The representation of men in the media


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The representation of men in the media

  1. 1. The Representation of Men in the Media Gender: MS1 Representations and Responses
  2. 2. This Weeks Objectives <ul><li>To define gender </li></ul><ul><li>To explore masculinity and how it is represented in the media </li></ul><ul><li>To know the stereotypical representation of men in the media </li></ul><ul><li>To explore the representation of men in film, computer games and advertising </li></ul><ul><li>To comment on the way these representations have changed over time </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Sex is a biological grouping - what makes us male and female. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender = masculinity and femininity - this is effected and created by social and cultural influences (what it means to be a man and a woman.) </li></ul><ul><li>This changes over time. </li></ul>Sex and Gender: Definitions
  4. 4. What does it mean to be masculine? <ul><li>Task: What is your interpretation of the term masculinity? (Maleness) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Traditional Representations of Masculinity <ul><li>Traditionally representations of men in the media were manly, macho characters - common in the 1970’s and 1980’s. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. characters like James Bond, TV programmes like Magnum and Starsky and Hutch </li></ul>
  6. 7. Contemporary Representations of Masculinity <ul><li>Modern characters are seen as in touch with their feminine side… </li></ul><ul><li>showing their emotions and taking pride in their appearance </li></ul>
  7. 9. The Metrosexual <ul><li>One recent development in the representations of masculinity is the Metrosexual ( mid 1990’s) </li></ul><ul><li>The young single man with a high disposable income, living in the city - as it is near to the best shops. </li></ul><ul><li>The Metrosexual man is not gay but is often confused with being homosexual. </li></ul><ul><li>He is objectified and sexualised (turned into a sex object) which goes against traditional representations of masculinity. </li></ul>
  8. 10. The Metrosexual Stereotype
  9. 11. The Media is a Powerful Medium <ul><li>In how messages (ideologies) are transmitted to the public. </li></ul><ul><li>So how masculinity or ‘maleness’ is shown in media texts can have the power to define what masculinity actually is. </li></ul>
  10. 12. The Traditional Representation of Masculinity/ Stereotype of Maleness <ul><li>Task: In groups define the traditional traits/characteristics of masculinity shown in early representations of men. </li></ul>
  11. 13. 1970s <ul><li>Dirty Harry 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>The French Connection 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>1970s saw Action meet Spy genre following the success of Bond in the 1960s </li></ul>
  12. 14. 1980s <ul><li>Die Hard </li></ul><ul><li>Rambo 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>Terminator 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>When Action movies became big business in Hollywood </li></ul><ul><li>Summer blockbusters </li></ul>
  13. 15. The Traditional Representation of Masculinity/ Stereotype of ‘Maleness’ <ul><li>Rugged features </li></ul><ul><li>Moustache and stubble </li></ul><ul><li>Long hair </li></ul><ul><li>Denim </li></ul><ul><li>Open shirts and medallions </li></ul><ul><li>Rough and ready </li></ul><ul><li>Violent </li></ul><ul><li>Action - active not passive </li></ul><ul><li>General toughness </li></ul>
  14. 16. Masculinity and Violence <ul><li>One area that has been the focus of much study is the relationship between males and violence in the media. </li></ul><ul><li>Earp and Katz (1999) studies male representations in the media and found “a widespread and disturbing equation of masculinity and pathological control and violence.” </li></ul><ul><li>They claim that the media is responsible for a steady stream of images that define ‘manhood’ as connected with violence, dominance and control - and create it as a normal and accepted part of masculinity. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Masculinity and Violence <ul><li>“ The media help construct violent masculinity as the cultural norm.” </li></ul><ul><li>Task: What effect do you think these representations of males will have on the watching audience? </li></ul>
  16. 18. Traditional Vs Modern Masculinity <ul><li>These images are dated in relation to modern images of masculinity but are still used so the masculinity transmitted to the audience today has a mixed bag of messages in it (ideologies.) </li></ul>
  17. 19. The Modern Concept/Representation of Masculinity <ul><li>Task: In groups - define the modern traits/characteristics of masculinity/’maleness’. </li></ul>
  18. 20. The Modern Concept/Representation of Masculinity <ul><li>Captain America: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Juno: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Old Spice Advert: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Maltesers Advert: </li></ul>
  19. 21. The Modern Concept/Representation of Masculinity <ul><li>Smooth features </li></ul><ul><li>Short hair </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughtfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Use of cosmetics and hair care products </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Designer fashion wear </li></ul><ul><li>A caring and gentle approach </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes turned into a sex object (sexualised and objectified) </li></ul>
  20. 22. Women and Masculinity <ul><li>Women can also be capable of demonstrating masculinity (masculine traits)… </li></ul><ul><li>in how they are represented in the media - an idea that we will look at later! </li></ul>
  21. 23. Changes in Male Representations <ul><li>Since the 1980’s there have been significant changes in the representations of men </li></ul><ul><li>New stereotypes have emerged that deviate from traditional masculine traits </li></ul><ul><li>Many argue this is mainly due to the ‘rise’ of Feminism and the equality of women in society </li></ul>
  22. 24. The Main Stereotypes of Men <ul><li>From the ‘ Boys to Men: Media Messages About Masculinity’ Report (1999) from pressure group Children Now </li></ul><ul><li>They found there were now seven common stereotypical representations of men: </li></ul>
  23. 25. The Main Stereotypes of Men <ul><li>The Action Hero: is strong but not always silent. He is often angry and above all he is aggressive in the extreme and engages in violent behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Shot: He is defined by his professional status. He is the epitome of success embodying the characteristics and acquiring the possessions that society deems valuable. </li></ul><ul><li>This stereotype suggests that a real man must be economically powerful and socially successful. </li></ul>
  24. 26. The Main Stereotypes of Men <ul><li>The Strong Silent Type: focuses on being in charge, containing emotion and succeeding with women. This stereotype reinforces the assumption that men and boys should always be in control and talking about ones feelings is a sign of weakness. </li></ul><ul><li>The Metrosexual </li></ul><ul><li>The Jock : is always willing to compromise his own long-term health, he must fight other men when necessary and must avoid being soft and must be aggressive. By demonstrating his power and strength the jock wins approval of other men and the adoration of women. </li></ul>
  25. 27. The Main Stereotypes of Men <ul><li>The Joker: A very popular character with boys/men - a potential negative consequence of this stereotype is the assumption that boys and men should not be serious or emotional. </li></ul><ul><li>However researchers have also found that humorous roles can expand definitions of masculinity. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Patriarchy - A Dominant Ideology in Our Society <ul><li>The reason for the overly positive and dominant representations of men in the media is down to power </li></ul><ul><li>Many critics and theorists suggest that we have ( and still are) living within a Patriarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchy is a male run/ dominated society </li></ul><ul><li>Men have been in control of the media so have created positive representations that support their dominance ( hegemony.) </li></ul>
  27. 29. The Crisis of Masculinity- Social Contexts <ul><li>Since the late 1970-80’s men have been seen to be in a crisis - a crisis / confusion of identity </li></ul><ul><li>As women were occupying roles and jobs in society that were traditionally the domain of men - men did not know how or what they were supposed to be - what it means to be a man now </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional ideas of masculinity were/are changing </li></ul><ul><li>This led to a variety in their representations and roles in society </li></ul>
  28. 30. The Fool/ Buffoon <ul><li>The fool stereotype is a tried and tested formula (1970’s onwards.) E.g. the bungling father in TV ads and Sitcoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually well intentioned and light hearted, these characters range from slightly inept to completely hopeless in work or parenting and domestic situations. </li></ul><ul><li>On the surface it may seem a very pejorative representation of men </li></ul><ul><li>However they still always come out on top! </li></ul>
  29. 31. Analysis Task- Film Extract <ul><li>Scott Pilgrim VS The World (2010) </li></ul>