SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 21
A2 Theory and
  Methods
Modernity and Post-
    Modernity
Mass
                          Production

                                       Community life
             Family                                           Science aided
                                                           progress and finding
                                                                the truth
 Social
 class

                               Modernity                          Nationhood




  A belief in
continuity and                                     Overt social
   situation                                         control
                  A role for        A one-way
                  education           media

                      Structure/security/place/stability
                        YOU KNEW WHO YOU WERE
Fragmentation
                                                                     of social life
        Globalisation
                                    Search for
        has narrowed
                                      truth
          time and                                       People less
            space                                         likely to
                                   Modern age has lost
                                    the enlightenment    follow rigid
                                                          ideology
   Consumerism
       is all
                                   Postmodernism            Greater pluralism
                                                             in modern life

 The impact of ICT
   on social life                                              No absolutes

                                                            Culture and
Transformation          Traditional labels                structures are
  of the self            and categories                    fragmented
 (‘pick ‘n’ mix’)        loose relevance
                                                               Less predictable
                            Confusion/lack of structure/
                                  incessant choice
                        YOU CREATE WHO YOU WANT TO BE
Post-modernism illustrated – ‘reality
              TV’ & ‘Disneyland’
Reality TV illustrates the interchange
between the consumer and the media

They are ‘real people’ who can be
observed and scrutinised.
                                         Disneyland is a simulacra. It is
 They do not entertain – rather than     simulated reality. It is artificial – yet
 exist…they are a mish-mash of cctv      ‘real’.
 surveillance and game show
 In the real world they are talentless
                                         It is a place that exists and is
 nobody's who are treated as stars
                                         accepted because our imagination
                                         makes it so.

                                         The fine line between reality and
                                         fantasy is ‘greyer’. The power of the
                                         symbol over substance
Modernity & Globalisation
       The Enlightenment Project

• Modernist theories e.g. Marxism are
  part of the project- the idea that
  through reason and science, we can
  discover true knowledge and progress to
  a better society
Find evidence of your own
     contact with globalisation:
1. Look at the labels in your clothes/shoes and
   find four different countries in which they
   have been produced.
2. Identify four events in distant parts of the
   world that you have seen on TV in the last
   month.
3. Identify four global brand names you have
   seen advertised in this country or, if
   possible, seen in other countries.
Globalisation- growing interconnectedness
                of societies


Occurring for several reasons:
1. Technological changes e.g. Internet/ air travel
2.Economic changes e.g. Growth of transnational
  companies (TNC’s)

3.Political changes          e.g. Fall of communism & growth of
  transnational bodies have created opportunities for global
  capitalism

4.Changes in culture and identity
Rapid changes linked to globalisation have
          led to new questions:
• What kind of society do we now live in-
  modern/ new postmodern society?
• What kind of theory can explain today’s
  society?- postmodernism/new version of modernism?
• The Enlightenment project- can we
  achieve true knowledge to improve
  society?
 Three theories offer answers: PM, theories of Late
         modernity, Marxist theories of PM
What is PM?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QqsP0vQJJ44&feature=related
Postmodernism
• We now live in a new era
• There are no objective criteria to prove
  whether a theory is true therefore any
  theory claiming to have the truth about how
  to create a better society e.g. Marxism is a
  meta narrative- someone’s version of reality.
  They are no longer sufficient to make sense
  of our changing world
• We should celebrate the diversity of views
  rather than seek to impose one version of
  the truth
• They do not accept the ideas of the
  Enlightenment project- do not believe in the
  power of Science to solve all social and
  environmental problems.
• Media produces an endless stream of images,
  making culture unstable and fragmented;
  there is no longer a coherent set of shared
  values. People cease to believe any one version
  of the truth
• Identity becomes destabilised: we can change
  it simply by changing our consumption
  patterns, picking and mixing media-produced
  images to define ourselves
What criticisms of PM are there?

           Page 255
Theories of Late Modernity
• Unlike Postmodernism, theories of late modernity
  (TLM) argue that today’s rapid changes are not
  the dawn of a new postmodern era, but a
  continuation of modern society.
• We are now in late or high modernity. Key
  features of modernity have now become
  intensified; e.g. change has always been typical of
  modern society, but now it has gone into
  overdrive.
• TLM subscribe to the Enlightenment project.
Giddens reflexivity and high
               modernity
• High modernity has two key features that encourage
  globalisation and rapid change:
• Disembedding – no longer need face to face contact in
  order to interact. Disembedding breaks down geographical
  barriers and make interaction more impersonal.
• Reflexivity: Tradition and custom no longer serve as a
  guide to how we should act.
• We are thus forced to become reflexive – to reflect on
  and modify our actions in the light of information about
  risks.
• This means we are continually re-evaluating our ideas.
  Under these conditions, cultures becomes increasingly
  unstable.
• Disembedding and Reflexivity account
  for rapid and widespread nature of
  social change in high modernity

• By enabling social interaction to spread
  rapidly across the globe, they help to
  drive the process of globalisation
Beck: risk society
• We now face new high consequence risks, e.g.
  environmental harm. Beck calls these
  ‘manufactured risks’ as they result from
  technology, not nature.

• Like Giddens Beck sees late modernity as a
  period of growing individualisation, in which
  we become increasingly reflexive. Tradition no
  longer governs how we act. As a result we
  have to think for ourselves and reflect on the
  possible consequences of our choice of action
Evaluate TLM pg 257
Marxist Theories of Post modernity

• Like Beck & Giddens (& unlike PM’s) they
  believe in the Enlightenment project for
  achieving objective knowledge and using it
  to improve society
• However they agree with PM’s that we have
  moved from modernity to postmodernity
• But do not see it as a new society but
  merely the most recent stage of capitalism
• To understand modernity we must examine
  its relationship with capitalism
Flexible accumulation
• Postmodernity arose out of the capitalist
  crisis of the 1970’s (end of the economic
  boom) which gave rise to a new way of
  achieving profitability (Flexible accumulation)
• It involves the use of ICT, an expanded
  service and finance sector, job insecurity and
  working ‘flexibility’ to fit employers needs.
• It involves production of customised products
  for ‘niche’ markets (rather than mass markets) and
  brings many of the features of postmodernity
The features include:
• Customised products promote cultural diversity
• Easy switching of production from one product
  to another
• Leisure, culture and identity become
  commodities produced for profit
• Global finance markets and ICT produce
  compression of time and space
• It brings about political changes, especially the
  weakening of the WC movement. In its place, a
  variety of oppositional movements emerge e.g.
  feminism, environmentalism
Summary
• We have moved from modernity to
   postmodernity however Marxist views
   differ in two ways:
1. They retain a faith in Marxist theory as
   a means of explaining these changes
2.They argue that the goal of
   Enlightenment project- to change
   society for better- can still be achieved

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

Jean françois lyotard
Jean françois lyotardJean françois lyotard
Jean françois lyotard
 
Sociological theories
Sociological theoriesSociological theories
Sociological theories
 
Cultural Hegemony
Cultural  HegemonyCultural  Hegemony
Cultural Hegemony
 
Feminism and post feminism
Feminism and post feminismFeminism and post feminism
Feminism and post feminism
 
Charles wright mills
Charles wright millsCharles wright mills
Charles wright mills
 
Functionalism
FunctionalismFunctionalism
Functionalism
 
Conflict Theory
Conflict TheoryConflict Theory
Conflict Theory
 
Dramaturgy
DramaturgyDramaturgy
Dramaturgy
 
Neo-functionalism.pdf
Neo-functionalism.pdfNeo-functionalism.pdf
Neo-functionalism.pdf
 
Talcott Parsons.pdf
Talcott Parsons.pdfTalcott Parsons.pdf
Talcott Parsons.pdf
 
Frankfurt school theory
Frankfurt school theoryFrankfurt school theory
Frankfurt school theory
 
Sociological Theory
Sociological TheorySociological Theory
Sociological Theory
 
The social construction of reality
The social construction of realityThe social construction of reality
The social construction of reality
 
Marxism, Gramsci and Hegemony
Marxism, Gramsci and HegemonyMarxism, Gramsci and Hegemony
Marxism, Gramsci and Hegemony
 
Feminism Theory
Feminism TheoryFeminism Theory
Feminism Theory
 
Marxism
MarxismMarxism
Marxism
 
The history of sexuality
The history of sexualityThe history of sexuality
The history of sexuality
 
Ethnomethodology
EthnomethodologyEthnomethodology
Ethnomethodology
 
Anthony giddens
Anthony giddens Anthony giddens
Anthony giddens
 
conflict theory
conflict theoryconflict theory
conflict theory
 

Viewers also liked

Bob Fryer's Keynote Presentation - EDEN 2012 Annual Conference
Bob Fryer's Keynote Presentation - EDEN 2012 Annual ConferenceBob Fryer's Keynote Presentation - EDEN 2012 Annual Conference
Bob Fryer's Keynote Presentation - EDEN 2012 Annual ConferenceEDEN Digital Learning Europe
 
Post Modernism and Strinati
Post Modernism and StrinatiPost Modernism and Strinati
Post Modernism and StrinatiNaamah Hill
 
Lecture 3 the nature of knowing
Lecture 3 the nature of knowingLecture 3 the nature of knowing
Lecture 3 the nature of knowingmoduledesign
 
The power of the image: Contemporary art, gender, and the politics of perception
The power of the image: Contemporary art, gender, and the politics of perceptionThe power of the image: Contemporary art, gender, and the politics of perception
The power of the image: Contemporary art, gender, and the politics of perceptionDeborahJ
 
Postmodern media manipulates time and space
Postmodern media manipulates time and spacePostmodern media manipulates time and space
Postmodern media manipulates time and spaceSianLynes
 
Lefebvres dialectics of everyday life
Lefebvres dialectics of everyday lifeLefebvres dialectics of everyday life
Lefebvres dialectics of everyday lifeMerve Sarışın
 
Bm512 b525 t1_s_v002
Bm512 b525 t1_s_v002Bm512 b525 t1_s_v002
Bm512 b525 t1_s_v002moduledesign
 
Mash-Up - Contemporary Artists' Narrative Approaches
Mash-Up - Contemporary Artists' Narrative ApproachesMash-Up - Contemporary Artists' Narrative Approaches
Mash-Up - Contemporary Artists' Narrative ApproachesDeborahJ
 
Sociology and social policy
Sociology and social policySociology and social policy
Sociology and social policysmccormac7
 
What is Postmodernism?
What is Postmodernism?What is Postmodernism?
What is Postmodernism?hannahaman
 
Postmodern theory & theorists
Postmodern theory & theoristsPostmodern theory & theorists
Postmodern theory & theoristsfeargz10
 
Theory postmodernism
Theory postmodernismTheory postmodernism
Theory postmodernismJohn Bradford
 
Postmodern presentation
Postmodern presentationPostmodern presentation
Postmodern presentationSujan194966
 
Postmodernist theory of crime and deviance
Postmodernist theory of crime and deviancePostmodernist theory of crime and deviance
Postmodernist theory of crime and devianceThomasZ St. Louis
 
Postmodernism in IR Theory - Literature
Postmodernism in IR Theory - LiteraturePostmodernism in IR Theory - Literature
Postmodernism in IR Theory - LiteratureJeremiah Granden
 
Post-modernism in International Relation
Post-modernism in International RelationPost-modernism in International Relation
Post-modernism in International RelationSepehr rf
 
Systems Approach Theory (With Case Study)
Systems Approach Theory (With Case Study)Systems Approach Theory (With Case Study)
Systems Approach Theory (With Case Study)Soumya Choudhary
 
Postmodernism and history
Postmodernism and historyPostmodernism and history
Postmodernism and historyMatt Esterman
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Bob Fryer's Keynote Presentation - EDEN 2012 Annual Conference
Bob Fryer's Keynote Presentation - EDEN 2012 Annual ConferenceBob Fryer's Keynote Presentation - EDEN 2012 Annual Conference
Bob Fryer's Keynote Presentation - EDEN 2012 Annual Conference
 
Post Modernism and Strinati
Post Modernism and StrinatiPost Modernism and Strinati
Post Modernism and Strinati
 
Lecture 3 the nature of knowing
Lecture 3 the nature of knowingLecture 3 the nature of knowing
Lecture 3 the nature of knowing
 
The power of the image: Contemporary art, gender, and the politics of perception
The power of the image: Contemporary art, gender, and the politics of perceptionThe power of the image: Contemporary art, gender, and the politics of perception
The power of the image: Contemporary art, gender, and the politics of perception
 
Postmodern media manipulates time and space
Postmodern media manipulates time and spacePostmodern media manipulates time and space
Postmodern media manipulates time and space
 
Lefebvres dialectics of everyday life
Lefebvres dialectics of everyday lifeLefebvres dialectics of everyday life
Lefebvres dialectics of everyday life
 
Bm512 b525 t1_s_v002
Bm512 b525 t1_s_v002Bm512 b525 t1_s_v002
Bm512 b525 t1_s_v002
 
Mash-Up - Contemporary Artists' Narrative Approaches
Mash-Up - Contemporary Artists' Narrative ApproachesMash-Up - Contemporary Artists' Narrative Approaches
Mash-Up - Contemporary Artists' Narrative Approaches
 
Sociology and social policy
Sociology and social policySociology and social policy
Sociology and social policy
 
What postmodernism is.
What postmodernism is.What postmodernism is.
What postmodernism is.
 
What is Postmodernism?
What is Postmodernism?What is Postmodernism?
What is Postmodernism?
 
Postmodern theory & theorists
Postmodern theory & theoristsPostmodern theory & theorists
Postmodern theory & theorists
 
Theory postmodernism
Theory postmodernismTheory postmodernism
Theory postmodernism
 
Space and time
Space and timeSpace and time
Space and time
 
Postmodern presentation
Postmodern presentationPostmodern presentation
Postmodern presentation
 
Postmodernist theory of crime and deviance
Postmodernist theory of crime and deviancePostmodernist theory of crime and deviance
Postmodernist theory of crime and deviance
 
Postmodernism in IR Theory - Literature
Postmodernism in IR Theory - LiteraturePostmodernism in IR Theory - Literature
Postmodernism in IR Theory - Literature
 
Post-modernism in International Relation
Post-modernism in International RelationPost-modernism in International Relation
Post-modernism in International Relation
 
Systems Approach Theory (With Case Study)
Systems Approach Theory (With Case Study)Systems Approach Theory (With Case Study)
Systems Approach Theory (With Case Study)
 
Postmodernism and history
Postmodernism and historyPostmodernism and history
Postmodernism and history
 

Similar to Modernism & Post Modernity

Contemporary theories of Modernity_.pptx
Contemporary theories of Modernity_.pptxContemporary theories of Modernity_.pptx
Contemporary theories of Modernity_.pptxNathanMoyo1
 
Exploring Media Theory lecture 6 Postmodernism
Exploring Media Theory lecture 6 PostmodernismExploring Media Theory lecture 6 Postmodernism
Exploring Media Theory lecture 6 PostmodernismMarcus Leaning
 
Social structures-2802345
Social structures-2802345Social structures-2802345
Social structures-2802345skavinprasath
 
Global Communication 2 UNAV
Global Communication 2 UNAVGlobal Communication 2 UNAV
Global Communication 2 UNAVguesta2f9b9d
 
424945616-7-3-Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-systems-p...
424945616-7-3-Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-systems-p...424945616-7-3-Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-systems-p...
424945616-7-3-Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-systems-p...AldrichSuarez3
 
Copy of Philo Q2 Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-system...
Copy of Philo Q2 Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-system...Copy of Philo Q2 Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-system...
Copy of Philo Q2 Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-system...bryandomingo8
 
Summary Communication Theory
Summary Communication TheorySummary Communication Theory
Summary Communication TheoryEbony Bates
 
Smlxl On Engagement
Smlxl On EngagementSmlxl On Engagement
Smlxl On EngagementSMLXL Ltd
 
Collective identity and gender final
Collective identity and gender finalCollective identity and gender final
Collective identity and gender finaltcasman
 
Globalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity Essay
Globalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity EssayGlobalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity Essay
Globalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity EssayBeth Lee
 
Education and the Digital World: Promise, Progress and Pain
Education and the Digital World: Promise, Progress and PainEducation and the Digital World: Promise, Progress and Pain
Education and the Digital World: Promise, Progress and PainMark Brown
 
Lim JUS394 Utopian Dystopian
Lim  JUS394 Utopian DystopianLim  JUS394 Utopian Dystopian
Lim JUS394 Utopian Dystopianmerlyna
 

Similar to Modernism & Post Modernity (20)

Contemporary theories of Modernity_.pptx
Contemporary theories of Modernity_.pptxContemporary theories of Modernity_.pptx
Contemporary theories of Modernity_.pptx
 
Exploring Media Theory lecture 6 Postmodernism
Exploring Media Theory lecture 6 PostmodernismExploring Media Theory lecture 6 Postmodernism
Exploring Media Theory lecture 6 Postmodernism
 
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared ResourceSociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
 
Postmodernism for Beginners
Postmodernism for BeginnersPostmodernism for Beginners
Postmodernism for Beginners
 
Social structures-2802345
Social structures-2802345Social structures-2802345
Social structures-2802345
 
Soc 462, 7th week slides
Soc 462, 7th week slidesSoc 462, 7th week slides
Soc 462, 7th week slides
 
Global Communication 2 UNAV
Global Communication 2 UNAVGlobal Communication 2 UNAV
Global Communication 2 UNAV
 
424945616-7-3-Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-systems-p...
424945616-7-3-Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-systems-p...424945616-7-3-Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-systems-p...
424945616-7-3-Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-systems-p...
 
Copy of Philo Q2 Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-system...
Copy of Philo Q2 Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-system...Copy of Philo Q2 Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-system...
Copy of Philo Q2 Explain-how-human-relations-are-transformed-by-social-system...
 
CO-CREATION GUIDE
CO-CREATION GUIDECO-CREATION GUIDE
CO-CREATION GUIDE
 
Summary Communication Theory
Summary Communication TheorySummary Communication Theory
Summary Communication Theory
 
Smlxl On Engagement
Smlxl On EngagementSmlxl On Engagement
Smlxl On Engagement
 
MediaFilmExchange.co.uk Powerpoint
MediaFilmExchange.co.uk PowerpointMediaFilmExchange.co.uk Powerpoint
MediaFilmExchange.co.uk Powerpoint
 
CHAPTER 3 BE
CHAPTER 3 BECHAPTER 3 BE
CHAPTER 3 BE
 
Collective identity and gender final
Collective identity and gender finalCollective identity and gender final
Collective identity and gender final
 
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new ParadaigmPostmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
 
Globalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity Essay
Globalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity EssayGlobalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity Essay
Globalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity Essay
 
Knowledge mgt
Knowledge mgtKnowledge mgt
Knowledge mgt
 
Education and the Digital World: Promise, Progress and Pain
Education and the Digital World: Promise, Progress and PainEducation and the Digital World: Promise, Progress and Pain
Education and the Digital World: Promise, Progress and Pain
 
Lim JUS394 Utopian Dystopian
Lim  JUS394 Utopian DystopianLim  JUS394 Utopian Dystopian
Lim JUS394 Utopian Dystopian
 

More from smccormac7

Is soc a science?
Is soc a science?Is soc a science?
Is soc a science?smccormac7
 
Social Action Theories
Social Action TheoriesSocial Action Theories
Social Action Theoriessmccormac7
 
Theoretical approaches to childhood
Theoretical approaches to childhoodTheoretical approaches to childhood
Theoretical approaches to childhoodsmccormac7
 
Childhoodandthefuture
ChildhoodandthefutureChildhoodandthefuture
Childhoodandthefuturesmccormac7
 
Childhood through the ages
Childhood through the agesChildhood through the ages
Childhood through the agessmccormac7
 
Control, punishment and victims
Control, punishment and victimsControl, punishment and victims
Control, punishment and victimssmccormac7
 
State crimes and green crimes
State crimes and green crimesState crimes and green crimes
State crimes and green crimessmccormac7
 
Crime and deviance and the media
Crime and deviance and the mediaCrime and deviance and the media
Crime and deviance and the mediasmccormac7
 
Crime and deviance and the media
Crime and deviance and the mediaCrime and deviance and the media
Crime and deviance and the mediasmccormac7
 
Seminar project state crime&genocide
Seminar project  state crime&genocideSeminar project  state crime&genocide
Seminar project state crime&genocidesmccormac7
 
Seminar project state crime&genocide
Seminar project  state crime&genocideSeminar project  state crime&genocide
Seminar project state crime&genocidesmccormac7
 
Research project education
Research project educationResearch project education
Research project educationsmccormac7
 
L4 sampling main.
L4 sampling main.L4 sampling main.
L4 sampling main.smccormac7
 
L7 observations
L7 observationsL7 observations
L7 observationssmccormac7
 
L9 official stats
L9 official statsL9 official stats
L9 official statssmccormac7
 
L10 methods in context
L10 methods in contextL10 methods in context
L10 methods in contextsmccormac7
 

More from smccormac7 (20)

Is soc a science?
Is soc a science?Is soc a science?
Is soc a science?
 
Social Action Theories
Social Action TheoriesSocial Action Theories
Social Action Theories
 
Suicide2
Suicide2Suicide2
Suicide2
 
Suicide
SuicideSuicide
Suicide
 
Theoretical approaches to childhood
Theoretical approaches to childhoodTheoretical approaches to childhood
Theoretical approaches to childhood
 
Childhoodandthefuture
ChildhoodandthefutureChildhoodandthefuture
Childhoodandthefuture
 
Childhood through the ages
Childhood through the agesChildhood through the ages
Childhood through the ages
 
Control2
Control2Control2
Control2
 
Control, punishment and victims
Control, punishment and victimsControl, punishment and victims
Control, punishment and victims
 
State crimes and green crimes
State crimes and green crimesState crimes and green crimes
State crimes and green crimes
 
Globalisation
GlobalisationGlobalisation
Globalisation
 
Crime and deviance and the media
Crime and deviance and the mediaCrime and deviance and the media
Crime and deviance and the media
 
Crime and deviance and the media
Crime and deviance and the mediaCrime and deviance and the media
Crime and deviance and the media
 
Seminar project state crime&genocide
Seminar project  state crime&genocideSeminar project  state crime&genocide
Seminar project state crime&genocide
 
Seminar project state crime&genocide
Seminar project  state crime&genocideSeminar project  state crime&genocide
Seminar project state crime&genocide
 
Research project education
Research project educationResearch project education
Research project education
 
L4 sampling main.
L4 sampling main.L4 sampling main.
L4 sampling main.
 
L7 observations
L7 observationsL7 observations
L7 observations
 
L9 official stats
L9 official statsL9 official stats
L9 official stats
 
L10 methods in context
L10 methods in contextL10 methods in context
L10 methods in context
 

Recently uploaded

Do You Think it is a Small Matter- David’s Men.pptx
Do You Think it is a Small Matter- David’s Men.pptxDo You Think it is a Small Matter- David’s Men.pptx
Do You Think it is a Small Matter- David’s Men.pptxRick Peterson
 
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in KarachiNo.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in KarachiAmil Baba Mangal Maseeh
 
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in KarachiNo.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in KarachiAmil Baba Mangal Maseeh
 
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in KarachiNo.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in KarachiAmil Baba Naveed Bangali
 
Topmost Black magic specialist in Saudi Arabia Or Bangali Amil baba in UK Or...
Topmost Black magic specialist in Saudi Arabia  Or Bangali Amil baba in UK Or...Topmost Black magic specialist in Saudi Arabia  Or Bangali Amil baba in UK Or...
Topmost Black magic specialist in Saudi Arabia Or Bangali Amil baba in UK Or...baharayali
 
Unity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah_For Digital Viewing.pdf
Unity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah_For Digital Viewing.pdfUnity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah_For Digital Viewing.pdf
Unity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah_For Digital Viewing.pdfRebeccaSealfon
 
原版1:1复刻莫纳什大学毕业证Monash毕业证留信学历认证
原版1:1复刻莫纳什大学毕业证Monash毕业证留信学历认证原版1:1复刻莫纳什大学毕业证Monash毕业证留信学历认证
原版1:1复刻莫纳什大学毕业证Monash毕业证留信学历认证jdkhjh
 
Topmost Kala ilam expert in UK Or Black magic specialist in UK Or Black magic...
Topmost Kala ilam expert in UK Or Black magic specialist in UK Or Black magic...Topmost Kala ilam expert in UK Or Black magic specialist in UK Or Black magic...
Topmost Kala ilam expert in UK Or Black magic specialist in UK Or Black magic...baharayali
 
The Chronological Life of Christ part 097 (Reality Check Luke 13 1-9).pptx
The Chronological Life of Christ part 097 (Reality Check Luke 13 1-9).pptxThe Chronological Life of Christ part 097 (Reality Check Luke 13 1-9).pptx
The Chronological Life of Christ part 097 (Reality Check Luke 13 1-9).pptxNetwork Bible Fellowship
 
Seerah un nabi Muhammad Quiz Part-1.pdf
Seerah un nabi  Muhammad Quiz Part-1.pdfSeerah un nabi  Muhammad Quiz Part-1.pdf
Seerah un nabi Muhammad Quiz Part-1.pdfAnsariB1
 
Amil baba in uk amil baba in Australia amil baba in canada
Amil baba in uk amil baba in Australia amil baba in canadaAmil baba in uk amil baba in Australia amil baba in canada
Amil baba in uk amil baba in Australia amil baba in canadaamil baba kala jadu
 
Unity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah + Song List.pdf
Unity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah + Song List.pdfUnity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah + Song List.pdf
Unity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah + Song List.pdfRebeccaSealfon
 
Study of the Psalms Chapter 1 verse 1 by wanderean
Study of the Psalms Chapter 1 verse 1 by wandereanStudy of the Psalms Chapter 1 verse 1 by wanderean
Study of the Psalms Chapter 1 verse 1 by wandereanmaricelcanoynuay
 
Dubai Call Girls Skinny Mandy O525547819 Call Girls Dubai
Dubai Call Girls Skinny Mandy O525547819 Call Girls DubaiDubai Call Girls Skinny Mandy O525547819 Call Girls Dubai
Dubai Call Girls Skinny Mandy O525547819 Call Girls Dubaikojalkojal131
 
No 1 astrologer amil baba in Canada Usa astrologer in Canada
No 1 astrologer amil baba in Canada Usa astrologer in CanadaNo 1 astrologer amil baba in Canada Usa astrologer in Canada
No 1 astrologer amil baba in Canada Usa astrologer in CanadaAmil Baba Mangal Maseeh
 
Asli amil baba in Karachi Pakistan and best astrologer Black magic specialist
Asli amil baba in Karachi Pakistan and best astrologer Black magic specialistAsli amil baba in Karachi Pakistan and best astrologer Black magic specialist
Asli amil baba in Karachi Pakistan and best astrologer Black magic specialistAmil Baba Mangal Maseeh
 

Recently uploaded (20)

🔝9953056974 🔝young Delhi Escort service Vinay Nagar
🔝9953056974 🔝young Delhi Escort service Vinay Nagar🔝9953056974 🔝young Delhi Escort service Vinay Nagar
🔝9953056974 🔝young Delhi Escort service Vinay Nagar
 
Do You Think it is a Small Matter- David’s Men.pptx
Do You Think it is a Small Matter- David’s Men.pptxDo You Think it is a Small Matter- David’s Men.pptx
Do You Think it is a Small Matter- David’s Men.pptx
 
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in KarachiNo.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
 
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in KarachiNo.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
 
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in KarachiNo.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
No.1 Amil baba in Pakistan amil baba in Lahore amil baba in Karachi
 
young Whatsapp Call Girls in Adarsh Nagar🔝 9953056974 🔝 escort service
young Whatsapp Call Girls in Adarsh Nagar🔝 9953056974 🔝 escort serviceyoung Whatsapp Call Girls in Adarsh Nagar🔝 9953056974 🔝 escort service
young Whatsapp Call Girls in Adarsh Nagar🔝 9953056974 🔝 escort service
 
Topmost Black magic specialist in Saudi Arabia Or Bangali Amil baba in UK Or...
Topmost Black magic specialist in Saudi Arabia  Or Bangali Amil baba in UK Or...Topmost Black magic specialist in Saudi Arabia  Or Bangali Amil baba in UK Or...
Topmost Black magic specialist in Saudi Arabia Or Bangali Amil baba in UK Or...
 
Top 8 Krishna Bhajan Lyrics in English.pdf
Top 8 Krishna Bhajan Lyrics in English.pdfTop 8 Krishna Bhajan Lyrics in English.pdf
Top 8 Krishna Bhajan Lyrics in English.pdf
 
Unity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah_For Digital Viewing.pdf
Unity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah_For Digital Viewing.pdfUnity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah_For Digital Viewing.pdf
Unity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah_For Digital Viewing.pdf
 
原版1:1复刻莫纳什大学毕业证Monash毕业证留信学历认证
原版1:1复刻莫纳什大学毕业证Monash毕业证留信学历认证原版1:1复刻莫纳什大学毕业证Monash毕业证留信学历认证
原版1:1复刻莫纳什大学毕业证Monash毕业证留信学历认证
 
Topmost Kala ilam expert in UK Or Black magic specialist in UK Or Black magic...
Topmost Kala ilam expert in UK Or Black magic specialist in UK Or Black magic...Topmost Kala ilam expert in UK Or Black magic specialist in UK Or Black magic...
Topmost Kala ilam expert in UK Or Black magic specialist in UK Or Black magic...
 
The Chronological Life of Christ part 097 (Reality Check Luke 13 1-9).pptx
The Chronological Life of Christ part 097 (Reality Check Luke 13 1-9).pptxThe Chronological Life of Christ part 097 (Reality Check Luke 13 1-9).pptx
The Chronological Life of Christ part 097 (Reality Check Luke 13 1-9).pptx
 
Seerah un nabi Muhammad Quiz Part-1.pdf
Seerah un nabi  Muhammad Quiz Part-1.pdfSeerah un nabi  Muhammad Quiz Part-1.pdf
Seerah un nabi Muhammad Quiz Part-1.pdf
 
Amil baba in uk amil baba in Australia amil baba in canada
Amil baba in uk amil baba in Australia amil baba in canadaAmil baba in uk amil baba in Australia amil baba in canada
Amil baba in uk amil baba in Australia amil baba in canada
 
St. Louise de Marillac: Animator of the Confraternities of Charity
St. Louise de Marillac: Animator of the Confraternities of CharitySt. Louise de Marillac: Animator of the Confraternities of Charity
St. Louise de Marillac: Animator of the Confraternities of Charity
 
Unity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah + Song List.pdf
Unity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah + Song List.pdfUnity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah + Song List.pdf
Unity is Strength 2024 Peace Haggadah + Song List.pdf
 
Study of the Psalms Chapter 1 verse 1 by wanderean
Study of the Psalms Chapter 1 verse 1 by wandereanStudy of the Psalms Chapter 1 verse 1 by wanderean
Study of the Psalms Chapter 1 verse 1 by wanderean
 
Dubai Call Girls Skinny Mandy O525547819 Call Girls Dubai
Dubai Call Girls Skinny Mandy O525547819 Call Girls DubaiDubai Call Girls Skinny Mandy O525547819 Call Girls Dubai
Dubai Call Girls Skinny Mandy O525547819 Call Girls Dubai
 
No 1 astrologer amil baba in Canada Usa astrologer in Canada
No 1 astrologer amil baba in Canada Usa astrologer in CanadaNo 1 astrologer amil baba in Canada Usa astrologer in Canada
No 1 astrologer amil baba in Canada Usa astrologer in Canada
 
Asli amil baba in Karachi Pakistan and best astrologer Black magic specialist
Asli amil baba in Karachi Pakistan and best astrologer Black magic specialistAsli amil baba in Karachi Pakistan and best astrologer Black magic specialist
Asli amil baba in Karachi Pakistan and best astrologer Black magic specialist
 

Modernism & Post Modernity

  • 1. A2 Theory and Methods Modernity and Post- Modernity
  • 2. Mass Production Community life Family Science aided progress and finding the truth Social class Modernity Nationhood A belief in continuity and Overt social situation control A role for A one-way education media Structure/security/place/stability YOU KNEW WHO YOU WERE
  • 3. Fragmentation of social life Globalisation Search for has narrowed truth time and People less space likely to Modern age has lost the enlightenment follow rigid ideology Consumerism is all Postmodernism Greater pluralism in modern life The impact of ICT on social life No absolutes Culture and Transformation Traditional labels structures are of the self and categories fragmented (‘pick ‘n’ mix’) loose relevance Less predictable Confusion/lack of structure/ incessant choice YOU CREATE WHO YOU WANT TO BE
  • 4. Post-modernism illustrated – ‘reality TV’ & ‘Disneyland’ Reality TV illustrates the interchange between the consumer and the media They are ‘real people’ who can be observed and scrutinised. Disneyland is a simulacra. It is They do not entertain – rather than simulated reality. It is artificial – yet exist…they are a mish-mash of cctv ‘real’. surveillance and game show In the real world they are talentless It is a place that exists and is nobody's who are treated as stars accepted because our imagination makes it so. The fine line between reality and fantasy is ‘greyer’. The power of the symbol over substance
  • 5. Modernity & Globalisation The Enlightenment Project • Modernist theories e.g. Marxism are part of the project- the idea that through reason and science, we can discover true knowledge and progress to a better society
  • 6. Find evidence of your own contact with globalisation: 1. Look at the labels in your clothes/shoes and find four different countries in which they have been produced. 2. Identify four events in distant parts of the world that you have seen on TV in the last month. 3. Identify four global brand names you have seen advertised in this country or, if possible, seen in other countries.
  • 7. Globalisation- growing interconnectedness of societies Occurring for several reasons: 1. Technological changes e.g. Internet/ air travel 2.Economic changes e.g. Growth of transnational companies (TNC’s) 3.Political changes e.g. Fall of communism & growth of transnational bodies have created opportunities for global capitalism 4.Changes in culture and identity
  • 8. Rapid changes linked to globalisation have led to new questions: • What kind of society do we now live in- modern/ new postmodern society? • What kind of theory can explain today’s society?- postmodernism/new version of modernism? • The Enlightenment project- can we achieve true knowledge to improve society? Three theories offer answers: PM, theories of Late modernity, Marxist theories of PM
  • 10. Postmodernism • We now live in a new era • There are no objective criteria to prove whether a theory is true therefore any theory claiming to have the truth about how to create a better society e.g. Marxism is a meta narrative- someone’s version of reality. They are no longer sufficient to make sense of our changing world • We should celebrate the diversity of views rather than seek to impose one version of the truth
  • 11. • They do not accept the ideas of the Enlightenment project- do not believe in the power of Science to solve all social and environmental problems. • Media produces an endless stream of images, making culture unstable and fragmented; there is no longer a coherent set of shared values. People cease to believe any one version of the truth • Identity becomes destabilised: we can change it simply by changing our consumption patterns, picking and mixing media-produced images to define ourselves
  • 12. What criticisms of PM are there? Page 255
  • 13. Theories of Late Modernity • Unlike Postmodernism, theories of late modernity (TLM) argue that today’s rapid changes are not the dawn of a new postmodern era, but a continuation of modern society. • We are now in late or high modernity. Key features of modernity have now become intensified; e.g. change has always been typical of modern society, but now it has gone into overdrive. • TLM subscribe to the Enlightenment project.
  • 14. Giddens reflexivity and high modernity • High modernity has two key features that encourage globalisation and rapid change: • Disembedding – no longer need face to face contact in order to interact. Disembedding breaks down geographical barriers and make interaction more impersonal. • Reflexivity: Tradition and custom no longer serve as a guide to how we should act. • We are thus forced to become reflexive – to reflect on and modify our actions in the light of information about risks. • This means we are continually re-evaluating our ideas. Under these conditions, cultures becomes increasingly unstable.
  • 15. • Disembedding and Reflexivity account for rapid and widespread nature of social change in high modernity • By enabling social interaction to spread rapidly across the globe, they help to drive the process of globalisation
  • 16. Beck: risk society • We now face new high consequence risks, e.g. environmental harm. Beck calls these ‘manufactured risks’ as they result from technology, not nature. • Like Giddens Beck sees late modernity as a period of growing individualisation, in which we become increasingly reflexive. Tradition no longer governs how we act. As a result we have to think for ourselves and reflect on the possible consequences of our choice of action
  • 18. Marxist Theories of Post modernity • Like Beck & Giddens (& unlike PM’s) they believe in the Enlightenment project for achieving objective knowledge and using it to improve society • However they agree with PM’s that we have moved from modernity to postmodernity • But do not see it as a new society but merely the most recent stage of capitalism • To understand modernity we must examine its relationship with capitalism
  • 19. Flexible accumulation • Postmodernity arose out of the capitalist crisis of the 1970’s (end of the economic boom) which gave rise to a new way of achieving profitability (Flexible accumulation) • It involves the use of ICT, an expanded service and finance sector, job insecurity and working ‘flexibility’ to fit employers needs. • It involves production of customised products for ‘niche’ markets (rather than mass markets) and brings many of the features of postmodernity
  • 20. The features include: • Customised products promote cultural diversity • Easy switching of production from one product to another • Leisure, culture and identity become commodities produced for profit • Global finance markets and ICT produce compression of time and space • It brings about political changes, especially the weakening of the WC movement. In its place, a variety of oppositional movements emerge e.g. feminism, environmentalism
  • 21. Summary • We have moved from modernity to postmodernity however Marxist views differ in two ways: 1. They retain a faith in Marxist theory as a means of explaining these changes 2.They argue that the goal of Enlightenment project- to change society for better- can still be achieved

Editor's Notes

  1. consumption fragmentation (individualism) Identity from other sources Families (many options) Breakage with the past/tradition Education for what? Duality of media (choice/interchange) Covert control (CCTV etc) Global Science is only one source of knowledge – plurality of truths now We can now make spiritual choices that fit in with our identity and our own version of ultimate truth and meaning. Faith is now ‘up for grabs’ in the absence of absolute truth Emphasis on the centrality of style, at the expense of substance Recycling past cultures and styles – pastiche Playful use of ‘useless’ decoration Celebration of complexity and contradiction. Mixture of high and low culture. Sensitivity to the subtleties of image, language and signs Intermixing – different styles – collaging Accepting the collapse of distinction and difference Rejection of monolithic definitions of culture – celebrate pluralism and diversity Scepticism towards metanarratives and ‘absolutism’ Decline of the idea of only one source of meaning –truth. There is a rejection of science evident in concerns about the environment and the damage causes by industrialisation. People tend to look at the negative side of progress rather than see the positive benefits which can be seen by the rising tide of criticism of cars and transport policies. We are more influenced by other cultures and belief systems so that we use goods produced in a variety of countries, we eat foods from a variety of sources. We are more aware of popular cultures and they assume greater significance in our lives than ever before. The media control our perspectives and create our realities. Consumption and lifestyle define our status rather than work and income. We tend to reject politics in the traditional sense of world views and take on personal perspective politics such as feminism, pacifism, environmentalism or fundamentalism. We are less likely to view things as a traditional dichotomy (e.g. male vs. female) but to see things as places on a continuum (gender as a number of possibilities) Much of what we do and see is referential, for instance the media often need a previous knowledge of other, similar media forms to be understood. Media cultures are complex and difficult to assimilate. ( Independence Day draws on a long tradition of ‘B’ movies)
  2. Religion in a post-modern age Faith could re-emerge as scientific thinking loses significance Religious symbols have new life in new contexts Faith is now ‘up for grabs’ in the absence of absolute truth People can blend elements of various faiths to suit their lifestyle Globalisation has divorced faiths from locations and cultures fundamentalism is a response to a moral vacuum People can make choices which are more personal and meaningful Collective worship no longer needs to be based on ‘face to face’ interaction How have traditional religious symbols been recycled. Where can we find crucifixes, pentangles, kaballah bracelets, buddhas etc
  3. It ignores the ruling class use of the media as a tool of ideological domination It is wrong to claim people cannot distinguish between reality and media image By assuming all views are equally true, it becomes just as valid to deny the Nazi’s murdered millions as to affirm it Critics argue that we can use knowledge to sol Strengths: Postmodernism has tried to interpret the new social and cultural changes, such as the opening up of the Eastern Bloc. It has attempted to analyse the growing impact of mass media on society It challenged the absolutist positions of the old metanarrative It sees individuals as having choices to create pick and mix identities through consumerism.   Weaknesses: Postmodernism is a confusing theoretical approach, as different thinkers emphasise different aspects. In challenging the metanarrative, it is in danger if becoming a new theoretical position in itself. Postmodernism emphasises the cultural at the expense if the social and economic It fails to recognise the constraints on the individuals of the huge social inequalities that still exist based on economics, gender and ethnicity. It is seen as overplaying the role of the mass media and taking a relatively passive view of the individual as audience member. ve human problems
  4. However, unlike postmodernists, Giddens and Beck believe we can make rational plans based on objective knowledge to reduce these risks and achieve progress.