Benefits of Building With Masonry

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With unparalleled good looks and design versatility, brick, stone, tile, and other masonry materials are among the top choices of architects and designers for projects of both traditional and contemporary design aesthetics. But beyond its beauty, masonry provides many benefits that may not be as immediately apparent. This program looks at masonry's ease of construction, its adaptability to site conditions, and its ability to meet an ambitious construction schedule. It addresses masonry's simultaneous performance as a structural system, high performance building envelope component, and attractive exterior cladding. The seminar also talks about masonry's fire resistance, durability, and low maintenance characteristics, as well as the sustainable attributes it provides in the areas of indoor environmental quality, materials and resources, and energy efficiency. Finally, the program addresses in detail the life cycle cost benefits of masonry, and what goes into training an abundant skilled workforce of qualified bricklayers and contractors.

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Benefits of Building With Masonry

  1. 1. BENEFITS OF BUILDING WITH MASONRYpresented byInternational Masonry Institute
  2. 2. International Union International of Bricklayers and Masonry Allied Craftworkers InstituteLIFELONG LEARNING Pre-job and apprentice training Journeyman upgrade training Safety, scaffold, OSHA training Craftworker certification training Supervisor certification Sustainable Masonry Certification Program Contractor College
  3. 3. International Union Internationalof Bricklayers and MasonryAllied Craftworkers Institute BAC CONTRACTORSIMI-TRAINED CRAFTWORKERS
  4. 4. ILLINOIS STRUCTURAL MASONRY COALTION
  5. 5. BENEFITS OF BUILDING WITH MASONRY Beauty Versatility of Design Contextual / Relatable Ease of Construction Structural Fire & Impact Resistant Durable / Low Maintenance Economical Sustainable Energy Efficient High Performance Acoustic Qualified Local Labor
  6. 6. BENEFITS OF MASONRY: DESIGN VERSATILITY BEAUTY
  7. 7. DESIGN VERSATILITY: ARCHITECTURAL STYLES
  8. 8. DESIGN VERSATILITY: ARCHITECTURAL STYLES
  9. 9. DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNSRUNNING BOND STACKED BOND COMMON BOND (AMERICAN BOND)ENGLISH BOND FLEMISH BOND ENGLISH CROSS BOND1/3 BOND (UTILITY BRICK) GARDEN WALL
  10. 10. DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNSSOLDIERS STACKED BOND
  11. 11. DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS
  12. 12. DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS HERRINGBONE BASKETWEAVE
  13. 13. DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS
  14. 14. DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS
  15. 15. DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS
  16. 16. DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS
  17. 17. DESIGN VERSATILITY: RECESSED / PROJECTED COURSES
  18. 18. DESIGN VERSATILITY: RECESSED / PROJECTED COURSES
  19. 19. DESIGN VERSATILITY: CORBELING
  20. 20. DESIGN VERSATILITY: CORBELING
  21. 21. DESIGN VERSATILITY: RACKING
  22. 22. DESIGN VERSATILITY: QUOIN CORNERS
  23. 23. DESIGN VERSATILITY: ARCHES CORBELED ARCH
  24. 24. AND IF YOU THINK OF BRICK, FOR INSTANCE AND YOU SAY TO BRICK, “WHAT DO YOU WANT, BRICK?” AND BRICK SAYS TO YOU “I LIKE AN ARCH” AND IF YOU SAY TO BRICK,“LOOK, ARCHES ARE EXPENSIVE. CAN I USE A CONCRETE LINTEL OVER YOU?WHAT DO YOU THINK OF THAT? BRICK? BRICK SAYS: I LIKE AN ARCH - LOUIS I. KHAN
  25. 25. ARCH TYPESROMAN (SEMICIRCULAR) SEGMENTAL JACK (FLAT) GOTHIC (POINTED) ELLIPTICAL
  26. 26. DESIGN VERSATILITY: RADIAL BRICKWORK
  27. 27. DESIGN VERSATILITY: RADIAL BRICKWORK
  28. 28. DESIGN VERSATILITY: RADIAL BRICKWORK
  29. 29. DESIGN VERSATILITY: DENTILS
  30. 30. DESIGN VERSATILITY: DENTILS
  31. 31. DESIGN VERSATILITY: DENTILS
  32. 32. DESIGN VERSATILITY: MORTAR JOINTS 18% 18.00% MORTAR 12% 12.21% MORTAR ONE SQUARE FOOT ONE SQUARE FOOT MODULAR BRICK, RUNNING BOND UTILITY BRICK, RUNNING BOND BED JOINTS 4 @ 12” x 3/8” = 18.000 SQ. IN. HEAD JOINTS 8 @ 2.3125” x 3/8” = 6.938 SQ. IN. 3 @ 12” x 3/8” = 13.500 SQ. IN. 2 @ 1.3125” x 3/8” = 0.984 SQ. IN. 3 @ 3.625” x 3/8” = 4.078 SQ. IN. 25.922 SQ. IN. MORTAR 17.578 SQ. IN. MORTARELEVATIONS MORTAR JOINT MATERIAL TAKEOFFDIAGRAM 01.410.0311 REV. 08/10/09
  33. 33. DESIGN VERSATILITY: MORTAR JOINTS
  34. 34. DESIGN VERSATILITY: MORTAR JOINTSconcave vee raked beaded flush grapevine weathered struck weeping
  35. 35. DESIGN VERSATILITY: MORTAR JOINTSconcave vee
  36. 36. DESIGN VERSATILITY: MORTAR JOINTS
  37. 37. DESIGN VERSATILITY: MATERIAL COMBINATIONS & JUXTAPOSITIONS
  38. 38. DESIGN VERSATILITY: MATERIAL COMBINATIONS & JUXTAPOSITIONS
  39. 39. DESIGN VERSATILITY: MATERIAL COMBINATIONS & JUXTAPOSITIONS
  40. 40. DESIGN VERSATILITY: MATERIAL COMBINATIONS & JUXTAPOSITIONS
  41. 41. DESIGN VERSATILITY: MATERIAL COMBINATIONS & JUXTAPOSITIONS
  42. 42. BENEFITS OF MASONRY: HUMAN SCALE CONTEXTUAL ENHANCES COMMUNITY
  43. 43. BENEFITS OF MASONRY: EASE OF CONSTRUCTION
  44. 44. MODULARITY
  45. 45. MODULARITY
  46. 46. MODULARITY 8” 8” 8”
  47. 47. MODULARITY
  48. 48. MODULARITY 8” 8” 8”
  49. 49. MODULARITY
  50. 50. MODULARITY 8” 8” 8”
  51. 51. EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: ADAPTABILITY OF UNITS Masonry is adaptable to inconsistencies and field changes
  52. 52. EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: HEIGHT LIMITATIONS“It is generally better to have all the panels near-ly the same height, and less than 30 feet high.”-Tilt-Up Concrete Association With proper support, masonry walls can reach great heights
  53. 53. EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: HEIGHT LIMITATIONSMasonry can easily accommodate varying wall heights and configurations. © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  54. 54. EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: WINDOW AND DOOR LIMITATIONS“Openings must be located a minimum Place openings virtually anywhere indistance from the panel edge of 1/8 the a masonry wall.eave height or 2 feet, whichever is less.”-Tilt-Up Concrete Association
  55. 55. EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: SITE CONSTRAINTSTilt-Up concrete requires relatively flatterrain, away from power lines, ditches,other buildings, railroad tracks, and otherobstructions that could limit crane access. Masonry is right at home on sites-Tilt-Up Concrete Association that are tight and difficult to access
  56. 56. EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: SEQUENCINGCrane access and braces can impede tilt-up construction until roofdiaphragm is attached
  57. 57. EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: SEQUENCINGMasonry work can begin as soon as footings are installed
  58. 58. EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: SEQUENCINGBricklayers work from scaffold outside the building, rarely interferingwith other trades
  59. 59. EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: COLD WEATHER CONSIDERATIONSSince tilt-up walls are cast outdoors, Masonry can easily be constructedpouring and curing becomes difficult when temperatures are below freezingand expensive when temperatures if cold-weather procedures aredrop below freezing. followed.
  60. 60. EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: SCHEDULE-FRIENDLY
  61. 61. BENEFITS OF MASONRY: STRUCTURAL
  62. 62. STRUCTURAL
  63. 63. STRUCTURAL: GROUTED & REINFORCED LOADBEARING BLOCK
  64. 64. HYBRID MASONRY & STEEL
  65. 65. HYBRID MASONRY & STEEL
  66. 66. HYBRID MASONRY & STEEL
  67. 67. HYBRID MASONRY & STEELGarden Hills Elementary School, Champaign, IL BLDD Architects
  68. 68. BRICK & BLOCK CAVITY WALLDETAIL FEATURES• PLATE WELDED TO I-BEAM• CUT BLOCK AROUND BEAM International Masonry Institute MASONRY DETAILINGHEAD DETAIL PLATE WELDED TO I-BEAM SERIESDETAIL 01.304 REV. 09/27/07 800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org © 2007 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  69. 69. BRICK & BLOCK CAVITY WALL INTERIOR VIEW International Masonry Institute EXTERIOR VIEW MASONRY DETAILINGHEAD DETAIL STEEL LINTEL & BOND BEAM SERIESDETAIL 01.301 REV. 09/04/07 800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org © 2007 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  70. 70. SPANNING OPENINGS Poly-wrapped steel angles used for temporary supportCAST-IN-PLACE MASONRY LINTEL
  71. 71. SPANNING OPENINGS Precast masonry lintel fabricated on the groundPRECAST LINTELS
  72. 72. SPANNING OPENINGS Lintel is hoisted by liftPRECAST LINTELS
  73. 73. SPANNING OPENINGS Precast lintel set into placePRECAST LINTELS
  74. 74. SPANNING OPENINGS 10-foot spanPRECAST LINTELS
  75. 75. FIRE RESISTANCE
  76. 76. FIRE RESISTANCE
  77. 77. FIRE RESISTANCE
  78. 78. IMPACT RESISTANCE.38 cal from 15 feet
  79. 79. DURABLE / LOW MAINTENANCE
  80. 80. DURABLE / LOW MAINTENANCE BUILDING REUSE
  81. 81. DURABLE / LOW MAINTENANCEInterior masonry partition walls never need painting.
  82. 82. DURABLE / LOW MAINTENANCE
  83. 83. DURABLE / LOW MAINTENANCE
  84. 84. BENEFITS OF MASONRY: COMPETITIVE COSTS
  85. 85. BENEFITS OF MASONRY: SUSTAINABLE
  86. 86. MASONRY FOR SUSTAINABILITY SUSTAINABILITY: “Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”ASTM E 2114-06a, “Standard Terminology for Sustainability Relative tothe Performance of Buildings,” Vol. 4.12, ASTM International, WestConshohocken, PA, 2006
  87. 87. FACILITY LIFE CYCLE Facility evaluation may identify needs that lead to expansion, remodel- ing, renovation, or restoration of an existing facility to accommodate growth or changes in function; or may result in abandonment, deconstruction, sale, or adaptive reuse of an existing facility.Project Resource Manual – CSI Manual of Practice
  88. 88. SUSTAINABLE DESIGN TOPICS www.aia.org FAQs Q: What topics are considered as Sustainable Design topics? A:Active Solar Thermal Systems Energy-Saving Appliances and Safety and Security SystemsAlternative Energy Equipment (defensive planting, innovativeAlternative Transportation Environmental Education design, defensive space)Appropriate Size and Growth Geoexchange Smart ControlsBiomimicry Green Roofs Space ZoningBuilding Form High-Efficiency Equipment Staff Training (tech. training, only)Building Monitoring Indoor Environmental Quality Sun ShadingBuilding Orientation Integrated Project Delivery Systems CommissioningCarbon Offsets Life Cycle Assessment Systems Tune-UpCavity Walls for Insulating Airspace Mass Absorption Thermal BridgingCo-Generation Material Selection and Embodied Total Building CommissioningConserving Systems and Equipment Energy Vegetation for Sun ControlContract Documents Natural Ventilation Walkable Communities(related to sustainable design) Open, Active, Daylit Space Waste-Heat RecoveryConstruction Waste Management Passive Solar Collection Opportunities Water ConservationCool Roofs Photovoltaics Windows and OpeningsDeconstruction and Salvage Prefabrication Green Specifications Materials Preservation/Reuse of Existing Zoning, regulatory, codesDaylighting FacilitiesEarth Sheltering Radiant Heating and CoolingEfficient Artificial Lighting Renewable Energy ResourcesEfficient Site Lighting Systems Rightsizing EquipmentEnergy ModelingEnergy Source Ramifications
  89. 89. SUSTAINABLE DESIGN TOPICS www.aia.org FAQs Q: What topics are considered as Sustainable Design topics? A:Active Solar Thermal Systems Energy-Saving Appliances and Safety and Security SystemsAlternative Energy Equipment (defensive planting, innovativeAlternative Transportation Environmental Education design, defensive space)Appropriate Size and Growth Geoexchange Smart ControlsBiomimicry Green Roofs Space ZoningBuilding Form High-Efficiency Equipment Staff Training (tech. training, only)Building Monitoring Indoor Environmental Quality Sun ShadingBuilding Orientation Integrated Project Delivery Systems CommissioningCarbon Offsets Life Cycle Assessment Systems Tune-UpCavity Walls for Insulating Airspace Mass Absorption Thermal BridgingCo-Generation Material Selection and Embodied Total Building CommissioningConserving Systems and Equipment Energy Vegetation for Sun ControlContract Documents Natural Ventilation Walkable Communities (related to sustainable design) Open, Active, Daylit Space Waste-Heat RecoveryConstruction Waste Management Passive Solar Collection Opportunities Water ConservationCool Roofs Photovoltaics Windows and OpeningsDeconstruction and Salvage Prefabrication Green Specifications Materials Preservation/Reuse of Existing Zoning, regulatory, codesDaylighting FacilitiesEarth Sheltering Radiant Heating and CoolingEfficient Artificial Lighting Renewable Energy ResourcesEfficient Site Lighting Systems Rightsizing EquipmentEnergy ModelingEnergy Source Ramifications
  90. 90. SUSTAINABLE SITES LEED v. 3 Potential contribution of masonry 5 points 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point 26 24 28 10 points
  91. 91. ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE LEED v. 3 Potential contribution of masonry 19 points 35 points 33 points 37 points 19 points
  92. 92. MATERIALS & RESOURCES LEED v. 3 Potential contribution of masonry 3 points 5 points 1 point 2 points 2 points 2 points 2 points 12 points, NC 14 13 13 11 points, SCH 13 points, CS
  93. 93. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY LEED v. 3 Potential contribution of masonry 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point 5 points, NC 1 point 6 points, SCHOOLS 4 points, CS 15 23 12
  94. 94. INNOVATION & DESIGN LEED v. 3 Potential contribution of masonry 5 points 6 points 5 points 6 points 5 points NC 4 points SCH 5 points CS
  95. 95. ABUNDANT MATERIALSExample: Project uses clay brick; clay is abundant
  96. 96. MR CREDIT 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 BUILDING REUSE MATERIALS & RESOURCESCase Study: Walsh Construction Headquarters,Chicago, IL
  97. 97. MR CREDIT 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 BUILDING REUSEWalsh Construction Headquarters, Chicago, IL Common brick facade removed. New face brick installed on existing concrete structure.
  98. 98. MR CREDIT 3.1 & 3.2 MATERIAL REUSE MATERIALS & RESOURCESWalsh Construction Headquarters, Chicago, ILCommon brick from facade is preserved and cleaned.
  99. 99. MR CREDIT 3.1 & 3.2 MATERIAL REUSE MATERIALS & RESOURCESWalsh Construction Headquarters, Chicago, ILCommon brick used as interior finish at corridor wallsand elevator lobbies.
  100. 100. after after before
  101. 101. MR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2 MATERIALS & RESOURCES RECYCLED CONTENT
  102. 102. MR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2 MATERIALS & RESOURCES RECYCLED CONTENT Example: Project uses brick made with fly ash aggregate “Recycled Material: 40% fly ash by weight… pre- consumer”
  103. 103. ©
  104. 104. ENERGY EFFICIENCY R-Value Thermal Mass
  105. 105. ENERGY EFFICIENCY R-Value is the resistance to heat flow. HEAT heat Thermal mass, or the heat storage ability of the wall, is not considered in the R-Value. heat HEAT
  106. 106. MASS WALLS Exterior insul., Exterior mass, interior mass interior insulation Exterior mass, Exterior insul., core insulation, core mass, interior mass interior insulation“Masonry or concrete walls having a mass greater than or equal to30 lb/ft2 are defined by IECC and ASHRAE 90.1 as massive walls.”
  107. 107. Interior Insulation Cavity Insulation Inserts at CMU Foamed-in-Place Granular Fill Exterior Insulation Insulation at MultipleINSULATING MASONRY WALLS Locations Within WallDETAIL 08.300 REV. 02/14/09 © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  108. 108. THERMAL MASS BENEFITS ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE 6-HR LAG 2-HR LAG DAMPING HEAT GAINS HEAT LOSSES 3AM 6AM 9AM 12PM 3PM 6PM 9PM 12AMSource: National Concrete Masonry Association
  109. 109. BENEFIT OF MASONRY:HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  110. 110. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  111. 111. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  112. 112. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  113. 113. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  114. 114. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  115. 115. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  116. 116. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  117. 117. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  118. 118. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  119. 119. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  120. 120. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  121. 121. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  122. 122. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  123. 123. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  124. 124. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  125. 125. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  126. 126. HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE
  127. 127. BENEFITS OF MASONRY: ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE
  128. 128. ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCEAcoustic CMUs can provide sound control for a better indoor learning andworking environmentMuch like a car muffler, the closed-end cavities resonate sound waves andconvert them harmlessly to heat
  129. 129. ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCEHomewood – Flossmoor High School, Flossmoor, Illinois
  130. 130. ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE
  131. 131. MASONRY KEEPS JOBS LOCAL
  132. 132. SKILLED BRICKLAYERS AND CONTRACTORS
  133. 133. WE WOULD TAKE THATDESPISED OUTCAST OF THE BUILDING INDUSTRY THE CONCRETE BLOCK OUT FROM UNDERFOOT, FROM THE GUTTER FIND HITHERTO UNSUSPECTED SOUL IN IT MAKE IT LIVE AS A THING OF BEAUTY TEXTURED LIKE THE TREES.YES, THE BUILDING WOULD BE MADE OF THE BLOCKS AS A KIND OF TREE ITSELF STANDING AT HOMEAMONG THE OTHER TREESIN ITS OWN NATIVE LAND. - FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT
  134. 134. SINGLE WYTHE BLOCK WALL
  135. 135. INSULATED BLOCK
  136. 136. SINGLE WYTHE STRUCTURAL INSULATED CMU
  137. 137. SINGLE WYTHE STRUCTURAL INSULATED CMU
  138. 138. SINGLE WYTHE STRUCTURAL INSULATED CMU
  139. 139. SINGLE WYTHE STRUCTURAL INSULATED CMU
  140. 140. STRUCTURAL BRICK
  141. 141. STRUCTURAL BRICK
  142. 142. AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC)38 lbs 28 lbs 18 lbs8x8x16 normal 8x8x16 light 8x8x16 AACweight block weight block AC-4 block(140 pcf) (105 pcf) (31 pcf)
  143. 143. AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC) • Firewalls • Loadbearing walls • Back-up walls • Interior partitions • Stair enclosures • Elevator shafts • Column wraps • Shafts & chutes • Floors & roofs
  144. 144. AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC)Bricklayers route electrical chase in AAC
  145. 145. RAINSCREEN CLADDING
  146. 146. RAINSCREEN CLADDINGCONCRETE BLOCK BACKUP
  147. 147. RAINSCREEN CLADDINGAIR BARRIER
  148. 148. RAINSCREEN CLADDINGALUMINUM CLIP ANGLES
  149. 149. RAINSCREEN CLADDINGRIGID INSULATION
  150. 150. RAINSCREEN CLADDINGTRACK W/ TULIP GASKET & CLIPS
  151. 151. RAINSCREEN CLADDINGTERRA COTTA PANELS
  152. 152. RAINSCREEN CLADDING
  153. 153. RAINSCREEN CLADDING
  154. 154. RAINSCREEN CLADDING
  155. 155. RAINSCREEN CLADDING
  156. 156. RAINSCREEN CLADDING
  157. 157. RAINSCREEN CLADDING
  158. 158. ADHERED VENEER
  159. 159. LIGHTWEIGHT REINFORCED STONE PANELS
  160. 160. LIGHTWEIGHT REINFORCED STONE PANELS
  161. 161. LIGHTWEIGHT REINFORCED STONE PANELS
  162. 162. BENEFITS OF BUILDING WITH MASONRY Beauty Versatility of Design Contextual / Relatable Ease of Construction Structural Fire & Impact Resistant Durable / Low Maintenance Economical Sustainable Energy Efficient High Performance Acoustic Qualified Local Labor
  163. 163. THEREFORE WHEN WE BUILD,LET US THINK THAT WE BUILD FOR EVER.LET IT NOT BE FOR PRESENT DELIGHT,NOR FOR PRESENT USE ALONE;LET IT BE SUCH WORK ASOUR DESCENDANTS WILL THANK US FOR.AND LET US THINKAS WE LAY STONE UPON STONE,THAT A TIME IS TO COMEWHEN THOSE STONES WILL BE HELD SACREDBECAUSE OUR HANDS HAVE TOUCHED THEM,AND THAT MEN WILL SAYAS THEY LOOK UPON THE LABOURAND WROUGHT SUBSTANCE OF THEM,“SEE! THIS OUR FATHERS DID FOR US.” John Ruskin, 1849 The Seven Lamps of Architecture
  164. 164. International Union Internationalof Bricklayers and MasonryAllied Craftworkers Institute BAC CONTRACTORSIMI-TRAINED CRAFTWORKERS

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