Plate Tectonics and Earth’s Structure Susan Meath Cohort 21/Tech 290 9/17/08
Standards <ul><ul><li>Plate Tectonics and Earth’s Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1e.  Students know major geologic e...
Types of Earthquakes - Convergent Boundary - Divergent Boundary -Transform Boundary - Seismic waves
Convergent Boundary
Continental-Continental Convergence <ul><li>Himalayan mountain range  </li></ul><ul><li>When two continents meet head-on, ...
Oceanic-Continental Convergence <ul><li>When these two plates collide the more dense oceanic plate subducts and is melted ...
Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence <ul><li>-  Two ocean plates collide.  </li></ul><ul><li>- Melting destroys one plate.  </li></...
Divergent Boundary Divergent boundaries occur along spreading centers where plates are moving apart and new crust is creat...
Mid-Atlantic Ridge <ul><li>The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, splits nearly the entire Atlantic Ocean north to south .   </li></ul><u...
Krafla Volcano  <ul><li>Lava fountains spouting from eruptive fissures during the October 1980 eruption.   </li></ul><ul><...
Red Sea <ul><li>A young divergent plate boundary that is actively forming the  Red Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabian penn...
Transform Boundary
San Andreas Fault <ul><li>Right-lateral strike-slip fault   </li></ul><ul><li>The San Andreas connects a divergent boundar...
Types of Faults <ul><li>Transform faults can be distinguished from the typical strike-slip faults   </li></ul><ul><li>A st...
Fracture Zones <ul><li>Blanco </li></ul><ul><li>Mendocino </li></ul><ul><li>Murray </li></ul><ul><li>Molokai </li></ul>
Seismic Waves <ul><li>T he waves of energy caused by the sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an explosion. They ar...
P-Wave <ul><li>The first kind of body wave is the  P wave  or  primary wave </li></ul><ul><li>This is the fastest kind of ...
S-Wave <ul><li>The second type of body wave is the  S wave  or  secondary wave </li></ul><ul><li>It is this property of S ...
Love Wave and Rayleigh Wave <ul><li>It's the fastest surface wave and moves the ground from side-to-side.  </li></ul><ul><...
References  <ul><li>http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/understanding.html#anchor15039288   </li></ul><ul><li>http://geology....
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Meath Earthquakes 1 1 1 [1]

773 views

Published on

Different types of Earthquakes

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
773
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
15
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
24
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Meath Earthquakes 1 1 1 [1]

  1. 1. Plate Tectonics and Earth’s Structure Susan Meath Cohort 21/Tech 290 9/17/08
  2. 2. Standards <ul><ul><li>Plate Tectonics and Earth’s Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1e. Students know major geologic events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, results from plate motions. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Earthquakes - Convergent Boundary - Divergent Boundary -Transform Boundary - Seismic waves
  4. 4. Convergent Boundary
  5. 5. Continental-Continental Convergence <ul><li>Himalayan mountain range </li></ul><ul><li>When two continents meet head-on, neither is subducted </li></ul><ul><li>Crust tends to buckle and be pushed upward or sideways </li></ul><ul><li>The collision of India into Asia 50 million years ago caused the Eurasian Plate </li></ul>
  6. 6. Oceanic-Continental Convergence <ul><li>When these two plates collide the more dense oceanic plate subducts and is melted in the mantle . </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes occur deep below the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean crust is destroyed in subduction zones. </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean crust is always younger than continental crust. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence <ul><li>- Two ocean plates collide. </li></ul><ul><li>- Melting destroys one plate. </li></ul><ul><li>- The low-density liquid rock rise to the surface causing a volcanic island arch to form. </li></ul><ul><li>- Above the subduction zone a deep trench forms. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Divergent Boundary Divergent boundaries occur along spreading centers where plates are moving apart and new crust is created by magma pushing up from the mantle.
  9. 9. Mid-Atlantic Ridge <ul><li>The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, splits nearly the entire Atlantic Ocean north to south . </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of spreading along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge averages about 2.5 centimeters per year (cm/yr), or 25 km in a million years . </li></ul><ul><li>The volcanic country of Iceland straddles the Mid-Atlantic Ridge . </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland is splitting along the spreading center . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Krafla Volcano <ul><li>Lava fountains spouting from eruptive fissures during the October 1980 eruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Existing ground cracks have widened and new ones appear every few months . </li></ul><ul><li>From 1975 to 1984, numerous episodes of rifting (surface cracking) took place along the Krafla fissure zone . </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these rifting events were accompanied by volcanic activity . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Red Sea <ul><li>A young divergent plate boundary that is actively forming the Red Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabian penninsula and Africa were once linked to form a single continent, they are now being ripped apart. </li></ul><ul><li>The white arrows show the directions the two plates are moving. </li></ul><ul><li>You can see that a new ocean, the Red Sea is being formed as they separate. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 12. Transform Boundary
  13. 13. San Andreas Fault <ul><li>Right-lateral strike-slip fault </li></ul><ul><li>The San Andreas connects a divergent boundary in the Gulf of California with the Cascadia subduction zone. </li></ul><ul><li>The San Andreas fault is the 800 mile long boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates. </li></ul><ul><li>At its deepest, the San Andreas extends 10 miles beneath the ground . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Faults <ul><li>Transform faults can be distinguished from the typical strike-slip faults </li></ul><ul><li>A strike-slip fault is a simple offset </li></ul><ul><li>Transform fault is formed between two different plates, each moving away from the spreading center of a divergent plate boundary. </li></ul><ul><li>Transform faults cut continental lithosphere. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fracture Zones <ul><li>Blanco </li></ul><ul><li>Mendocino </li></ul><ul><li>Murray </li></ul><ul><li>Molokai </li></ul>
  16. 16. Seismic Waves <ul><li>T he waves of energy caused by the sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an explosion. They are the energy that travels through the earth and is recorded on seismographs. </li></ul>
  17. 17. P-Wave <ul><li>The first kind of body wave is the P wave or primary wave </li></ul><ul><li>This is the fastest kind of seismic wave, and, consequently, the first to 'arrive' at a seismic station. </li></ul><ul><li>The P wave can move through solid rock and fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes animals can hear the P waves of an earthquake. </li></ul>
  18. 18. S-Wave <ul><li>The second type of body wave is the S wave or secondary wave </li></ul><ul><li>It is this property of S waves that led seismologists to conclude that the Earth's outer core is a liquid . </li></ul><ul><li>Waves move rock particles up and down, or side-to-side--perpindicular to the direction that the wave is traveling in </li></ul><ul><li>An S wave is slower than a P wave and can only move through solid rock, </li></ul>
  19. 19. Love Wave and Rayleigh Wave <ul><li>It's the fastest surface wave and moves the ground from side-to-side. </li></ul><ul><li>Confined to the surface of the crust, Love waves produce entirely horizontal motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Rayleigh wave rolls along the ground just like a wave rolls across a lake or an ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the shaking felt from an earthquake is due to the Rayleigh wave, </li></ul>
  20. 20. References <ul><li>http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/understanding.html#anchor15039288 </li></ul><ul><li>http://geology.com/nsta/convergent-plate-boundaries . </li></ul><ul><li>http://scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn_unix/plate4.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0803/es0803page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/waves.html </li></ul>

×