license, dealer fees and optional equipment and before any savings due tofactory incentives, tax deductions, or other available subsidies for qualifyingbuyers.[117][147] The MSRP for the 2012 Volt starts at US$39,995 including aUS$850 destination freight charge and excludes tax, title and license fees, orother available government subsidies. The base price is US$1,005 less thanthe 2011 model year, and General Motors explained that this price reductionis possible because of a "wider range of options and configurations that comewith the expansion of Volt production for sale nationally ."[110][111]Due to the capacity of the Volts battery pack it qualifies for the maximumUS$7,500 federal tax credit as specified in the Emergency EconomicStabilization Act of 2008.[148] The federal tax credit phases out over a one yearperiod after the manufacturer has sold at least 200,000 vehicles in the U.S. [149]Several states also have additional incentives or rebates available for plug-inelectric vehicles for qualifying buyers.[117][150] The 2011 Volt price including all
  41. 41. available regular production and premium options is US$44,600, includingdestination charges and before tax credits or any subsidies. [109] For the 2012model year the price of the Volt with all available options is US$46,265 beforetax credits or any subsidies available.[110][111]Although the Volts retail price is higher than its main competitor, the 2011Nissan Leaf, the lease rate for the Volt is almost the same as its competitor,except that the Leaf has a lower initial payment. General Motors explainedthat "the apparent disparity between the Volts sticker and lease prices is areflection of the companys calculation that the vehicle will maintain a veryhigh residual value after three years—significantly higher than that of theLEAF."[151][152]The price for the home charging units is US$490 plus installation costs. TheVoltec home-charging unit is a 240-volt (Level II) charger, and, according toGeneral Motors, can replenish the Volts batteries in about four hours.Consumer Reports has advised buyers to budget up to US$2,000, as manyolder homes may need a substantial electrical upgrade because the U.SNational Electrical Code requires that the charger have its own dedicated 220-volt, 30-amp circuit.[153] Early buyers can benefit from the federal tax creditavailable for charging equipment.[154]
  42. 42. Production Volts at a test drive event in Washington, D.C.The 2011 Volt was not submitted for application to the California AirResources Boards (CARB) Clean Vehicle Rebate Project rebate andtherefore was not required to meet the 10-year 150,000-mile (240,000 km)battery warranty requirement for enhanced advanced technology partial zero-emissions vehicles (enhAT-PZEV). The Volt team explained that for thelaunch General Motors decided to go with a common national package whichincludes an 8-year 100,000-mile (160,000 km) battery warranty. [117][155] For thisreason owners of the 2011 Volt did not qualify for Californias rebates and freeaccess to use carpool lanes even when traveling solo.[156] A third package,scheduled for 2013, is under development with an E85 flex-fuel engine.[21][117]General Motors engineering team commented that " introducing two or threepackages of an entirely new technology set and platform at the same timewasnt an option."[117]In February 2012 General Motors began deliveries of a low emission versiondestined for California that features a new low emissions package that allowsthe 2012 Chevrolet Volt to qualify as an enhanced, advanced technology –
  43. 43. partial zero emissions vehicle (enhAT-PZEV) and have access to California’shigh-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV).[157] The new standard California versionof the Volt features a modified engine and exhaust components. The catalyticconverter was modified to add a secondary air-injection pump that " streamsambient air into the exhaust stream to increase its ability to removepollutants." Owners of a 2012 Volt with the low emissions package are eligibleto apply for one of 40,000 available HOV lane stickers issued to vehicles thatqualify as a California AT-PZEV. The permits are handed out on a first-apply,first-served basis. Additionally, the new low emissions package makes the2012 Volt eligible for owners to receive up to US$1,500 in state rebatesthrough the state’s Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP). This incentive is inaddition to the federal government’s US$7,500 tax credit. [158][159] Only the 2012Volts manufactured after February 6, 2012, are fitted with the low emissionpackage and sold as standard models in California. [160] Other states where theVolt has solo driving access to HOV lanes are Georgia, Florida and New York.[157]U.S. salesSince sales began in December 2010, a total of 16,814 Volts have been soldin the U.S. through June 2012.[3][4] The following table presents retail sales byyear since deliveries began in December 2010. Demonstration vehicles
  44. 44. allocated to dealerships are not included in retail sales reports while they areused for test drives. Chevrolet Volt U.S. sales (2010–2012) 2010 2011 2012 Total CYTD(1) 326[161] 7,671[162] 8,817[4] 16,814Note (1) CYTD: Calendar year to day, as of June 30, 2012.The top 10 selling states during the first quarter of 2012 were California,Michigan, Florida, Illinois, Texas, New York, Minnesota, Ohio, North Carolinaand Maryland. California is the leading market and accounted for almost 23%of Volt sales during this quarter, followed by Michigan with 6.3% of nationalsales. In California the leading regional markets are San Francisco, LosAngeles, and San Diego, all metropolitan areas notorious for their highcongestion levels and where free access to high-occupancy lanes for solodrivers has been a strong incentive to boost Volt sales in the state. [163]Resale valueIn May 2011 Kelley Blue Book (KBB) projected the 2011 Chevrolet Volt resalevalue at just over US$17,000 after 36 months, the length of a typical lease,which represents 42% of the cars US$41,000 suggested retail price (MSRP).KBB explains that even though the residual value seems low, the projection
  45. 45. considers that the first 200,000 Volts sold will qualify for a US$7,500 federaltax credit, which effectively reduces the MSRP to US$33,500, making theUS$17,000 represent 51% of its original value after the tax credit. Incomparison, KBB notes, the 2011 Toyota Prius has a projected residual of46% after 36 months. KBBs estimate assumed gasoline price will be aroundUS$4 per gallon in 2014.[164][165]Consumer Reports commented that their own analysis show that manyChevrolets lose about half of their purchase price after three years ofownership, and if the Volt depreciates the same, US$17,000 seems areasonable estimate. However, Consumer Reports have noted that fuel-efficient hybrids and diesel models often depreciate far less than mostvehicles, which might increase the Volts resale value after three years abovethe US$17,000 estimate. Additionally, if gasoline prices continue to rise or ifthe tax credits expire, the demand for used Chevrolet Volts could quicklyincrease, raising their market value. On the other hand, if the next-generationVolt’s battery has twice the capacity and cost less, as General Motors hasclaimed, the first generation Volts will be obsolete when the new ones comeout in 2015. Considering these assumptions, Consumer Reports considersthat "at this point we believe it’s still unclear how the Volt will fare ."[165]According to Kelly Blue Book the 2012 Volt is expected to retain 42% of itsoriginal value after 3 years and 27% after 5 years. Based on these figures, in
  46. 46. November 2011 KBB awarded the Volt with the 2012 Best Resale ValueAwards in the plug-in electric car category.[166][167] KBB explains that theresidual value for the Volt is lower than the market 35.5% average due to theUS$7,500 federal tax credit, which lowers the transaction price and pushesdown the residual value.[167][edit] CanadaChevrolet began taking orders in May 2011[118][168] and deliveries began inSeptember 2011 in major cities only.[169][170] Since September 2011 a total of814 Volts have been delivered to customers in Canada through June 2012. [138]The suggested retail price (MSRP) for the 2012 Chevrolet Volt starts atCAD 41,545 (US$42,423 in June 2011) which excludes any charges, fees,and optional equipment and before any available subsidies or incentives forqualifying buyers. In the Canadian market, the Volt is offered in one standardtrim level with two option packages, a Premium Trim Package and a RearCamera and Park Assist Package.[118] Some provinces are offeringGovernment incentives including Ontario,[171][172] Quebec[173] (both atCAD 8,500 (US$8,680) and British Columbia has announced their newLiveSmart BC program in which the Chevrolet Volt qualifies for a CAD 5,000incentive/rebate as well as CAD 500 towards charging equipment.[174][edit] Europe
  47. 47. The European version of the Volt, the Opel Ampera (known as the VauxhallAmpera in the United Kingdom),[175] was unveiled at the Geneva Auto Show inMarch 2009[176] and also was exhibited at the 2009 Frankfurt Auto Show.[177]Opel developed the battery control modules for the Ampera at the OpelAlternative Propulsion Center Europe in Mainz-Kastel, Germany.[178] Theproduction version of the Ampera was unveiled at the 2011 Geneva MotorShow.[65] The Ampera is assembled at the Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly plant,Michigan.[146]Opel Ampera frontal viewOpel Ampera rear viewThe main differences between the Volt and the Ampera are in their styling.The Ampera has a distinctive front and rear fascia, with a large cut-out in therear bumper. The Opel Ampera features more stylized alloy wheels asstandard, and the side skirts are body-colored rather than black. In the inside
  48. 48. there are only minor differences and both versions share the same exactpowertrain and battery pack.[66][179] A key operational difference is that theAmpera has four drive modes, one more than the 2011/12 Volt. The additionaloption is "City Mode", which adapts battery management to the needs ofcommuter travel. City mode or "battery hold" engages the range-extenderimmediately, allowing to save the energy currently stored in the battery, andwhen switched off, the range-extender stops and the Ampera is then able touse the energy saved in the battery for pure electric driving, for example fortraveling urban areas or restricted zones, such as the European low emissionzones or to allow the Ampera to qualify for an exemption of the Londoncongestion charge[65][66][180] The 2013 model year Volt includes the "Hold Drive"button to allow drivers to conserve battery-pack energy for use at a particulartime of their choice.[67]SalesGeneral Motors production target for 2012 is to manufacture 10,000 Amperasfor sale in Europe, 6,000 destined for Opel and 4,000 for Vauxhall in the UK,plus an additional 2,000 Volts will be made available for the region. Thecarmaker is targeting the Ampera for business fleet market and localgovernment agencies, where Opel has a strong customer base, while the Voltwill be aimed at retail customers.[127] According to Opel, by June 2011 around5,000 customers across Europe had reserved an Ampera, with fleet or
  49. 49. business customers representing 60% of reservations, [181] and a total of 7,000orders were received by March 2012, with Benelux, Germany and the UnitedKingdom as the top markets in terms of orders.[182][183]The first deliveries of the Chevrolet Volt in Europe took place on November30, 2011, to the U.S. Embassy in France.[120][184] Distribution of the OpelAmpera to dealerships began in December 2011, but deliveries to customerswere delayed until February 2012 because Opel decided to wait until theNHTSA completed its investigation of the Volts battery fire risk after a crash.[120][185]2012 Opel Ampera charging in GermanyThe Ampera was the best selling passenger plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) inEurope in May 2012, with a market share of over 20% during that month.Based on year to date sales through May 2012, the Ampera is the best sellingPEV in the Netherlands with a market share of more than 50%, and also is thetop selling PEV in Germany and Switzerland.[186] Sales in the Netherlands
  50. 50. reached 1,282 Amperas and 99 Volts through June 2012, [6][7] 826 OpelAmperas have been registered in Germany through June 2012, [136][137] and atotal of 174 Amperas and 71 Volts have been sold in Switzerland throughJune 2012.[187] Deliveries in the UK of the right-hand drive Vauxhall Amperabegan in May 2012,[121] and a total of 230 Amperas and 31 Volts have beensold through June 2012.[188] Since May 2012 the Vauxhall Ampera is availablethrough the Zipcar carsharing club in London, Bristol, Cambridge and Oxford.[189]PricingIn February 2011 Opel announced that the Ampera was to be offered for auniform price throughout the Eurozone at €42,900 (US$56,920 in May 2012)including VAT, but prices by country may vary due to the trim levels that willbe offered in each market.[65][190] The Chevrolet Volt also has a uniform pricethat starts at €41,950 (US$55,660 in May 2012) including VAT. [119] The OpelAmpera is eligible to several subsidies and tax breaks available for plug-inelectric vehicles in several European countries.[191][192]In the UK, the Vauxhall Ampera starts at GB£37,250 (US$60,400 in May2012) before discounting the GB£5,000 Plug-in Car Grant[121][193] The ChevoletVolt will also be available in the UK at a cost of GB£33,545 (US$54,400 inMay 2012) before the government grant. All Volts in the UK will comestandard with leather interior.[122]
  51. 51. [edit] ChinaIn September 2010, General Motors unveiled the Chevrolet Volt under itsChinese name of 沃蓝达 (Wo Lan Da) and delivered the first two Volts for useas part of Expo 2010 Shanghai Chinas transportation fleet. The Volt wasscheduled to go on sale in China by late 2011. [146][194][195] However, according toGeneral Motors, the Chinese government is refusing the Chevrolet Volt toqualify to up to US$19,300 in government subsidies unless GM agrees totransfer intellectual property to a joint venture with a Chinese automaker for atleast one of the Volt’s three core technologies: electric motors, complexelectronic controls, and power storage devices, whether batteries or a fuelcell. General Motors is negotiating with the Chinese government to let the Voltqualify for the subsidies without the technology transfer. As of November 2011the subsidies are available only for electric cars made by Chineseautomakers.[196]General Motors announced that the imported Volts price starts atCN¥ 498,000 (around US$78,000 as of January 2012) and initial sales will belimited to eight Chinese cities: Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Suzhou, Wuxi,Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Foshan.[123] GM explained that 13 dealershipswere selected in the eight cities, and they were chosen because these " citieshave more elites who are inclined to try new technologies and lead thefashion tide." [197] The first Volts, out of the 10-vehicle demonstration fleet,
  52. 52. arrived in China by late December 2011. The demonstration program will takeplace in Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai.[198]In March 2012, General Motors announced that an agreement was signedwith the China Automotive Technology and Research Center (CATARC) tomanage the Volt demonstration fleet in Beijing and to gather feedback fromthe fleet usage for one year. The demonstration Volts are scheduled to bedelivered in April 2012.[199][edit] Other marketsAustraliaHolden VoltThe Holden Volt is scheduled to be launched in the Australian market by late2012, and pricing starts at A$59,990 (around US$62,598).[124][200] Opel hasalso stated that it is considering selling the Ampera in Australia alongside theVolt when the brand is launched in 2012. [201]In November 2011 the first Holden Volt arrived in Australia for a series ofevaluation journeys. Holden has announced that the Volt has undergone
  53. 53. numerous modifications to better suit it to Australian roads, although the testvehicles are left-hand drive.[202]The Holden Volt will be available to purchase through 49 select Holdendealerships throughout metropolitan and rural Australia, with 18 in Victoria, 11in New South Wales, 9 in Queensland, 7 in Western Australia and 4 in SouthAustralia.[203]BrazilGeneral Motors do Brasil announced that it will import from five to ten Volts toBrazil during the first semester of 2011 as part of a demonstration and also tolobby the federal government to enact financial incentives for green cars. Ifsuccessful, General Motors would adapt the Volt to operate on ethanol fuel,as most new Brazilian cars are flex-fuel.[204][205]JapanIn December 2010, General Motors announced plans to introduce the Volt inlimited numbers into Japan in 2011 for technology and market test purposes.Exports for retail sales will depend on the results of this trial. [206]New ZealandThe Holden Volt will be released in New Zealand through three dealerships,with one in Auckland, Christchurch and Wellington. Pricing and launch datehave not been announced but a late 2012 launch is expected. [207]
  54. 54. [edit] Related concept carsThe Cadillac Converj, unveiled at the 2009 North American International Auto Show, shares theVolts Voltec powertrain.Cadillac ConverjThe Cadillac Converj is a plug-in hybrid concept car first unveiled at the 2009North American International Auto Show[208] and incorporates the propulsionsystem from the Chevrolet Volt, including the Voltec powertrain. In August2011, General Motors announced that the Converj concept will go intoproduction as the Cadillac ELR.[209]Volt MPV5At the 2010 Auto China show General Motors unveiled the Chevrolet VoltMPV5 Concept. The Volt MPV5 is a plug-in crossover hybrid and has a topspeed of 100 mph (160 km/h) and an electric range of 32 miles (51 km). TheMPV5 integrates design elements from the Volt, with a body style very similarto the Chevrolet Orlando and four inches larger than its predecessor,Chevrolet HHR.[210][211][edit] Controversies and criticism
  55. 55. [edit] EPA fuel economy testingTypical EPAs new fuel economy label for an extended-range electric vehicle like the ChevroletVolt (top), and for a blended or series-parallel plug-in hybrid (bottom)In 2008, General Motors was concerned about how the United StatesEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) would test the Volt to determine itsofficial fuel economy rating. The controversy centered on whether, byincluding a gasoline engine, the Volt should be classified as a hybrid ratherthan an electric car as claimed by General Motors. If tested with the sameEPA tests used by other hybrids, the Volts EPA fuel economy rating would bearound 48 mpg-US (4.9 L/100 km; 58 mpg-imp) due to the current EPA test forhybrids disallowing vehicles from boosting their mpg rating using storedbattery power. General Motors stated that the Volt is an entirely new type ofvehicle which the EPAs current fuel economy tests were not suited to rateand that a new test should be devised for this emerging class of hybrid-electrics.[212] General Motors also advocated for a more simplified mpg
  56. 56. calculation method to take into account the range of a plug-in hybrid whilerunning solely on electricity. Because the Volt can travel 40 miles (64 km) onbatteries alone, GM argued that most drivers with a daily commute of lessthan that distance would drive only in electric mode, so long as theyrecharged their vehicle at work or at home overnight. [213]The EPA official rating issued in November 2010 included separate fueleconomy ratings for all-electric mode and gasoline-only mode, with an overallcombined city/highway gasoline-electricity fuel economy rating of 60 mpg-US(3.9 L/100 km; 72 mpg-imp) equivalent (MPG-e).[81][88][89] To address thevariability of the fuel economy outcome depending on miles driven betweencharges, EPA also included in the Volts fuel economy label a table showingfuel economy and electricity consumed for five different scenarios drivenbetween a full charge, and a never-charge scenario. [81] According to this tablethe Volts fuel economy goes up to 168 mpg-US (1.40 L/100 km; 202 mpg-imp)equivalent (MPG-e) if driven 45 miles (72 km) between full charges.[88] Also, inrecognition of the multiple operating modes that a plug-in hybrid can be builtwith (all-electric, blended, and gasoline-only), for the new fuel economy andenvironment label that will be mandatory in the U.S. beginning in model year2013, EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)issued two separate fuel economy labels for plug-in hybrids. One label is forextended-range electric vehicles, like the Chevy Volt, with two modes: all-
  57. 57. electric and gasoline-only; and a second label for blended mode that includesa combination of all-electric, gasoline and electric operation, and gasolineonly, like a conventional hybrid vehicle.[214][215][edit] EPA fuel economy ratingOn August 2009, General Motors released its estimated city fuel economyrating for the Volt of 230 mpg-US (1.0 L/100 km; 280 mpg-imp) of gasoline plus25 kW·h/100 mi (560 kJ/km) of electricity using the EPAs proposed methodfor evaluating plug-in hybrids.[51][216] The U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency (EPA) issued a statement clarifying that the "EPA has not tested aChevy Volt and therefore cannot confirm the fuel economy values claimed byGM."[51] On July 2010, General Motors recognized that their estimate wasbased on a formula that never got official approval, and they were awaitingEPAs decision on how the equivalent fuel economy of plug-in hybrids will beestimated.[217]The official EPA rating was issued in November 2010 EPA and became theagencys first fuel economy label for a plug-in hybrids. The EPA rated the2011 Volt combined fuel economy at 93 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent(MPG-e) in all-electric mode, and 37 mpg-US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg-imp) ingasoline-only mode, for an overall combined fuel economy rating of 60 mpg-US(3.9 L/100 km; 72 mpg-imp) equivalent (MPG-e). The label also shows the
  58. 58. combined city-highway fuel economy in all-electric mode expressed intraditional energy consumption units, rating the Volt at 36 KWh per 100 miles(160 km).[81][89][edit] Production cost and sales priceIn 2009, the Presidential Task Force on the Auto Industry said that "GM is atleast one generation behind Toyota on advanced, “green” powertraindevelopment. In an attempt to leapfrog Toyota, GM has devoted significantresources to the Chevy Volt." and that "while the Chevy Volt holds promise, itis currently projected to be much more expensive than its gasoline-fueledpeers and will likely need substantial reductions in manufacturing cost inorder to become commercially viable."[218] A 2009 Carnegie Mellon Universitystudy found that a PHEV-40 will be less cost effective than a HEV or a PHEV-7 in all of the scenarios considered, due to the cost and weight of the battery.[219] Jon Lauckner, a Vice President at General Motors, responded that thestudy did not consider the inconvenience of a 7 miles (11 km) electric rangeand that the studys cost estimate of US$1,000 per kWh for the Volts batterypack was "many hundreds of dollars per kilowatt hour higher" than what itcosts to make today."[220]
  59. 59. President Barack Obama behind the wheel of a new Chevy Volt during his tour of the GeneralMotors Auto Plant in Hamtramck, MichiganIn early 2010, it was reported that General Motors would lose money on theVolt for at least the first couple of generations, but it hoped the car wouldcreate a green image that could rival the Prius. [221]After the Volts sales price was announced in July 2010, there was concernexpressed of the launch price of the Volt and its affordability and resultingpopularity, especially when the federal subsidies of US$2.4 billion were takeninto account in the development of the car.[10][222]General Motors CEO Edward Whitacre Jr. rejected as "ridiculous" criticismthat the Volts price is too expensive. He said that " I think its a very fair price.Its the only car that will go coast to coast on electricity without plugging it in,and nobody else can come close."[223] Despite the federal government beingthe major GM shareholder due to the 2009 government-led bankruptcy of theautomaker, during a press briefing at the White House a Treasury officialclarified that the federal government did not have any input on the pricing ofthe 2011 Chevrolet Volt.[224]
  60. 60. There have also been complaints regarding price markups due to the initiallimited availability in 2010 of between US$5,000 to US$12,000 above therecommended price,[225] and at least in one case a US$20,000 mark up inCalifornia.[226] Even though the carmaker cannot dictate vehicle pricing to itsdealers, GM said that it had requested its dealers to keep prices in line withthe company’s suggested retail price. [225]In May 2011 the National Legal and Policy Center announced that someChevrolet dealers were selling Volts to other dealers and claiming theUS$7,500 federal tax credit for themselves. Then the dealers who bought theVolts sell them as used cars with low mileage to private buyers, who no longerqualify for the credit. General Motors acknowledged that 10 dealer-to-dealerVolt sales had taken place among Chevrolet dealers, but the carmaker saidthey do not encourage such practice.[227][228][edit] Battery pack fire risk
  61. 61. Chevrolet Volt that caught fire after the pole test in June 2011. Top: before the NHTSAs pole test.Below: After the fire.In June 2011 a Volt that had been subjected by the National Highway TrafficSafety Administration (NHTSA) to a 20 mph (32 km/h) side pole impact crashtest followed by a post-impact rollover, caught fire three weeks later in the testcenter parking lot, burning nearby vehicles. The battery was found to be thesource of the fire. After the fire, both Chevrolet and the NHTSA independentlyreplicated the crash test and a subsequent vehicle rotation procedure to testfor any fluid leakage, but in their first attempt they could not reproduce theconditions under which the battery pack ignited. The NHTSA said it had"concluded that the crash test damaged the Volt’s lithium-ion battery and thatthe damage led to a vehicle fire that took several weeks to develop." [13][229][230]In further testing of the Volts batteries carried out by NHTSA in November2011, two of the three tests resulted in thermal events. One battery pack was
  62. 62. rotated 180 degrees within hours after it was impacted and began to smokeand emit sparks after rotation. In the other case, the battery pack that wascrashed-tested one week earlier and that had been monitored since the testcaught fire. The NHTSA then took an uncommon step on November 25, 2011and opened a formal safety defect investigation "without any data from real-world incidents" to examine the potential risks involved from intrusion damageto the battery pack in the Chevrolet Volt. [13][231][232] After the initial Volt fire, theNHTSA examined the Nissan Leaf and other plug-in electric vehicles and saidits testing “has not raised safety concerns about vehicles other than theChevy Volt.”[233]Chevrolet Volt after being subjected to the NCAP pole test on May 12, 2011 at MGA Researchstest facility.As a result of this investigation, GM announced that it would offer any Voltowner who has concerns another GM car while the federal investigation istaking place.[234][235] In December 2011, the company said that if necessarythey were prepared to recall all the vehicles and repair them upondetermination of the cause of the fires, and also announced they would buyback the car if the owner was too afraid of the potential for a fire. [234][236] GMs
  63. 63. CEO also said that it may be necessary to redesign or make changes to thebattery pack depending on the recommendations from federal officials. [234][237]As of December 1, 33 Volt owners in the U.S. and 3 in Canada had requesteda loaner car.[234][238] As of December 5, General Motors reported that a coupledozen Volt owners had requested the carmaker to buy back their cars, andthe company had already agreed to repurchase about a dozen. Before thecarmaker agrees to buy back each vehicle, other options are explored as GMprimarily wants to provide loaner cars, but "if the only way we can make themhappy is to repurchase it, then we will," a GM spokeman said. General Motorsexplained that the buy back price includes the Volt purchase price, plus taxesand fees, less a usage fee based on how many miles the car has been run. [239][240][241] As of January 5, 2012, GM reported that around 250 Volt owners hadrequested either a loaner vehicle or a potential buyback. [134]The NHTSA also said it was working with all automakers to develop postcrashprocedures to keep occupants of electric vehicles and emergency personnelwho respond to crash scenes safe. Additionally, NHTSA advised to be awarethat fires may occur a considerable amount of time after a crash. GeneralMotors said the first fire would have been avoided if GMs protocols fordeactivating the battery after the crash had been followed. [242] These protocolshad been used by GM since July 2011 but were not shared with the NHTSAuntil November 2011.[243] In another statement the carmaker stated that they
  64. 64. “are working with other vehicle manufacturers, first responders, tow truckoperators, and salvage associations with the goal of implementingindustrywide protocols.”[242]NHTSA testing of the Volts battery packArcing event during manual rollover of post crashed Volts battery, November 24, 2011.Customer deliveries of the Opel Ampera in Europe were delayed until theNHTSA completed its investigation of the Volts battery fire risk to make surethe vehicle is safe.[120] However, deliveries of the first Chevrolet Volts inEurope began in France in November 2011.[120][184] Deliveries of the VauxhallAmpera in the UK continued as scheduled for May 2012. [120] Opel Amperadeliveries began in February 2012.[185]Battery enhancementsOn January 5, 2012, General Motors announced that it would offer a customersatisfaction program to provide modifications to the Chevrolet Volt to reduce
  65. 65. the chance that the battery pack could catch fire days or weeks after a severeaccident. The carmaker described the modifications as voluntaryenhancements and stated that neither the car nor the battery was beingrecalled. General Motors determined the June fire was the result of a minorintrusion from a portion of the vehicle into a side section of the battery pack.This intrusion resulted in a small coolant leak inside the battery ofapproximately 50 ml. When the vehicle was put through a slow roll, where it’srotated at 90 degree increments, holding in each position for about fiveminutes, an additional one liter of coolant leaked. With the vehicle in the 180degrees position (upside down), the coolant came in contact with the printedcircuit board electronics at the top of the battery pack and later crystallized.Three weeks later this condition, in combination with a charged battery, led toa short circuit that resulted in the post-crash fire. [244][245]General Motors explained the modifications will enhance the vehicle structurethat surround the battery and the battery coolant system to improve batteryprotection after a severe crash. The safety enhancements consist ofstrengthening an existing portion of the Volt’s vehicle safety structure tofurther protect the battery pack in a severe side collision; add a sensor in thereservoir of the battery coolant system to monitor coolant levels; and add atamper-resistant bracket to the top of the battery coolant reservoir to helpprevent potential coolant overfill.[244][245] The additional side safety structural
  66. 66. pieces have a total weight of 2 to 3 lb (0.91 to 1.4 kg), and their function is tospread the load of a severe side impact away from the battery pack, reducingthe possibility of intrusion into the pack.[135]During December 2011 GM conducted four crash tests of Volts with thereinforced steel and upgraded cooling system, resulting in no intrusion to thebattery and no coolant leakage. On December 22, 2011, the NHTSA alsosubjected a modified Volt to the same test that led to the original fire, with nosigns of the damage that is believed to have been the cause. The NHTSAsaid “the preliminary results of the crash test indicate the remedy proposed byGeneral Motors today should address the issue of battery intrusion ” though itsinvestigation remained open. General Motors declined to say how much themodifications would cost.[244][245]All 12,400 Chevrolet Volts produced until December 2011, including allAmperas in stock at European dealerships, were scheduled to receive thesafety enhancements. Since production was halted during the holidays, theenhancements were in place when production resumed in early 2012. Salescontinued and dealers modified the Volts they had in stock. General Motorssent a letter to Volt owners indicating that they could schedule the serviceappointment to protect their batteries beginning on the last week of March2012.[134][135][246] General Motors also decided to replace the 120-volt chargingcords in most of the nearly 10,000 Volts sold since late 2010. The new cords
  67. 67. were enhanced to add durability, and some of the chargers built afterFebruary 5 have the new cords.[246]NHTSA findingsOn January 20, 2012, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrationclosed the Volts safety defect investigation related to post-crash fire risk. Theagency concluded that "no discernible defect trend exists" and also found thatthe modifications recently developed by General Motors are sufficient toreduce the potential for battery intrusion resulting from side impacts. TheNHTSA also said that "based on the available data, NHTSA does not believethat Chevy Volts or other electric vehicles pose a greater risk of fire thangasoline-powered vehicles." The agency also announced it has developedinterim guidance to increase awareness and identify appropriate safetymeasures regarding electric vehicles for the emergency response community,law enforcement officers, tow truck operators, storage facilities andconsumers.[14][15]House of Representatives hearingThe chairman of the Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs, Stimulus Oversightand Government Spending, U.S. Representative Jim Jordan held hearings onJanuary 25, 2012, to investigate why the NHTSA opened a formalinvestigation only five months after the first postcrash battery fire occurred inJune. The subcommittee of the House Committee on Oversight and
  68. 68. Government Reform wanted to determine if government officials, includingfrom NHTSA, purposely held back information on the Volt fire for politicalreasons.[247][248] Both Daniel Akerson, General Motors CEO, and David L.Strickland, NHTSA administrator, denied any wrongdoing. [249][250][251][edit] Reception[edit] Awards and recognitionThe Volt has received awards from multiple organizations:U.S. organizationsThe Chevrolet Volt won the 2011 Motor Trend Car of the Year award. • 2009 Green Car Vision Award by the Green Car Journal at the Washington Auto Show for "a bold and far-reaching approach that promises to bring an exceptionally fuel efficient model to consumers at reasonable cost."[252] • 2011 Car and Driver Ten Best Cars. For the first time ever Car and Driver magazine included an electrically powered car among its 10 best.[253] • 2011 Motor Trend Car of the Year. The magazine commented that "In the 61-year history of the Car of the Year award, there have been few contenders as hyped – or as controversial – as the Chevrolet Volt."[254]
  69. 69. • 2011 Green Car of the Year by Green Car Journal. The magazine editors explained that "This award welcomes a new genre of mass-production electric vehicles to the consumer market, with the Volt as the first-ever electric vehicle to take top prize."[255] • 2011 Automobile of the Year by Automobile Magazine. The editors commented that the Volt "...is genuinely an all-new car, in the most simplistic sense as well as in the greater notion that the Volt is unlike any vehicle we have ever driven."[256] • 2011 North American Car of the Year announced at the 2011 North American International Auto Show. Forty-nine American and Canadian automobile writers chose the Volt. The nominees were judged based on "innovation, design, safety, handling, driver satisfaction and value".[257] • Listed among the 2011 Greenest Vehicles of the Year by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.[258][259] • Listed among the 2011 Best Green Cars by Mother Earth News.[260] • 2011 Edison Award - Gold in the Transportation Category, Personal Transportation Segment.[261][262] • 2012 Best Resale Value Award in the category of electric cars by Kelley Blue Book.[166] • The Volt ranked first in Consumer Reports list of owner-satisfaction based on its 2011 Annual Auto Survey, with 93% respondents who owned the Volt saying they definitely would purchase that same vehicle again. The magazine noted that the Volt had been on sale for just a few months at the time of the survey, and also clarified that the survey took place before the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration investigation regarding the Volts battery fire risk.[263][264] • 2012 Total Cost of Ownership Award in the electric car category, granted by Kelly Blue Book for the lowest projected costs during initial five-year ownership period in its category.[265]Opel Ampera exhibited with the 2012 European Car of the Year logo at the Geneva Motor ShowInternational organizations
  70. 70. • 2009 Festival Automobile International awarded the Grand Prize for Environment to the Volt.[266] • 2011 World Green Car announced at the 2011 New York Auto Show.[267] • 2012 International Engine of the Year Award in the category of Green Engine, shared by the Opel Ampera and the Chevrolet Volt for their 1.4-liter engine-based extended-range electric powertrain.[268][269]European organizations • 2011 Overall Winner of What Car? Green Awards, granted by the UK magazine to the Vauxhall Ampera.[270] • 2012 Car of the Year in Denmark. In October 2011, 18 Danish motor journalists chose the Opel Ampera as "Car of the Year 2012" by a wide margin, despite being more expensive than the family cars the award usually goes to.[271][272] • 2012 European Car of the Year, shared by the Chevrolet Volt and the Opel/Vauxhall.[273] The Ampera/Volt became the first car developed in the U.S. to win this European award. [183][274][edit] Reviews and test drivesThe following tables summarize the results of long-term tests reported byspecialized media. Summary of the Volts all-electric range and fuel economy results published by thespecialized press and industry analysts. Only the EPA results should be used for comparison purposes.1 Reviewer Driving All-electric Fuel economy Fuel economy Comments condition range Gasoline only EV mode (MPG-e)EPA EPA five- 35 mi 37 mpg-US 93 mpg-US All ratings2011 model cycle tests: (56 km) (6.4 L/100 km) (2.5 L/100 km) combined city andyear[81][88] varying equivalent highway driving Overall combined conditions and gasoline-electric climate fuel economy controls rating of 60 mpg-US (3.9 L/100 km; 72 mpg-imp)