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Networking Basics

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Explains the history as well as basic concepts of computer networks, including the OSI model, IP protocol and Internetworking.

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Networking Basics

  1. 1. Networking Basics
  2. 2. Fundamentals and OSI Model
  3. 3. History of Computer Networks The Beginning 1970 1980 X.25
  4. 4. History of Computer Networks 1980 - 1990 1990 1980 X.25
  5. 5. History of Computer Networks 1990 - Today 1990 2000 PSTN Internet GSM ISDN X.25
  6. 6. Terminology and Concepts Terms and Definitions WAN LAN LAN WAN
  7. 7. Terminology and Concepts Packets or Frames Packet Header Packet Trailer Payload or Data Section
  8. 8. Network Architectures and OSI Model Fundamentals Layer n Layer n-1 Layer 1 Layer 2 http://www.smc.com
  9. 9. Network Architectures and OSI Model The OSI Reference Model Layer n Layer n + 1 Layer n Layer n + 1 n + 1 Protocol n Protocol Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Node A Node B
  10. 10. Network Architectures and OSI Model Networking Protocols Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Node A Node B Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Bits User Data DH NH TH SH PH AH
  11. 11. Network Architectures and OSI Model The Seven OSI Model Layers Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Node A Node B Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical http://www.smc.com 011001101110 111001001110 001100011100
  12. 12. Network Topologies Introduction <ul><li>Mesh (point-to-point) </li></ul><ul><li>Multipoint </li></ul><ul><li>Star </li></ul><ul><li>Ring (Loop) </li></ul><ul><li>Bus </li></ul>
  13. 13. Network Topologies Mesh or Point-to-Point Topology A B D C E F
  14. 14. Network Topologies Multipoint Topology A B D C E F
  15. 15. Network Topologies Star Topology A B D C F E
  16. 16. Network Topologies Ring Topology A B D C F E
  17. 17. Network Topologies Bus Topology A B D C E F
  18. 18. Peer-to-Peer vs. Client-Server Peer-to-Peer Networking Users share information between each other in a de-centralized layout. Individual systems have all necessary capabilities. WAN
  19. 19. Peer-to-Peer vs. Client-Server Client-Server Networking Users access and share information from a centralized location. Servers and clients have very different capabilities. Client Systems File Server Application Server Print Server Database Server Communication Server PSTN Internet
  20. 20. The First Two OSI Model Layers
  21. 21. Introduction OSI - The Lowest Two Model Layers Layer 1 Layer 2 … 00000111011000110111010111 …
  22. 22. Introduction WAN Protocols Data Link Layer Physical Layer Network Layer ADSL PPPoE X.25 X.21 Frame Relay PPP ISDN V.35 RS-232 HDLC DDCMP SDLC
  23. 23. Introduction LAN Protocols - The IEEE 802.x Standards IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD IEEE 802.4 Token Bus IEEE 802.5 Token Ring IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Logical Link Control IEEE 802.2 IEEE 802.1 ... ... Data Link Layer Physical Layer
  24. 24. Introduction Transmission Media Types Twisted Pair Cables Fibre Optic Cable Coaxial Cable
  25. 25. Ethernet / IEEE 802.3 The Roots - The ALOHA Network
  26. 26. <ul><li>1973 - Xerox develops Ethernet, named after the “luminiferous ether”, a medium once thought to fill all space and control the transmission of electromagnetic waves (operated at 2Mbps) </li></ul><ul><li>1980 - First formal specifications created in a joint effort by Digital, Intel and Xerox named DIX Ethernet (operated at 10Mbps) </li></ul><ul><li>1985 - IEEE modifies DIX and creates 802.3 standard </li></ul><ul><li>1995 - IEEE creates 802.3u standard for Fast Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>1998 - IEEE creates 802.3z standard for Gigabit Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>2002 - IEEE releases the 802.3ae standard for 10 Gigabit Ethernet </li></ul>Ethernet / IEEE 802.3 History
  27. 27. Ethernet / IEEE 802.3 Topologies / Transmission Medias <ul><li>Ethernet not only has evolved over time to deliver more and more bandwidth but also to support a broad variety of transmission media. Some of the implementations are listed below: </li></ul><ul><li>10Base5, or (DIX) Ethernet, Thickwire </li></ul><ul><li>10Base2, or Thinwire, Cheapernet </li></ul><ul><li>10BaseT, or Twisted-pair Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>10Broad36, or Broadband Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>100BaseT, or Fast Ethernet (twisted-pair cables) </li></ul><ul><li>1000BaseT, or Gigabit Ethernet (twisted-pair cables) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Ethernet / IEEE 802.3 Connector Types RJ45 Connector BNC Connector Transceiver ST Connector SC Connector VF45 Connector MTRJ Connector
  29. 29. Ethernet / IEEE 802.3 Link Access Control - CSMA/CD Node A Node B Node C Collision
  30. 30. Ethernet / IEEE 802.3 Following Configuration Rules t Node A Node B Maximum „Distance“ / Maximum Delay t Round Trip Propagation Delay
  31. 31. Ethernet / IEEE 802.3 Round Trip Propagation Delay (Ethernet V2.0)
  32. 32. Ethernet Ethernet Collision Domain Node B Node A Collision ∆ t Repeater
  33. 33. Ethernet / IEEE 802.3 Typical Ethernet Activity Contention slots Idle period Time Transmission period Contention period Frame Frame Frame Frame
  34. 34. Ethernet / IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Addressing F0 - 2E - 25 - 6C - 77 - 3B 48 Bits (6 Octets) 0000 1111 0111 0100 1010 0100 0011 0110 1110 1110 1101 1100 Sequence of bits on the Ethernet The first bit of the data link address distinguishes multicast addresses from individual addresses 0 - individual address 1 - group address or multicast address, a broadcast address is a special multicast address consisting entirely of 1´s and addresses all stations on an Ethernet
  35. 35. Ethernet / IEEE 802.3 Ethernet MAC - Media Access Control Data & Padding Destination Address Type 4 Bytes FCS CRC Source Address 14 Bytes 46-1500 Bytes Data & Padding Destination Address Length CRC Source Address Ethernet V2.0 IEEE 802.3 DSAP SSAP Control IEEE 802.2 LLC Fields
  36. 36. Fast Ethernet Introduction t Node A Node B Maximum „Distance“ / Maximum Delay t Round Trip Propagation Delay
  37. 37. Fast Ethernet Physical Layer 100m (two twisted pairs) 100Base-TX STP (IBM Type-1) 412m half duplex 2000m full duplex 100Base-FX Fiberoptic 62.5/125 100m (all four twisted pairs) 100Base-T4 Category-3/4 UTP 100m (two twisted pairs) 100Base-TX Category-5 UTP Distance IEEE 802.3u Cable Type
  38. 38. Gigabit Ethernet Introduction Gigabit Ethernet Switch Gigabit Ethernet Switch
  39. 39. Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3z / 802.3ab Physical Layer Source : Sun Microsystems (Sun and Gigabit Ethernet White Paper) 100 m 802.3ab Long-haul Copper 25m 802.3z Short-haul Copper 550m using 850nm laser (SX) 550m using 1300nm laser (LX) 802.3z Multi-mode Fiber (50 micron) 300m using 850nm laser (SX) 550m using 1300nm laser (LX) 802.3z Multi-mode Fiber (62.5 micron) 3000m using 1300nm laser (LX) 802.3z Single-mode Fiber (9 micron) Distance IEEE Cable Type
  40. 40. Gigabit Ethernet Media Access Control / Frame Format Start-of-Frame Delimiter Preamble 7 octets 1 octet 6 octets 6 octets 2 octets 46 - 1500 octets 4 octets Length / Type Destination Address Source Address Pad (if necessary) Frame Check Sequence Extension Frame Length Value
  41. 41. 10 Gigabit Ethernet Introduction 10 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Gigabit Ethernet Switch with 10 Gigabit Uplink Power Users 10/100 Ethernet Switch with Gigabit Uplink
  42. 42. 10 Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3ae Physical Layer 10000m (1310nm WWDM PMD) 802.3ae Single-mode Fiber 300m (1310nm WWDM PMD) 802.3ae Multi-mode Fiber 500m (850nm serial PMD) 802.3ae Multi-mode Fiber 40000m (1550nm serial PMD) 802.3ae Single-mode Fiber 10000m (1310nm serial PMD) 802.3ae Single-mode Fiber Distance IEEE Cable Type
  43. 43. 10 Gigabit Ethernet Media Types <ul><li>The10-Gigabit Ethernet standard includes several different media types, that are currently specified by a supplementary standard, IEEE 802.3ae: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10GBASE-SR (short range) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10GBASE-CX4 (Copper interface ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10GBASE-LX4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10GBASE-LR (long range) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10GBASE-ER (extended range) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10GBASE-LRM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10GBASE-SW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10GBASE-LW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10GBASE-EW. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10GBASE-LR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10GBASE-ER </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Token Ring / IEEE 802.5 Introduction Data Flow Token Node A Node B Node C Node D
  45. 45. Token Ring / IEEE 802.5 Topology RI RI RO RO A B D C E F
  46. 46. Token Ring / IEEE 802.5 Link Access Control Data Flow Token Data Frame 2 Data Frame 1 Node A Node B Node C Node D
  47. 47. Token Ring / IEEE 802.5 MAC Frames and Addressing <ul><li>Special purpose frames associated with ring processes: </li></ul><ul><li>Ring insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Beaconing </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbour notification </li></ul><ul><li>Token generation </li></ul><ul><li>Token Ring Addresses are very similar to Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li> 55-00-02-00-43-1C </li></ul>
  48. 48. FDDI (Fibre Distributed Data Interface) Introduction IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Logical Link Control IEEE 802.2 IEEE 802.1 ... ... FDDI IEEE 802.2 Data Link Layer Physical Layer
  49. 49. FDDI (Fibre Distributed Data Interface) Topology A B D C Class A Device Class A Device Class B Device Class B Device Class A Wiring Concentrator Primary Fibre Loop Secondary Fibre Loop
  50. 50. FDDI (Fibre Distributed Data Interface) Error Recovery in a FDDI Network A B Class B Device Class B Device Class A Wiring Concentrator Primary Fibre Loop Secondary Fibre Loop D Class A Device C Class A Device Reconfiguration Reconfiguration
  51. 51. FDDI (Fibre Distributed Data Interface) Topology - Dual Ring of Trees Wiring Concentrator Wiring Concentrator Wiring Concentrator Wiring Concentrator Node Node Node
  52. 52. Wireless Networking Technologies Applications <ul><li>Alternative and/or extension of wired infrastructures </li></ul><ul><li>Simple integration into existing networking infrastructures </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions for environments and applications where conventional wired infrastructures are not feasible: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural reasons (building codes, protection of historic buildings, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible networking solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnecting LANs </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Wireless Networks Overview Technologies <ul><li>In general we can separate the different wireless technologies into the following categories: </li></ul><ul><li>WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Networking) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth / IEEE 802.15.1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.15.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networking) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.11a/b/g </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Networking) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WiMAX / IEEE 802.16 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WWAN (Wireless Wide Area Networking) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UMTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GSM </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Wireless Networks Overview Scenarios WLAN WPAN WWAN / WMAN GPRS GSM UMTS PDA Mobile Phone WiMAX / IEEE 802.16 IEEE 802.11 Bluetooth / IEEE 802.15
  55. 55. Wireless Networks Standards - WPAN, WLAN, WMAN IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN IEEE 802.15 WPAN / Bluetooth IEEE 802.16 WMAN / WiMAX Logical Link Control IEEE 802.2 IEEE 802.1 ... ... ... Data Link Layer Physical Layer
  56. 56. PSTN / Modem Introduction ISP Access Concentrator Internet PSTN
  57. 57. ISDN Introduction Digital PBX Private Home Company Internet ISDN
  58. 58. <ul><li>ISDN has some very important advantages as a technology to be used for data communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Standardised </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible, 2 available simultaneous channels </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth (2 x 64 Kbps) </li></ul><ul><li>High transmission quality (digital) </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive pricing (in many countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Availability, good geographical coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Fast call establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Integral security functions </li></ul>ISDN ISDN is more than a „Digital Network“
  59. 59. ISDN Access Interfaces 1.544 Mbps 2.048 Mbps 1.536 Mbps 1.984 Mbps 30B+D 64 (Europe) 23B+D 64 (USA) Primary Rate Interface (PRI) 192 kbps 144 kbps 2B+D 16 Basic Rate Interface (BRI) Total Bit Rate User Data Rate Structure
  60. 60. Broadband WAN Services Introduction Broadband Internet Access SME Network Infrastructure Internet
  61. 61. Broadband WAN Services Overview <ul><li>There are currently several alternative and competing broadband technologies available or under development: </li></ul><ul><li>xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) </li></ul><ul><li>Cable network (cable modem) </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless (RF) Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Communication solutions utilising the electrical power infrastructure </li></ul>
  62. 62. Broadband WAN Services xDSL - Digital Subscriber Line Subscriber Network Infrastructure xDSL Link xDSL Modem Broadband Router Internet Central Office
  63. 63. Broadband WAN Services Cable Modem Solutions Internet Cable Network Headend Subscriber Network/TV Infrastructure TV Cable Modem Broadband Router Cable Network Infrastructure 75Ω Coaxial Cable
  64. 64. Broadband WAN Services Satellite Communication Subscriber Standard Satellite Dish Internet ISDN / PSTN
  65. 65. Broadband WAN Services Wireless (RF) Solutions Subscriber Network Infrastructure Internet
  66. 66. Broadband WAN Services Utilising the Electrical Power Infrastructure Subscriber Powerline Modem Internet
  67. 67. Layer 2 WAN Protocols PPP - Point to Point Protocol Internet Router or Access Concentrator Local Network WAN Link Modem oder ISDN TA IP Router Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical PPP IP Internet
  68. 68. Introduction Internetworking
  69. 69. Internetworking Overview Internet
  70. 70. Repeater Definition Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Node A Node B Physical Physical Repeater Function Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
  71. 71. Bridge, Switch Definition Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Node A Node B Bridge Function Data Link Physical Data Link Physical Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
  72. 72. Bridge, Switch Basic Transparent Bridge Operation Bridge 1 2 E D C B A Workstation Seen via Address Interface A 1 E 2 C 1 D 2 . . . .
  73. 73. Bridge, Switch Transparent Bridges - Multiple Paths C B A 2 1 2 1 2 1 F G Source Address F LAN 1 LAN 2
  74. 74. Bridge, Switch The Spanning Tree Protocol In this example the link on bridge C pointing in direction of bridge A is being turned off D Bridge E becomes Root Bridge E A C B Bridge B becomes Designated Bridge on the “blue” LAN
  75. 75. Router Definition Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Node A Node B Data Link Physical Network Data Link Physical Network Router Function Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
  76. 76. Router Routing Protocols Node/Network Shortest / Best Path 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 A B C D E 2 3
  77. 77. Router Routing Protocols - Examples <ul><li>Examples for routing protocols: </li></ul><ul><li>RIP v1 and RIP v2 (Routing Information Protocol) </li></ul><ul><li>OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) </li></ul><ul><li>BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) </li></ul><ul><li>IGRP (Interior Gateway Protocol) Cisco </li></ul><ul><li>DECnet Phase IV DRP (DECnet Routing Protocol) </li></ul><ul><li>RTMP (Routing Table Maintenance Protocol) and ZIP (Zone Information Protocol) AppleTalk </li></ul><ul><li>Novell NetWare RIP (Routing Information Protocol) </li></ul>
  78. 78. Gateway Definition Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Node A Node B Presentation Transmission Path Control Data Link Physical Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Transaction Data Flow Presentation Transmission Path Control Data Link Physical Application Transaction Data Flow Gateway Function
  79. 79. Architectures and Protocol Suites Examples <ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>Novell Netware (IPX/SPX) </li></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk </li></ul><ul><li>DNA and DECnet (Digital Equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>LAT (Digital Equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>SNA (IBM) </li></ul><ul><li>OSI </li></ul><ul><li>NetBIOS/ NetBEUI (Microsoft, IBM) </li></ul><ul><li>Banyan Vines </li></ul>
  80. 80. Netw. Architectures and Protocol Suites TCP/IP Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical OSI Reference Model Application Layer Host-to-Host or Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Access or Local Network Layer TCP/IP Functional Layers
  81. 81. Netw. Architectures and Protocol Suites AppleTalk Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical OSI Reference Model AppleTalk Protocol Suite DDP Local Talk Ether Talk Token Talk … RTMP ATP NBP AEP ADSP PAP ASP ZIP AFP Post- Script
  82. 82. Netw. Architectures and Protocol Suites DECnet / DNA Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical OSI Reference Model DECnet Phase IV Protocol Suite User Layer Physical Layer Data Link layer Routing Layer End-to-End Communication Layer Session Layer Network Application Layer
  83. 83. Netw. Architectures and Protocol Suites Novell NetWare (IPX/SPX) Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical OSI Reference Model Novell NetWare Protocol Suite Link Support Layer Ethernet Other FDDI IP IPX SPX TCP UD P Netware Services NCP
  84. 84. Netw. Architectures and Protocol Suites Windows NT Network Architecture Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical OSI Reference Model Windows NT Network Architecture NDIS Ethernet IP IPX SPX TCP UDP Workstation Services NetBEUI DLC Server FDDI Token Ring Other

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