Mining methods

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Mining methods

  1. 1. Mining methods for s teeply dipping and massive deposits
  2. 2. Mining methods for s teeply dipping and massive deposits Self supported methods Sublevel caving Block caving Induced Block Caving Sublevel stoping Undercut and fill stoping Square-set stoping Cut-and-fill stoping Shrinkage stoping With caving of overburden Without caving of overburden Supported methods Large open stope mining Top slicing Continues bench backfilling stoping
  3. 3. CAVING METHODES
  4. 4. Sublevel caving
  5. 5. Sublevel caving
  6. 6. Sublevel caving
  7. 7. Induced block caving
  8. 8. Induced block caving with blasting on the broken rock 1 - drilling drifts ; 2 - level drift ; 3 - haulage drift ; 4 - draw points ; 5 - control crosscut.
  9. 9. Blocs foudroyés avec tir avec chambres de dégagement 1 - galeries de foration ; 2 - points de soutirage; 3 -galerie de transport 2 1 3 Volume relatif des chambres de dégagement - 30%
  10. 10. Bloc caving - non mechanized mining
  11. 11. Bloc caving - mechanized mining
  12. 12. Characteristics of caving methods Application : massive steeply dipping deposits low ore value Advantages : high stope output and personnel productivity low costs good security conditions Disadvantages : method is not selective high dilution and losses method is inflexible caving of surface
  13. 13. Top slicing Application : steeply dipping deposits ore width > to 3-4 m weak ore and walls high ore value Advantage : low loss and dilution Disadvantages : stope production and personnel productivity are low costs are high
  14. 14. SELF SUPPORTED METHODS
  15. 15. Sublevel stoping
  16. 16. Sublevel stoping
  17. 17. Sublevel stoping
  18. 18. Sublevel stoping in thick orebody A-a B-b C-c A A C C B B
  19. 19. Large open stope mining
  20. 20. Large open stope mining
  21. 21. Large open stope mining
  22. 22. Large open stope mining with primary and secondary stopes
  23. 23. Large open stope mining with caving of pillars
  24. 24. Large open stope mining with lost pillars
  25. 25. Characteristics of self supported methods Application : massive steeply dipping deposits competent ore and host rocks low ore value with lost pillars high ore value with cemented fill Advantages : high stope output and personnel productivity low dilution low costs good security conditions Disadvantages : method is not selective high losses in pillars or higher costs for backfilling method is inflexible
  26. 26. SUPPORTED METHODS
  27. 27. Continuous bench backfilling stoping
  28. 28. Cut-and-fill stoping 1 - haulage drift ; 2 - transport drift ; 3 - rise for fill and ventilation ; 4 - ore passe ; 5 - manway rise ; 6 - crosscut ; 7, 8 - pillars ; 9 - ore ; 10 - broken ore ; 11 - backfill .
  29. 29. Cut-and-fill stoping
  30. 30. Cut-and-fill stoping
  31. 31. Cut-and-fill stoping
  32. 32. drilling loading filling competent rock weak rock medium rock Cut-and-fill stoping
  33. 33. ore LHD jumbo backfill Cut-and-fill stoping
  34. 34. Cut-and-fill stoping Drilled stope face LHD in the stope
  35. 35. Cut-and-fill stoping
  36. 36. Cut-and-fill stoping
  37. 37. Dilution calculation  W deposit a a W opening a 2 cos h sin L W opening      a cos h sin L W opening      For  > 15 - 20° : For  < 15 - 20° : h L
  38. 38. Characteristics of cut-and-fill stoping Application : competent ore weak host rocks high ore value deposit can be irregular Advantages : method is selective low dilution and losses flexibility Disadvantages : low stope output and personnel productivity high costs
  39. 39. Undercut-and-fill stoping 1 - rise for fill ; 2 - orepasse ; 3 - crosscut ; 4 - ventilation opening ; 5 - limit of mining ; 6 - stop limit haulage drift ; 2 - transport drift ; 3 - rise for fill and ventilation ; 4 - ore passe ; 5 - manway rise ; 6 - crosscut ; I - blasting ; II - loading ; III - backfilling.
  40. 40. Undercut-and-fill stoping 1 - top level ; 2 - haulage level ; 3 - ramp ; 4 - stop access ; 5 - ore and fill pass ; 6 - limit of mining.
  41. 41. Undercut-and-fill stoping 1 - ore mat ; 2 - reinforcement wire mesh ; 3 - anchoring ; 4 - cable ; 5 - polystyrene sheathing ; 6 - ore ; 7 - walls ; 8 - backfill of the previous cut.
  42. 42. Undercut-and-fill stoping ramp, 20% access to the cut, 20% R - fill pass ; J - ore pass. crosscut for backfilling
  43. 43. Undercut-and-fill stoping
  44. 44. Undercut-and-fill stoping
  45. 45. Undercut-and-fill stoping
  46. 46. Undercut-and-fill stoping
  47. 47. Undercut-and-fill stoping
  48. 48. Characteristics of cut-and-fill stoping Application : weak ore and host rocks very high ore value Advantages : method is selective low dilution and losses flexibility Disadvantages : low stope output and personnel productivity very high costs
  49. 49. Shrinkage stoping 1 - haulage drift ; 2 - transport drift ; 3 - manway and ventilation rise ; 4 - doghole ; 5 - pillar ; 6 - crosscut ; 7 - ore ; 8 - drillholes ; 9 - brocken ore .
  50. 50. Shrinkage stoping
  51. 51. Shrinkage stoping 1 - haulage drift ; 2 - transport and ventilation drift ; 3 - doghole ; 4 - stop sill. broken ore A-A B-B A A B B
  52. 52. Shrinkage stoping stop in operation pillars tubing for ventilation prepared stop stop at the end of mining thin pillar cap pillar of 5 m openings fan haulage level 200 fan mined out stop level 144 Alimac rise
  53. 53. Shrinkage stoping mined out stop thin pillar level 130 prepared stop ore width haulage level 200 stop in operation pillars 2.5 x 2 m cap pillar height
  54. 54. Characteristics of shrinkage stoping Application : stable ore and host rocks steeply dipping deposit regular boundaries of ore body ore thickness up to 5 m broken ore must not re-cement with time Advantages : selective blasting low costs Disadvantages : mucking is not selective low stope output low personnel productivity loss in pillars difficulty in mechanization
  55. 55. Square-set stoping Application : deposit of 30 to 60° dip and of 1 to 3 m thickness weak ore and walls high value of ore Advantages : selectivity low loss and dilution Disadvantages : stope production and personnel productivity are low because of important wood consumption costs are high
  56. 56. Application of different mining methods in steeply dipping narrow vein deposits Walls Stability Instable Stable Ore stability Instables Stables Undercut-and-full filling Cut-and-fill Continuous bench backfilling Sublevel stoping Shrinkage Undercut-and-partiaml filling
  57. 57. Application of different mining methods in massive vein deposits Ore stability Low ore stability High ore stability Ore value Low ore value High ore value Block caving Cut-and-fill Sublevel caving Large open stoping with cemented fill Undercut-and-fill Large open stoping with lost pillars

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