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- 1. SHORT HOLES : diameter < 52 mm length < 5 m advantages : allow to follow the irregular ore/waste contact in weak formations disadvantages : low productivity, high cost Blast hole drilling LONG HOLES : diameter up to 162 mm length up to 70 m advantages : high productivity, low cost disadvantages : application is limited to regular or massive strong deposits
- 2. Drilling patterns for narrow vein deposits Overhand or back stoping Breast stoping Frontal benching w h l l h w h w l Cut-and-fill and Shrinkage Stoping Cut-and-fill and Shrinkage Stoping Undercut-and-fill Stoping Production Jumbo Drifting Jumbo Drifting Jumbo Hand-held Stoper drill Hand-held Jack Leg drill Hand-held Jack Leg drill Hole depth, m 3 - 4 2 - 2.5
- 3. Drilling patterns for narrow vein deposits Schéma de foration de la face du chantier par tranches montantes remblayées h w l
- 4. Drilling patterns for flat dipping deposits drifting downward benching downward benching with 4 free faces frontal benching with 4 free faces downward benching with 3 free faces frontal benching with 3 free faces
- 5. MANUAL DRILLING Short hole drilling JUMBOS Diameter : jusqu’à 82 mm Length : 15 m Downward drilling : 25 m/hour Upward drilling : 20 m/hour TOP HAMMER Diameter : 28-46 mm Length : 3 m Jack-hammer : 12.5 m/hour Stoper : 10 m/hour
- 6. Parallel drilling patterns for massive deposits vertical slabbing horizontal slabbing
- 7. Fan drilling patterns for massive deposits upward fan drilling downward fan drilling ring fan drilling
- 8. Beam pattern patterns for massive deposits Crown pillar caving
- 9. Long hole drilling DOWN THE HOLE HAMMER DRILL RIG Diameter : up to 165 mm Length : 100 m Drilling speed : 15 (6-20) m/hour
- 10. Operating costs of drilling and blasting where : C hour - hourly cost of the drilling equipment in $ per hour ; c bit,steel - bit and steel wear cost per meter drilled in $ per meter , c bit,steel 1 $/m T round - tonnage blasted per round in tonnes per round ; L round - total holes length per round in m per round ; s drilling - average drilling speed in m per hour : Jumbo frontal stoping, breasting : s drilling = 25 m/hour Jumbo overhand stoping : s drilling = 20 m/hour Jack leg : s drilling = 12.5 m/hour Stoper : s drilling = 10 m/hour
- 11. Cost estimation Capital cost Hourly operating cost Operator labor Parts Maintenance labor Diesel fuel Electric power Lube oil Tires Compressed air
- 12. Cost estimation Hourly operating cost Capital cost and technical characteristics
- 13. Operating cost of drilling and blasting : Tonnage blasted per round where : w - stop width in m ; h - stop height in m ; l - stop length in m ; average - average rock masse density in tonne per m 3 .
- 14. Operating costs of drilling and blasting : Total holes length per round where : l hole - hole depth in meters ; N - number of holes per round, holes ; q - powder factor in kilograms of explosive per tonne of rock broken ; Eh - charge of explosive per hole in kilograms ; T round - tonnage of rock blasted per round in tonnes.
- 15. Theoretical powder factor where : R c - uniaxial compressive strength of the rock in MPa; C 1 and C 2 - empirical coefficients
- 16. Corrected powder factor <ul><li>where : q 0 - theoretical powder factor in kilograms of explosive per cubic meter of rock broken ; </li></ul><ul><li>k 1 - is relative strength of explosive factor </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>k 2 - is required fragmentation factor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>k 3 - is the hole diameter factor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>k 4 - free face condition factor is the factor taking in to account number and conditions of free faces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>k 5 - drilling pattern factor taking into account increasing of the powder factor when the drilling pattern is different from parallel </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 17. Relative strength of explosive factor - k 1 where : ABS ref - absolute bulk strength of the reference explosive in J/cm 3 or in cal/cm 3 ABS - absolute bulk strength of new explosive in J/cm 3 or in cal/cm 3 AWS ref - absolute weight strength of the reference explosive in J/gramme or in cal/gramme : explosive of reference is the Extra dynamite : AWS = 1030 cal/g AWS - absolute weight strength of new used explosive in J/gramme k 1 = 1.13 for ANFO
- 18. Relative strength of explosive factor - k 1 Typical Properties of Extra Gelatine Typical Properties for Emulsion and Emulsion/ANFO blends
- 19. Relative strength of explosive factor - k 1 Typical Properties of UNIGEL Semi-Gelatin Nitroglycerine Dynamite Typical Properties of DYNO RU Booster sensitive bulk emulsion
- 20. Required fragmentation factor - k 2 For short holes For long holes where : l f average distance between fractures in the rock masse b required average bloc size after blasting n 1 = 0.5 to 0.6
- 21. Hole diameter factor - k 3 Jumbo : d = 38 mm Hend-held drill d = 32 mm where : d - new hole diameter in m d ref - diameter of reference in m for short holes d ref = 0.042 m for long holes d ref = 0.105 m n2= 1 - in monolithic formation ; n2= 0.5 - in highly fractured formation
- 22. Free face condition factor - k 4 k4 = 1.4 to 1.6 for a blast of short holes with a single free face perpendicular to holes axes k4 = 1.2 to 1.3 if blasting of long holes is done on the broken rock masse
- 23. Drilling pattern factor - k 5 beam pattern : k5 = 1.3 to 1.5 fan pattern : k5 = 1.1 to 1.2 parallel pattern (reference) : k5 = 1
- 24. Operating costs of drilling and blasting : u nit hole depth where : l hole - hole depth in meters ; f pull 0.92 - pull factor taking in to account the subdrilling ; z - stop size parallel to the hole, stop length for the breast or frontal stoping and stop height for the overhand stoping ; l hole l h l hole
- 25. Operating costs of drilling and blasting : Charge of explosive per hole where : Eh - charge of explosive per hole in kilograms ; l hole - hole depth in meters ; d hole - hole diameter in meters ; - of explosive loading density in kilograms per m 3, = 800 for ANFO ; f burden - burden factor, f burden 0.75 ; f p - factor taking in to account charge diameter compared with hole diameter, f p = 1 for ANFO.
- 26. Cost of blasting where : p / - corrected powder factor in kilograms of explosive per tonne of rock broken ; c explosive - cost of explosive in $ per kilogram , c explosive = 0.6 $/kg for ANFO ; c cap,primer - cost of caps and primers in $ per hole , c cap,primer 2.5 $/hole ; N - number of holes per round .

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