After the induction you will be able to:1. Understand the relationshipsbetween sound and picture inmoving image productions2. Be able to record audio formoving image3. Be able to devise and producea soundtrack for a moving imageproject
Different Categories of Sound There are only three types of sound in film and television production Dialogue Sound Effects Music However, within these three areas there are many different techniques and roles to explore
Careers in SoundThose working in an area of the mediawhich involves recording audio will needto know how to:• Use appropriate equipment (including microphones)• Understand the issues around recording environments• Be able to follow existing professional practices for recording music, the spoken word and effects.• Deal with the issue of copyright law relating to published music, library music and audio effects.
Boom Operator• Boom Operators are responsible for placing the microphone in the best position, without impeding camera operation, or hampering actors’ freedom to perform.• Clear dialogue is expected by cinema audiences, and this is usually achieved by placing microphones suitably close to the actors saying their lines.• This is part of the Boom Operators’ responsibility, and is a physically difficult enterprise, requiring a great deal of skill and experience.
Foley Artist Foley is the reproduction of everyday sound effects which are added in post production to enhance the quality of audio for films, television, video, video games and radio. The best foley art is so well integrated into a film that it goes unnoticed by the audience. It helps to create a sense of reality within a scene. Without these crucial background noises, movies feel unnaturally quiet and uncomfortable. http://vimeo.com/11436985
Sound Design• Sound design is the process of specifying, acquiring, manipulating or generating audio elements.• Sound design most commonly involves the manipulation of previously composed or recorded audio, such as music and sound effects to create a desired effect or mood.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hrNte_CT U4Q
Sound• Sound plays a central role in any moving image production.• Whether they are multi-million pound projects such as action movies and glossy heritage dramas for television, or small- scale, low-budget creations such as animations produced for the art-house circuit or websites.
TASK• Watch the following extract with no sound.• What information do you gain?• What emotions do you experience• You will then be shown the same sequence with the sound playing.• What have you gained?
How many differentemotional responses are there?
Negative and forceful• Anger• Annoyance• Contempt• Disgust• Irritation
Negative and not in control• Anxiety• Embarrassment• Fear• Helplessness• Powerlessness• Worry
Negative and passive• Boredom• Despair• Hurt• Sadness
How is sound important to the audience experience?• Think about:• Mood• Emotion• Atmosphere• Realism/Fantasy• Characters• Effect on the audience• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hIR8Ar-Z4hw• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pI5U5bapHc w&feature=related
Diegesis• A diegesis is the “world of the story”.• When constructing a film or TV drama you can place sounds inside or outside this world.
Diegetic SoundThe sounds within “the world” of the film• Footsteps• Traffic• Ticking clock• Talking• GunshotsIn other words the sounds that characters can hear
Non-Diegetic Sound• Sounds outside the world of the film• Film Score• Voice Over• SFX for titles or transitions• Any sound the characters cannot hear
Internal Diegetic• Any sounds that happen inside the mind of characters.• Thoughts• MemoriesAlthough not all characters can hear them they are stillinside the world of the film and can be heard by somecharacters.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aulRoQTK5HY
Parallel Sound• When sounds and music compliment the visuals they are referred to as parallel sounds• Most sound is parallel and reinforces the visual information• E.g. Fast paced music in action films or slow tense music in horror
Contrapuntal Sound• When the image and sound do not match• This is less common but is still used a lot to create strong reactions from audiences• Used to create tension/unease or comedy
Silence• One of the most powerful uses of sound is no sound!• Stripping away sounds or muting sounds has a big impact on a sequenceSilence can create:• Awkwardness and Discomfort• Unreality or Dreams• Place us in the characters head/experience• Tension and expectations(Remember the slow pan in Evil Dead 2?)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNAU R7NQCLA&feature=player_embedded #
Sting• A short blast of sound to create emphasis or shock• Think of a sting as an exclamation mark which punctuates a scene or moment• Very common in horror to create false scares and shocks (Hand on the shoulder, cat jumps out of cupboard etc)• Also commonly used in T.V. drama to help emphasise the seriousness of a moment or statement (Eastenders drums)• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =6UKWEZ1LnhM
TASK• Watch the following two extracts and try to identify as many different types of sound.• How are sounds being used creatively?• What emotions are they creating?• How do they help to tell the story?
Mics for Film and TV production• When choosing a microphone, your best bet is to go with a unidirectional mic.• Because they record sounds from one direction they help to filter out unwanted background noise.• Therefore they are perfect for dialogue, voice overs, interviews, Foley sounds, room tone, and ambience.
On board microphone• Never use the onboard camcorder mic as they are Omni-directional and will record sounds from all around the room or location you are filming in.• You will have no control of what you are capturing and your recording will contain lots of unwanted and distracting sounds.
Dialogue Scenes• When recording dialogue scenes you must have the room as silent as possible.• When shooting dialogue you need to record as “clean” a sound as possible.• Make sure any machines, phones or other devices that could potentially “dirty” the dialogue track are switched off.• Ensure quiet on set before any recording takes place.
Room tone• A continuous recording of a room or location to get a background recording• This is placed at the bottom of a sound mix and used to hide and blend the gaps between dialogue and sound effects.• Before or after filming always take a 1- 2 minute recording of the room’s tone
Ambience/Wild Track “The character and atmosphere of a place.”• When creating drama always record a “Wild Track”• This is a long take of the sounds from the environment.• E.g busy restaurant, bustling train station, children’s playground.• This is then added to your soundtrack to add realism and authenticity to your scene.
Ambience• Most dialogue scenes are recorded in silent conditions in order to get as “clean” dialogue as possible.• Background actors do not actually speak and mime their words to each other. (Watch the extras in Coronation Street)• Night Club scenes are filmed with no music playing and extras dancing to silence.• Wild tracks, foley sounds and room tone are then added to build up the realism of the scene.
A.D.R.• Automated Dialogue Replacement or• Additional Dialogue Recording.• Sometimes it is impossible to get silence on set. (Wind machines, traffic, gunfire etc)• When this happens actors re-record lines spoken during filming in order to improve audio quality.• They watch themselves on screen and try to match their words exactly• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eXAi fCfyLaw
Sound Bridging Sound bridges help to add continuity to your production by bridging sound from one shot to another. There are two ways to sound bridge1. The sound from the next shot starts before we see the next shot2. The sound from a shot carries over into the next shot and fades away
The Wilhelm Scream The Wilhelm scream is a film and television stock sound effect that has been used in more than 200 movies, beginning in 1951 for the film Distant Drums. The scream is often used when someone is shot, falls from a great height, or is thrown from an explosion. Apparently voiced by actor and singer Sheb Wooley, the sound is named after Private Wilhelm, a character in The Charge at Feather River, a 1953 western in which the character is shot with an arrow. The effect gained new popularity (its use often becoming an in Joke) after it was used in Star Wars, the Indiana Jones series, Disney cartoons and many other blockbuster films as well as television programs and video games.
Examples• http://www.wilhelmscream.net/• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zf8aBFTV NEU