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Crime control, punishment and                 victims.
Last Lesson Recap 1. Using your notes create a mindmap/diagram that will help    consolidate knowledge onGlobalisation, Gr...
Lesson Objectives• Understand and be able to evaluate a range of  crime prevention and control strategies• Understand and ...
Crime prevention Activity• Have you or your family taken any crime prevention  measures or precautions in the last year? F...
Situational crime prevention• Ron Clarke ( 1992) argues for a pre-emptive  approach which looks at reducing opportunities ...
• As a right realist he believes target hardening  (locking doors and windows) and more  CCTV/security will increase the r...
Evaluation• SCP works to an extent in reducing certain kinds of crime,  however with most measures there is likely to be  ...
Environmental Crime Prevention• Wilson & Kelling argue that ‘broken windows’  (signs of disorder e.g. graffiti, begging,  ...
This is what I call a perfectneighbourhood                        •   Well-maintained areas                        •   Low...
Oh my! W                                       ha t                              world com is this                        ...
Etzioni (1993)Etzioni (1993)
• The solution is to crack down on any disorder  using 2 strategies:1.environmental improvement strategy- repair  any brok...
Social & Community Crime Prevention• Rather than emphasising policing, these strategies  emphasise dealing with the social...
Social & Community Crime Prevention• Rather than emphasising policing, these strategies                           Addition...
• These approaches (SCP, ECP and S&CCP) take for  granted the nature and definition of crime.• They focus on low level &/o...
Recap Questions•   What is SCP?•   What criticisms exist of SCP techniques?•   What is ECP based on?•   How is ECP impleme...
Victims of Crime
• Victim: those who have suffered harm (inc mental,  physical or emotional suffering, economic loss and  impairment of bas...
Positivist Victimology• Focuses on interpersonal crimes• It tries to identify why certain people are  victims of crimes.• ...
• Victim Precipitation- Wolfgang’s study of  homicides found that in 26% of cases the  victim triggered the events leading...
Critical Victimology• Based on Marxism and Feminism it wants to highlight  structural factors like poverty or patriarchy w...
Evaluation• Disregards the role victims may play in  bringing victimisation on themselves e.g. not  making their homes sec...
Patterns & The impact of Victimisation• The average chance of an individual being the  victim of a crime in any one year i...
Class                                 Patterns of victimisation            EthnicityThe poorest groups are                ...
Quick Check Questions pg 145          Q1, 2 and 3
Punishment
Prison – key facts8.75 million people in prisons across the world. The U.S has the highest prison population compared wi...
• There are different justifications for punishment  and they link to different penal policies.• Deterrence- punishment ma...
Functionalism & Punishment            (Durkheim)• Function of punishment is to uphold social  solidarity and reinforce sha...
1. Retributive Justice- Traditional society has a   strong collective conscience, so punishment   is severe and vengeful2....
Repressive State Apparatuses•   Those systems and structures in a society that control the relations of    production thro...
Marxism: Capitalism & Punishment• Interested in how punishment is related to the  nature of class society and how it serve...
• Under capitalism imprisonment becomes the  dominant punishment because in the  capitalist economy, time is money and  of...
Box 2.3                Page 141What differences appear between these two                descriptions?
The Birth of The Prison • Sovereign power – punishment before the     19th century were a public spectacleare under survei...
AO2:  • Foucaults claims of a shift from corporal punishment to                imprisonment is over simplistic• He exagger...
Trends in Punishment1. Read through Imprisonment Today   and summarise what is suggested   about the changing role of pris...
2. Transcarceration- trend towards this  (moving people between different prison like institutions in  their lives) e.g.  ...
3. Alternatives to Prison-• In the past goal of dealing with young offenders was   ‘diversion’ – diverting away from CJS t...
Quick Check Questions pg 145            Q4- 8
Control, punishment and victims
Control, punishment and victims
Control, punishment and victims
Control, punishment and victims
Control, punishment and victims
Control, punishment and victims
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Control, punishment and victims

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Control, punishment and victims

  1. 1. Crime control, punishment and victims.
  2. 2. Last Lesson Recap 1. Using your notes create a mindmap/diagram that will help consolidate knowledge onGlobalisation, Green Crime & State Crime 2. Quick Check Questions Page 135
  3. 3. Lesson Objectives• Understand and be able to evaluate a range of crime prevention and control strategies• Understand and be able to evaluate different perspectives on punishment• Know the main trends in sentencing and understand their significance• Know the main patterns of victimisation and be able to evaluate sociological perspectives on victimisation
  4. 4. Crime prevention Activity• Have you or your family taken any crime prevention measures or precautions in the last year? For example, are you careful in the way you use your mobile phone?• Have you been reluctant to go out at night alone? Do you ever carry any pepper spray/ whistle/ alarm? Is your home alarmed?• Do you have locks on windows and security lights? If you drive, have you stopped leaving items inside your car when it is parked?• Design a questionnaire and carry out a small survey amongst your fellow students to assess how widespread these precautions are in your locality.
  5. 5. Situational crime prevention• Ron Clarke ( 1992) argues for a pre-emptive approach which looks at reducing opportunities for crime.• He identifies 3 features of measures aimed at situational crime prevention: 1. They are directed at specific crimes, 2. They involve managing/altering immediate environment of the crime and 3. They aim at increasing the effort and risks of committing crime and reducing rewards
  6. 6. • As a right realist he believes target hardening (locking doors and windows) and more CCTV/security will increase the risk of being caught and lower the rewards.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIGUVu3x0kQhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OfuMEGMersE&feature=related• Underlying SCP is rational choice theory (what is this?)• Clarke suggests most theories offer no realistic solution. Most crime is opportunistic so we need to reduce the opportunities Read bottom pg 137 and how SCP worked at NYC bus terminal (Felson)
  7. 7. Evaluation• SCP works to an extent in reducing certain kinds of crime, however with most measures there is likely to be displacement• Over focuses on opportunistic petty street crime & ignores white collar, corporate and state crime (costly & harmful)• Assumes criminals make rational calculations, this is unlikely in many crimes of violence and drug/alcohol fuelled crimes• Ignores root of crime e.g. poverty or poor socialisation. Making it difficult to develop long term strategies for crime reduction• CCTV operators focus disproportionately on young males. Feminists suggest CCTV is an extension of male gaze and is part of the problem not a solution
  8. 8. Environmental Crime Prevention• Wilson & Kelling argue that ‘broken windows’ (signs of disorder e.g. graffiti, begging, littering, vandalism) that are not dealt with send out a signal that no-one cares, encouraging a spiral of decline.• An absence of formal social control (police) and informal control (community) means members of the community feel powerless and intimidated
  9. 9. This is what I call a perfectneighbourhood • Well-maintained areas • Low crime rates • Feel apart of society • Less likely to offend Wilson and Kelling (1982) Wilson and Kelling (1982)
  10. 10. Oh my! W ha t world com is this ing to, I don’t feel safe anymore! • No social control • Loose their sense of belonging • Increase in crime • Damaged societyWilson and Kelling (1982)Wilson and Kelling (1982)
  11. 11. Etzioni (1993)Etzioni (1993)
  12. 12. • The solution is to crack down on any disorder using 2 strategies:1.environmental improvement strategy- repair any broken window immediately, tow abandoned cars without delay2.Zero tolerance policing- instead of reacting to crime, police must pro actively tackle even the slightest sign of disorder even if not criminal. Halting neighbourhood crime and preventing serious crime taking root
  13. 13. Social & Community Crime Prevention• Rather than emphasising policing, these strategies emphasise dealing with the social conditions that predispose some individuals to future crime.• Longer term strategies since they attempt to tackle root cause of offending rather than removing opportunities for crime.• As poverty is cause of crime, general social policies have crime prevention role e.g. Full employment policies are likely to reduce crime as a ‘side effect’ Read about the Perry pre- school project (pg 139)
  14. 14. Social & Community Crime Prevention• Rather than emphasising policing, these strategies Additional Policies: emphasise dealing with the social conditions that • Educational Programmes to future crime. predispose some individuals aimed at improving educational success in inner city comps & reducing• Longer term strategies sinceyear olds leaving schooltackle exclusions and number of 16 they attempt to root cause of offending rather than removing with no qualifications • Min pay legislation- people paid fair wage and not opportunities for crime. tempted to become welfare dependent• As poverty is cause wealth and income inequalities policies • Reduction in of crime, general social have crime prevention role e.g.urban communities • Economic investment in poorer Full employment policies areto createto reduce crime Stratford effect’ likely jobs e.g. Westfields as a ‘side Read about the Perry pre- school project (pg 139)
  15. 15. • These approaches (SCP, ECP and S&CCP) take for granted the nature and definition of crime.• They focus on low level &/or interpersonal crimes of violence (disregard crimes of powerful & environmental)• Definition of ‘crime problem’ reflects priorities of politicians and agencies tasked with crime prevention• Results suggest crime strategies do not take into consideration all crimes e.g. environmental crime which is harmful to health of local communities
  16. 16. Recap Questions• What is SCP?• What criticisms exist of SCP techniques?• What is ECP based on?• How is ECP implemented?• S&CCP emphasises dealing with social conditions that predispose people to crime. What ways do they suggest in order to tackle the problem?
  17. 17. Victims of Crime
  18. 18. • Victim: those who have suffered harm (inc mental, physical or emotional suffering, economic loss and impairment of basic rights)• Christie (1986): Victim is a concept like crime that is socially constructed, who is and isn’t a victim changes depending on the context.• Stereotype of ‘ideal victim’ favoured by media, public & CJS is a weak, innocent and blameless victim e.g. child, old woman• Important to study victimology- they provide most of the evidence used in detection of offenders and act as witnesses. Two approaches (positivist & critical)
  19. 19. Positivist Victimology• Focuses on interpersonal crimes• It tries to identify why certain people are victims of crimes.• Aims to identify patterns of victimisation• Early work focused on victim proneness meaning finding social and psychological characteristics that made them more vulnerable than non-victims e.g. female, elderly, lower intelligence. Implication is that in some way ‘invite’ victimisation
  20. 20. • Victim Precipitation- Wolfgang’s study of homicides found that in 26% of cases the victim triggered the events leading to murder e.g. by using violence first AO2: • Wolfgang shows importance of victim-offender relationship (in many homicides matter of chance which party becomes the victim) • Ignores wider structural factors influencing victimisation e.g. poverty & patriarchy • It’s close to being victim blaming (linked to rape & victim asking for it) • Ignores situations where victims are unaware of victimisation e.g. environmental or where harm is done but now law broken
  21. 21. Critical Victimology• Based on Marxism and Feminism it wants to highlight structural factors like poverty or patriarchy which put the powerless at greater risk of being a victim.• Victimisation is a form of structural powerlessness• Through the CJS the state applies the label of victim to some but withholds it from others e.g. when police fail to press charges against a man for assaulting his wife, she is denied victim status• Tombs & Whyte (2007) show that employers violations of the law leading to death or injury to workers are often explained away as the fault of accident prone workers
  22. 22. Evaluation• Disregards the role victims may play in bringing victimisation on themselves e.g. not making their homes secure• It is valuable in drawing attention to the way the ‘victim’ status is constructed by power and how this benefits the powerful at the expense of the powerless
  23. 23. Patterns & The impact of Victimisation• The average chance of an individual being the victim of a crime in any one year is about 1 in 4, this risk is unevenly distributed between social groups1. Predict what you think will be the trends in victimisation and age, class, ethnicity and gender2. Compare your predictions to page 144 and summarise the stats3. Read through the impact of victimisation and summarise
  24. 24. Class Patterns of victimisation EthnicityThe poorest groups are Minority ethnicmost likely to be victims of Age groups most at risk ofall crimes. Homeless people Younger people are most at all crimes. Ethnic are 12 times more likely to risk of crimes like assault, minorities most likelyexperience violence than theft, sexual harassment. to feel under-the general population. Infants under one are at protected yet over most risk of being murdered. controlled.Women who have beenraped but whose cases Genderhave failed in court are Victimology: The study Males most at risk ofalso victims of the legal of victims violent attacks especially by strangers. 70% ofsystem. homicide victims are The impact of victimisation male.FearThe media has a large Research has found that a variety ofpart to play when stirring effects such as disrupted sleep, Repeat victimsup fear but statistically feelings of helplessness, increased Once you have been a victimspeaking men are more security-consciousness and difficulties once you are very likely to belikely to be victims of in socialising. Crime can also create again. Suggests people wereviolence yet some women fear in communities, these are victims for a reason, perhapsfear going out late at referred to as indirect victims. even targeted.night.
  25. 25. Quick Check Questions pg 145 Q1, 2 and 3
  26. 26. Punishment
  27. 27. Prison – key facts8.75 million people in prisons across the world. The U.S has the highest prison population compared with populationThe U.K has the highest prison population in Europe.
  28. 28. • There are different justifications for punishment and they link to different penal policies.• Deterrence- punishment may prevent future crime from fear of further punishment• Rehabilitation- Reforming/re-educating offenders so they no longer offend e.g. anger management• Incapacitation- Removing the offenders capacity to re-offend e.g. execution/imprisonment/cutting off hands• Retribution- The ideas that the society is entitled to take revenge for the offender having breached its moral code (expresses societies outrage)
  29. 29. Functionalism & Punishment (Durkheim)• Function of punishment is to uphold social solidarity and reinforce shared values by expressing society’s moral outrage at the offence• Through use of public trials and punishment, societys shared values are reaffirmed & its members come to a sense of moral unity• There are two types of justice; retributive and restitutive
  30. 30. 1. Retributive Justice- Traditional society has a strong collective conscience, so punishment is severe and vengeful2. Restitutive Justice- In modern society there is extensive interdependence between individuals. Crime damages this and the function of justice should be to repair the damage e.g. through compensationAO2: Durkheim’s view is too simplistic; traditional societiesoften have restitutive rather than retributive justice e.g.blood feuds settled by compensation rather than execution
  31. 31. Repressive State Apparatuses• Those systems and structures in a society that control the relations of production through mainly repressive, physical means. Althusser claims that these structures are necessary (in conjunction with ISA e.g. media, family, religion) to maintain the reproduction of the relations of production, or in other words, to keep the labourers labouring for the State and the bourgeoisie society.• The RSAs include the following: government (including administration at all levels),• police,• courts,• prisons,• the military, etc. They argue that harsh punishments are part of the Repressive State Apparatuses (RSA) which keep the working class in their place
  32. 32. Marxism: Capitalism & Punishment• Interested in how punishment is related to the nature of class society and how it serves the ruling- class interests• Function of punishment is to maintain existing social order (Repressive State Apparatuses)• It’s a means of defending ruling class property against lower classes• The form of punishment reflects the economic base of society (money fines impossible without a money economy)
  33. 33. • Under capitalism imprisonment becomes the dominant punishment because in the capitalist economy, time is money and offenders ‘pay’ by ‘doing time’ (repay debt to society)• Prison & capitalist factory have similar strict disciplinary styles involving subordination and loss of liberty
  34. 34. Box 2.3 Page 141What differences appear between these two descriptions?
  35. 35. The Birth of The Prison • Sovereign power – punishment before the 19th century were a public spectacleare under surveillance We with all the time: CCTV, our hangings and stockades, its was a way of ID cards… loyalty cards,Prisons are a metaphor forasserting the monarchs power over its prisoners. we’re all becoming how all of us arecontrolled and watched bycitizens. those in power. • Disciplinary power – punishment after 19th century was not just about governance over the body but the mind or soul, this is done through surveillance – Panopticon (pg 141)
  36. 36. AO2: • Foucaults claims of a shift from corporal punishment to imprisonment is over simplistic• He exaggerates the extent of control (e.g. even psychiatric patients can resist control)
  37. 37. Trends in Punishment1. Read through Imprisonment Today and summarise what is suggested about the changing role of prisons (pg 141)2. Also make a brief note of the era of mass incarceration (maybe jot down some statistics)
  38. 38. 2. Transcarceration- trend towards this (moving people between different prison like institutions in their lives) e.g. brought up in care, young offenders institute then adult prison• It is a product of the blurring of boundaries between CJS and welfare agencies e.g. social services, health & housing are increasingly being given a crime control role (engage in multi agency working with police)
  39. 39. 3. Alternatives to Prison-• In the past goal of dealing with young offenders was ‘diversion’ – diverting away from CJS to avoid risk of SFP turning them into serious criminals. Focus was on welfare & treatment using non custodial community based controls• Recently there has been a growth in the range of community based controls e.g. curfews, community service orders, tagging• Cohen argues that this has simply cast the net of control over more people....increased range of sanctions enables control to penetrate ever deeper into society• Rather than diverting young people away from the CJS community controls divert them into it e.g. ASBO’s fast track way into custodial sentences
  40. 40. Quick Check Questions pg 145 Q4- 8

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