Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

TCP/IP Basics

Explains the TCP/IP protocol stack and relevant tools.

  • Be the first to comment

TCP/IP Basics

  1. 1. TCP/IP Basics
  2. 2. The Internet and TCP/IP History
  3. 3. TCP/IP Protocol Suite Reference Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical IP OSI Reference Model Network Protocols Layer Internet Layer Host-to-Host Layer Applications Layer Ethernet Token Ring FDDI PPP ATM ARP RARP ICMP TCP UDP FTP SMTP Telnet TIME RPC NFS IP Networking Model HTTP Ping Hardware RIP
  4. 4. <ul><li>IP datagrams are sent from one host to another, possibly through interconnecting routers </li></ul><ul><li>IP service is unreliable, connectionless, best-effort packet delivery system </li></ul><ul><li>Provides network level services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Host addressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet fragmentation and reassembly (if necessary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All other protocols use IP services </li></ul></ul>TCP/IP Protocol Suite IP (Internetworking Protocol) Characteristics
  5. 5. TCP/IP Protocol Suite IP Datagrams Vers. (4) IH Length (4) Type of Service Total Length of Datagram Identification Flags (3) Fragment Offset (13) Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum IP Source Address IP Source Address IP Destination Address IP Destination Address IP Options Data
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Transport Layer provides the delivery of data between two communication processes or programs running on remote hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Provides connection-oriented or connection-less services to upper layer protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Uses port addresses to identify processes on hosts </li></ul><ul><li>TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a connection-oriented protocol for reliable guaranteed delivery of data </li></ul><ul><li>UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a less reliable connection-less protocol with less overhead </li></ul>TCP/IP Protocol Suite Transport Layer - TCP and UDP - Characteristics
  7. 7. Addressing in IP Binary-to-Decimal Conversion <ul><li>The Binary Number System uses only two values to represent numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>The two values are 0 and 1 </li></ul><ul><li>8 Bits = 1 Byte = 1 Octet </li></ul>Example: 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 2 7 2 6 2 5 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 0 (128) (64) (32) (16) (8) (4) (2) (1) 128 + 0 + 32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 173 x x x x x x x x
  8. 8. Addressing in IP Internet Addresses Network Host Network Network Host Host 8 bit 24 bits 16 bit 16 bit 24 bit 8 bit Class A Address Class B Address Class C Address 110 10 0
  9. 9. Addressing in IP Internet Addresses 100000010 00101100 01001111 00100010 130 . 44 . 79 . 34 Internet Address 130.44.79.34 converted in binary format
  10. 10. Addressing in IP Reserved Internet Addresses <ul><li>Class D Addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Class E Addresses </li></ul><ul><li>255.255.255.255 </li></ul><ul><li>0.0.0.0 </li></ul><ul><li>127.0.0.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Private Addresses (RFC 1918) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 (Class A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 (Class B) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 (Class C) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Addressing in IP Subnetting Network Host Extended Network Address Network Host Subnet
  12. 12. Addressing in IP Subnet Mask (Examples) 255 . 255 . 255 . 0 255 . 255 . 252 . 0 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 11111111 11111111 11111100 00000000
  13. 13. IP Routing RIP (Routing Information Protocol) <ul><li>RIP v.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Distance Vector </li></ul><ul><li>15 Hops or less </li></ul><ul><li>Best for Star Topologies </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot do load balancing </li></ul><ul><li>RIP v.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Extensions to carry subnet mask and next hop information </li></ul>
  14. 14. IP Routing OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) <ul><li>OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) offers several benefits over RIP: </li></ul><ul><li>OSPF is an open, published specification . It is not proprietary to any manufacturer. </li></ul><ul><li>OSPF supports the concept of areas to allow networks to be administratively partitioned as they grow in size. </li></ul><ul><li>Load balancing , in which multiple routes exist to a destination is also supported. OSPF distributes traffic over these links. </li></ul>
  15. 15. IP Routing OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Node/Network Shortest / Best Path 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 A B C D E 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 2
  16. 16. Address Resolution ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP Request (Multicast) ARP Response Router 08 00 2B 00 AA 0C 192.168.3.75 08 00 2B 00 AC FC 192.168.3.77 192.168.3.75 / Hardware Address? 192.168.3.75 / 08 00 2B 00 AA 0C Internet
  17. 17. Dynamic Host Configuration DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Request Response with IP Setup Information Router Internet
  18. 18. IP Networking Domain Names / Host Names Examples for top-level domains : .com Commercial organizations .edu Educational organizations .gov US Government and government agencies .net Network providers (like ISPs, etc.) .org Misc. organizations .mil US military organizations .int International organisations such as UNO, NATO, etc. Countries are assigned domains that start with their ISO country code : .de Germany .ch Switzerland .at Austria .fr France
  19. 19. IP Networking DNS (Domain Name System) DNS Server Resolver queries DNS Server Router Internet
  20. 20. TCP/IP Tools and Applications Overview <ul><li>The Transport layer uses ports to identify upper-layer processes or programs. Port addresses are used to distinguish between the different programs / applications running within a system. </li></ul><ul><li>Well known ports reserved for use with specific applications / protocolls are for example: </li></ul><ul><li>TCP Port 80, HTTP (WWW Server) </li></ul><ul><li>TCP Port 23, TELNET </li></ul><ul><li>TCP Port 25, SMTP </li></ul><ul><li>TCP Port 110, POP3 </li></ul><ul><li>TCP Port 20, FTP Data </li></ul><ul><li>TCP Port 21, FTP Command </li></ul><ul><li>UDP Port 69, TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) </li></ul><ul><li>UDP Port 123, NTP (Network Time Protocol) </li></ul><ul><li>UDP Port 53, DNS Request </li></ul><ul><li>TCP Port 53, DNS Table Exchanges </li></ul>
  21. 21. TCP/IP Tools and Applications HTTP Internet Public Network Web Server (HTTP Server) Web Browser (HTTP Client)
  22. 22. TCP/IP Tools and Applications TELNET Internet Public Network TELNET Client TELNET Server
  23. 23. TCP/IP Tools and Applications FTP Internet Public Network FTP Server FTP Client FTP Command Active FTP DATA
  24. 24. TCP/IP Tools and Applications Email Internet Public Network Mail sending (SMTP) POP Mail reception Mail sending (SMTP) Mail sending (SMTP) POP Mail reception Mail sending (SMTP)
  25. 25. TCP/IP Tools and Applications PING (Packet Internet Groper) Internet Public Network
  26. 26. Address Translation NAT/PAT Router with NAT/PAT 10.1.1.0 Network 10.1.1.1 149.35.29.1 10.1.1.3 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.4 Remote Access Server or ISP Router Internet
  27. 27. Address Translation NAT (Network Address Translation) Internet 149.35.29.1 14.35.29.5 ISP Router Remote Access Server “ Inside” Network (10.1.1.0) Private Addressing Scheme “ Outside Network” Globally Administered Addresses … IP Address Mapping Table Outside Inside Addresses Addresses … … 149.35.29.1 10.1.1.2 … 10.1.1.3 149.35.29.4 … … … NAT Router 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.3 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.4
  28. 28. Address Translation PAT/NAPT “ Inside” Network (10.1.1.0) Private Addressing Scheme PAT Router 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.3 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.4 149.35.29.1 IP Address Mapping Table Outside PAT Inside Local Address Port Addresses Port … … … 149.35.29.1 3355 10.1.1.2 65531 … 10.1.1.3 65532 … … … Internet ISP Router Remote Access Server “ Outside Network” Globally Administered Addresses
  29. 29. Address Translation PAT/NAPT “ Inside” Network (10.1.1.0) Private Addressing Scheme PAT Router 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.3 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.4 147.33.30.2 Source Address Destination Address 147.33.30.2 149.35.29.1 147.33.30.2 10.1.1.2 149.35.29.1 Internet “ Outside Network” Globally Administered Addresses
  30. 30. Address Translation “Inverse” PAT/NAPT Service Table / Port Mapping Destination Inside Network Port Addresses … … 20 10.1.1.2 … 10.1.1.3 80 … … … “ Inside” Network (10.1.1.0) Private Addressing Scheme PAT Router 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.3 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.4 147.33.30.2 149.35.29.1 Internet “ Outside Network” Globally Administered Addresses
  31. 31. TCP/IP Network Security Firewalls Internet Private Network Firewall Router Public Network
  32. 32. TCP/IP Network Security VPN (Virtual Private Networks) <ul><li>„ A VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a network consisting of </li></ul><ul><li>virtual connections over which non-public and company </li></ul><ul><li>internal data are securely transmitted“. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples for VPN Technologies are: </li></ul><ul><li>PPTP (Point to Point Tunnelling Protocol) </li></ul><ul><li>L2TP (Layer 2 Tunnelling Protocol) </li></ul><ul><li>GRE with SA (Generic Router Encapsulation with Security Assoc.) </li></ul><ul><li>IPSec </li></ul>
  33. 33. TCP/IP Network Security VPN Private LAN Private LAN VPN Tunnel Internet Public Network
  34. 34. IPv6 Next Generation IP Colon-hexadecimal Dotted-decimal Address notation Uses ICMPv6 Requires ARP Neighbor Discovery Built-in Add-on Mobile IP Flow labeling, priority Defined but not generally implemented Quality of Service Multicast, anycast All-broadcast only Multicast Automatic Manual or DHCP Configuration IPSec built-in Add-on Security < 64 Kbytes normal “ jumbogram” support < 64 Kbytes Max packet size 3.4 x 10 38 addresses 4.3 x 10 9 addresses Address space 128 bits (16 octets) 32 bits (4 octets) Addressing IPv6 IPv4 Feature
  35. 35. IPv6 Extended Addressing 0 32 Bit 128 Bit 0 IPv4 address IPv6 address 128 bit address: 2 128 -1 = 340282366920938463374607432768211455 addresses ! 32 bit address: 2 32 -1 = 4294967296 addresses ! The IPv6 address space is 2 96 times the size of the IPv4 address space! 32 Bit
  36. 36. IPv6 Example Address Format 2001 : 1234 : 5678 : 0123 : 0000 : 1234 : 5678 : 9ABC IPv6 Global Unicast Address Format Example (colon-hexadecimal notation): 0 16 32 48 64 80 96 112 128 bit 0 0 1 Provider Site / Subnet & Interface ID 3 + 45 bits Format Prefix (FP) TLA ID RES NLA ID SLA ID
  37. 37. IPv6 Header Format Optimization 32 bits Version Traffic Class Flow Label Payload Length Next Header Hop Limit Source Address Destination Address
  38. 38. IPv6 Improved multicast & streaming Multicast Application Destination (Source) User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 User 5
  39. 39. IPv6 Integrated Security Host-to-Host IPSec Connection Router Internet Host Host
  40. 40. IPv6 Better Support for Mobile Devices HA Internet (IPv6) Home network Mobile Node (with a care-of address) Correspondent Node Home Agent Visited network
  41. 41. IPv6 Migrating from IPv4 <ul><li>In order to migrate as smoothly as possible several technology approaches have been developed: </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Stack / Dual Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Tunneling </li></ul><ul><li>Translating IPv4/IPv6 </li></ul>
  42. 42. IPv6 Migrating from IPv4 - Dual Stack / Layer Approach Network Protocols Layer IPv4 TCP/ UDP Applications Layer Hardware IPv6 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical OSI Reference Model Network Protocols Layer IPv4 TCP/ UDP Applications Layer Dual Stack Approach Hardware IPv6 TCP/ UDP Dual Layer Approach
  43. 43. IPv6 Migrating from IPv4 - Tunneling / Translating IPv4 Host IPv6 Host IPv4 Hosts IPv4 Host IPv6 Host Internet (IPv4) IPv4 Router IPv4/IPv6 Router IPv4/IPv6 Router

    Be the first to comment

    Login to see the comments

  • woongbox

    Mar. 18, 2015
  • minsoogwak

    Mar. 18, 2015
  • ibluebelt

    Mar. 18, 2015
  • dohyoonkim7

    Mar. 29, 2015
  • joobn

    Apr. 4, 2015
  • FarshadHoseinpour

    Apr. 24, 2015
  • christianusfrans

    Apr. 27, 2015
  • weskuo

    May. 23, 2015
  • Dineshyadav129

    Mar. 28, 2016
  • Jeewhan

    Apr. 10, 2016
  • gaoping561

    Jan. 31, 2017
  • kamalpatel3760

    Mar. 15, 2017
  • kpalpabla

    Apr. 18, 2017
  • YudiArijanto

    Mar. 22, 2018
  • VngNhung

    Nov. 15, 2018
  • Muhammadhasnatullah

    Jan. 2, 2019
  • WilliamRichard28

    May. 8, 2020
  • kalyan120

    Jun. 27, 2020
  • arivuphD

    Sep. 9, 2020
  • SudhakarBadwaik

    Sep. 18, 2020

Explains the TCP/IP protocol stack and relevant tools.

Views

Total views

5,174

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

24

Actions

Downloads

0

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

39

×