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Introduction to
Investment &
Portfolio
Management
By
Shaik Mohammad Imran
SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
Content
a) Introduction
b) Definition of Individual Investor
c) Meaning of Investment
d) Concepts of Investment
a) Economi...
INTRODUCTION
For most of the investors throughout their life, they will be earning
and spending money. Rarely, investor’s ...
INTRODUCTION
An investment is the current commitment of rupee for a period of
time in order to derive future payments that...
Definition of Individual investor
“An individual who purchases small amounts of securities for
themselves, as opposed to a...
MEANING OF INVESTMENT
• Investment is the employment of funds with the aim of getting
return on it.
• In general terms, in...
There are Two concepts of
Investment:
1. Economic Investment
2. Financial Investment
SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
There are Two concepts of
Investment:
1.Economic Investment : The concept of economic investment means
addition to the cap...
There are Two concepts of
Investment:
2.Financial Investment: This is an allocation of monetary resources to assets
that a...
Investment Objectives
1. Classification of Objectives
1. Financial
2. Personal
2. Classified on the basis of the investors...
INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES
Investing is a wide spread practice and many have made their
fortunes in the process. The starting p...
Classification of Objectives
Financial
Safety,
Profitability,
Liquidity
Personal
Status,
Dependents,
Educational requireme...
The objectives can be classified on the basis of
the INVESTORS APPROACH as follows
a) Short term high priority objectives:...
The objectives can be classified on the basis of
the INVESTORS APPROACH as follows
c) Low priority objectives: These objec...
objectives with regard to the
investment of their CAPITAL.
The importance of each objective varies from investor to invest...
objectives with regard to the
investment of their CAPITAL.
d. Value for money – Investors want to minimize the costs of ma...
What is a 'Portfolio'
A portfolio is a grouping of financial assets such as stocks,
bonds and cash equivalents, as well as...
Investment Process
Investment management process is the process of managing money
or funds. The investment management proc...
Investment Process
Setting of
investment
policy
Analysis and
evaluation of
investment
Formation of
diversified
investment
...
1. Setting of investment policy is the first and very important step in
investment management process. Investment policy i...
3. Formation of diversified investment portfolio is the next step in investment
management process. In the stage of portfo...
4. Portfolio revision. This step of the investment management
process concerns the periodic revision of the three previous...
5. Measurement and evaluation of portfolio performance. This
the last step in investment management process involves
deter...
Investment and speculation
“Speculation is an activity, quite contrary to its literal meaning, in
which a person assumes h...
Speculation has a special meaning when talking about money. The person who speculates is
called a speculator. A speculator...
SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
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Unit 1 introduction to investment & portfolio management

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An investment is the current commitment of rupee for a period of time in order to derive future payments that will compensate the investor for

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Unit 1 introduction to investment & portfolio management

  1. 1. Introduction to Investment & Portfolio Management By Shaik Mohammad Imran SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  2. 2. Content a) Introduction b) Definition of Individual Investor c) Meaning of Investment d) Concepts of Investment a) Economic Investment b) Financial Investment e) Investment Objectives a) Classification of Objectives b) classified on the basis of the investors approach objectives with regard to the investment of their capital. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION For most of the investors throughout their life, they will be earning and spending money. Rarely, investor’s current money income exactly balances with their consumption desires. Sometimes, investors may have more money than they want to spend; at other times, they may want to purchase more than they can afford. These imbalances will lead investors either to borrow or to save to maximize the long-run benefits from their income. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION An investment is the current commitment of rupee for a period of time in order to derive future payments that will compensate the investor for (1) The time the funds are committed, (2) The expected rate of inflation, and (3) The uncertainty of the future payments. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  5. 5. Definition of Individual investor “An individual who purchases small amounts of securities for themselves, as opposed to an institutional investor, Also called as Retail Investor or Small Investor.” In today’s world everybody is running for money and it is considered as a root of happiness. For secure life and for bright future people start investing. Every time investors are confused with investment avenues and their risk return profile. So, even if Researcher focuses on past, present or future, investment is such a topic that needs constant upgradation as economy changes. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  6. 6. MEANING OF INVESTMENT • Investment is the employment of funds with the aim of getting return on it. • In general terms, investment means the use of money in the hope of making more money. • In finance, investment means the purchase of a financial product or other item of value with an expectation of favourable future returns. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  7. 7. There are Two concepts of Investment: 1. Economic Investment 2. Financial Investment SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  8. 8. There are Two concepts of Investment: 1.Economic Investment : The concept of economic investment means addition to the capital stock of the society. The capital stock of the society is the goods which are used in the production of other goods. The term investment implies the formation of new and productive capital in the form of new construction and producers durable instrument such as plant and machinery. Inventories and human capital are also included in this concept. Thus, an investment, in economic terms, means an increase in building, equipment, and inventory. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  9. 9. There are Two concepts of Investment: 2.Financial Investment: This is an allocation of monetary resources to assets that are expected to yield some gain or return over a given period of time. It means an exchange of financial claims such as shares and bonds, real estate, etc. Financial investment involves contrasts written on pieces of paper such as shares and debentures. People invest their funds in shares, debentures, fixed deposits, national saving certificates, life insurance policies, provident fund etc. in their view investment is a commitment of funds to derive future income in the form of interest, dividends, rent, premiums, pension benefits and the appreciation of the value of their principal capital.SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  10. 10. Investment Objectives 1. Classification of Objectives 1. Financial 2. Personal 2. Classified on the basis of the investors approach 3. objectives with regard to the investment of their capital. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  11. 11. INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES Investing is a wide spread practice and many have made their fortunes in the process. The starting point in this process is to determine the characteristics of the various investments and then matching them with the individuals need and preferences. All personal investing is designed in order to achieve certain objectives. These objectives may be tangible such as buying a car, house etc. and intangible objectives such as social status, security etc. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  12. 12. Classification of Objectives Financial Safety, Profitability, Liquidity Personal Status, Dependents, Educational requirements Income, Consumption Provision for retirement SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  13. 13. The objectives can be classified on the basis of the INVESTORS APPROACH as follows a) Short term high priority objectives: Investors have a high priority towards achieving certain objectives in a short time. For example, a young couple will give high priority to buy a house. Thus, investors will go for high priority objectives and invest their money accordingly. b) Long term high priority objectives: Some investors look forward and invest on the basis of objectives of long term needs. They want to achieve financial independence in long period. For example, investing for post retirement period or education of a child etc. investors, usually prefer a diversified approach while selecting different types of investments.SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  14. 14. The objectives can be classified on the basis of the INVESTORS APPROACH as follows c) Low priority objectives: These objectives have low priority in investing. These objectives are not painful. After investing in high priority assets, investors can invest in these low priority assets. For example, provision for tour, domestic appliances etc. d) Money making objectives: Investors put their surplus money in these kinds of investment. Their objective is to maximize wealth. Usually, the investors invest in shares of companies which provide capital appreciation apart from regular income from dividend. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  15. 15. objectives with regard to the investment of their CAPITAL. The importance of each objective varies from investor to investor and depends upon the age and the amount of capital they have. These objectives are broadly defined as follows. a. Lifestyle – Investors want to ensure that their assets can meet their financial needs over their lifetimes. b. Financial security – Investors want to protect their financial needs against financial risks at all times. c. Return – Investors want a balance of risk and return that is suitable to their personal risk preferences. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  16. 16. objectives with regard to the investment of their CAPITAL. d. Value for money – Investors want to minimize the costs of managing their assets and their financial needs. e. Peace of mind – Investors do not want to worry about the day to day movements of markets and their present and future financial security. Achieving the sum of these objectives depends very much on the investor having all their assets and needs managed centrally, with portfolios planned to meet lifetime needs, with one overall investment strategy ensuring that the disposition of assets will match individual needs and risk preferences. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  17. 17. What is a 'Portfolio' A portfolio is a grouping of financial assets such as stocks, bonds and cash equivalents, as well as their funds counter parts, including mutual, exchange-traded and closed funds. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  18. 18. Investment Process Investment management process is the process of managing money or funds. The investment management process describes how an investor should go about making decisions. Investment management process can be disclosed by five-step procedure, which includes following stages: 1. Setting of investment policy. 2. Analysis and evaluation of investment vehicles. 3. Formation of diversified investment portfolio. 4. Portfolio revision 5. Measurement and evaluation of portfolio performance. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  19. 19. Investment Process Setting of investment policy Analysis and evaluation of investment Formation of diversified investment portfolio Portfolio revision Measurement and evaluation of portfolio performance Source : Click Here SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  20. 20. 1. Setting of investment policy is the first and very important step in investment management process. Investment policy includes setting of investment objectives. The investment policy should have the specific objectives regarding the investment return requirement and risk tolerance of the investor. 2. Analysis and evaluation of investment When the investment policy is set up, investor’s objectives defined and the potential categories of financial assets for inclusion in the investment portfolio identified, the available investment types can be analysed. Most frequently two forms of analysis are used: technical analysis and fundamental analysis. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  21. 21. 3. Formation of diversified investment portfolio is the next step in investment management process. In the stage of portfolio formation the issues of selectivity, timing and diversification need to be addressed by the investor. Selectivity refers to micro forecasting and focuses on forecasting price movements of individual assets. Timing involves macro forecasting of price movements of particular type of financial asset relative to fixed-income securities in general. Diversification involves forming the investor’s portfolio for decreasing or limiting risk of investment. 2 techniques of diversification: • Random Diversification, when several available financial assets are put to the portfolio at random; • Objective Diversification when financial assets are selected to the portfolio following investment objectives and using appropriate techniques for analysis and evaluation of each financial asset. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  22. 22. 4. Portfolio revision. This step of the investment management process concerns the periodic revision of the three previous stages. This is necessary, because over time investor with long- term investment horizon may change his / her investment objectives and this, in turn means that currently held investor’s portfolio may no longer be optimal and even contradict with the new settled investment objectives. Investor should form the new portfolio by selling some assets in his portfolio and buying the others that are not currently held. It could be the other reasons for revising a given portfolio: over time the prices of the assets change, meaning that some assets that were attractive at one time may be no longer be so.SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  23. 23. 5. Measurement and evaluation of portfolio performance. This the last step in investment management process involves determining periodically how the portfolio performed, in terms of not only the return earned, but also the risk of the portfolio. For evaluation of portfolio performance appropriate measures of return and risk and benchmarks are needed. A benchmark is the performance of predetermined set of assets, obtained for comparison purposes. The benchmark may be a popular index of appropriate assets – stock index, bond index. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  24. 24. Investment and speculation “Speculation is an activity, quite contrary to its literal meaning, in which a person assumes high risks, often without regard for the safety of their invested principal, to achieve large capital gains.” The time span in which the gain is sought to be made is usually very short. Investment involves putting money into an asset which is not necessarily marketable in order to enjoy a series of returns. The investor sacrifices some money today in anticipation of a financial return in future. He indulges in a bit of speculation. There is an element of speculation involved in all investment decisions. However, it does not mean that all investments are speculative by nature. Genuine investments are carefully thought out decisions. On the other hand, speculative investment, are not carefully thought out decisions. They are based on tips, and rumours. SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
  25. 25. Speculation has a special meaning when talking about money. The person who speculates is called a speculator. A speculator does not buy goods to own them, but to sell them later. The reason is that speculator wants to profit from the changes of market prices. One tries to buy the goods when they are cheap and to sell them when they are expensive. Speculation includes the buying, holding, selling and short selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, real estate collectibles, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument. It is the opposite of buying because one wants to use them for daily life or to get income from them (as dividends or interest). Speculation should not be considered purely a form of gambling, as speculators do make an informed decision before choosing to acquire the additional risks. Additionally, speculation cannot be categorized as a traditional investment because the acquired risk is higher than average. More sophisticated investors will also use a hedging strategy in combination with their speculative investment in order to limit potential losses.SHAIK MOHAMMAD IMRAN
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