Ideology – Aims and Objectives• 1. Identify what is meant by ideology.• 2. Recognize how media texts incorporate ideological messages.
What is Ideology• Ideologies are messages and values that are embedded ( or encoded) into media texts.• Dominant Ideologies are the ideologies that are the norm in society - the ideas that the majority of society believe e.g. Christianity, drugs are bad, family values, love conquers all.
• All media texts, Ideology (Films, posters, adverts etc) include ideological messages.• All representations contain messages about the group!• When we consume media text we are influenced by the creators’ ideological views.
Stuart Hall’s Encoding – Decoding Model (theory)• This is the idea that consciously or sub-consciously media producers encode ideas/values/beliefs into the media texts (into their representations created – through mediation – codes and signs.)Media Producers AudiencesENCODE ideologies DECODEinto media texts the ideologies In the media text.
Ideology• Ideological messages are often found in TV shows aimed at children.• The messages are intended to teach children about what is “normal” and acceptable behaviour in our society.
Ideology• Watch this clip from Chuggington.• What beliefs or values are being expressed?• What lessons are the children learning?
Ideology•But ideological messages are not just shown on childrens TV.•They are present in all media texts!•What social “norms” are being shown here?
Alternative Ideologies• These are ones that challenge the dominant (accepted) ideologies in society• E.g.- Drugs are good!- Women are in power.- Families are rubbish!- Love stinks!
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Ideology and Power• There is an argument that the people in power use the media to ‘push’ certain messages and values.• This idea is called HEGEMONY• They do this through how they build representations and present people, places and ideas in the media.
Hegemony• Traditionally the media has been controlled by white middle-class men.• It has been seen that how they construct media texts has kept them in power and other groups subordinate to them. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.• They also do this to serve their interests and money/power.
Ideology & Hegemony• Football currently has hegemonic status in the UK.• Everyone is expected to understand and accept its national importance.• How would someone feel if they didn’t like football?
Ideology & Hegemony• Hegemony is subtle.• Hegemonies take hold when a majority decide to fit in with the cultural values and ideas and the minority keep their objections quiet.
Ideology and Representation• Ideology and representation are closely linked• The more power a group has in society the better they are represented in media texts. (and visa-versa)• Look at these old advertisements. What beliefs or values are being expressed?• How might they change how people view women?
Ideology and Representation• Thankfully, women are now represented very differently. They now have more “power” in society.• What has changed in the following adverts?• How has the ideological message changed?• Why?
The other side of the argument• Many other media theorists and critics believe that the media just mirrors society .• Reflecting the accepted dominant ideologies about this group/ place/idea• That if media producers didn’t do this we would reject the media text.• This idea is called PLURALISM (that the ideologies come from the plurality/many ideas in society.)
Ideology - Recap• What is meant by the term ideology?• What are dominant and what are alternative ideologies?• Where do we find ideological messages?• What happens if messages or values are repeated and reinforced?• What does hegemony mean? What about pluralism?
Ideology - Recap• How are the “ruling elites” represented in the media?• How can the media change peoples beliefs and oppose the dominant ideologies?