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Smart Power Generation Technology for Africa - Dr Jacob Klimstra

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You can see a video recording of the presentation here: http://stream.3dstudio.fi/lifecycle/player.html?src=http://stream.3dstudio.fi/lifecycle/manifest/Klimstra_Africa_presentation.f4m

Presented by Dr Jacob Klimstra in Power-Gen Africa 2012 in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Published in: Technology
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Smart Power Generation Technology for Africa - Dr Jacob Klimstra

  1. SMART POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY FOR AFRICA JACOB KLIMSTRA FOR WÄRTSILÄ POWER PLANTS1 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  2. THE CHALLENGE: MUCH MORE QUALITY ELECTRICITY NEEDED AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE Gross Domestic Product (PPP) per capita per year in 2009 (year 2000 U$$) 40,000 Trend line 35,000 R2 = 0.95 Europe 30,000 North America 25,000 China World 20,000 Average Latin 15,000 America 10,000 5,000 Middle East Asia (excl. China) 0 0 Africa 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 Electricity use per capita per year (kWh)2 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  3. AFRICA IS NOT AFRICA AVERAGED Final electricity use per capita (kWh/annum) World Average 600 2 500 kWh/cap/year 500 400 Africa total averaged Sub-Saharan Africa minus 300 Rep. South Africa 200 Africa total minus Rep. South Africa 100 0 1,050 1,000 950 900 850 800 750 Population (millions)3 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  4. Typical trend for a desirable electricity supply kWh/capita/year desired kWh/cap trend year 2009 world average target for 2025 3,000 2,500 Growth: 2,000 from 7% towards > 20% 1,500 1,000 500 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2015 2025 year4 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  5. FLEXIBILITY IS CRUCIAL: THE SMART APPROACH ‘Economic boom for Sub-Saharan Africa’ ‘Bleak outlook for the world economy’ ‘Solar PV reaches grid parity’ ‘(No) Agreement on CO2 reduction’5 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  6. MULTIPLE GENERATING UNITS IN PARALLEL OR ONE BIG ONE? • Reliability and availability (tripping & maintenance) • Power output flexibility (demand variations) • Power capacity flexibility (economic circumstances) • Fuel flexibility (gas, bio gas, oil, bio oil) • Capital costs Single Big Power Plant n Smaller units 500 MW 500 MW • Local skills6 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  7. POWER AVAILABILITY IN ENERGY- DEPENDENT COUNTRIES (OECD OR EDC): 99% to 99.99% availability of electricity 99%: 3.7 days per year no electricity 99.9%: 9 hours per year no electricity 99.99%: 53 minutes per year no electricity7 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  8. THE N+ 1 APPROACH: 5 CAN CARRY THE LOAD OF 6 99.85% Probability (%) Unit reliability 99% sufficient power 10 1 0.144089402 0.1 0.01 0.001940598 0.001 0.0001 1.47015E-05 0.00001 0.000001 0.000000 5.94E-08 1E-08 1E-09 1E-10 1E-10 1E-11 2 3 4 5 6 7 Number of units failing at the same time8 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  9. A TYPICAL DAILY DEMAND PATTERN Peak load Power (MW) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 Intermediate load 600 400 200 Base load 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Time of the day (h)9 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  10. NOW: SOLAR PV BREAKS THROUGH Steep and substantial peak Power (MW) Solar Demand Generators 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Time of the day (h)10 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  11. FAST RESPONSE NEEDED Power (MW) Gas Engine GTCC Steam Plant 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 Time (minute)11 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  12. LOWER UTILISATION FACTOR  CAPITAL COSTS  Relative capital costs per kWh Gas Engine PP Coal-fired PP Nuclear PP 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Utilisation factor (%)12 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  13. SMART POWER GENERATION: EFFICIENT, FLEXIBLE, FAST, LOW COSTS Electricity grid connection 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Fuel supply Multiple units in parallel run only when needed13 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  14. CASCADING: ONLY RUN WHEN IT IS REALLY NEEDED Fuel efficiency (%) Single Generating Unit Cascading Power Plant 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Power output (MW)14 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  15. MINIMUM MAINTENANCE COSTS Specific maintenance costs (€cts/kWh) Single Generating Unit Cascading Power Plant 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Power output (MW)15 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  16. POWERPLANTS IN AFRICA HFO DUAL LFO GAS Crude16 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  17. AFRICA INDUSTRIES HFO DUAL LFO GAS Crude Total output 2442.4 MW Plants 353 Engines 752 In Countries 3817 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  18. AFRICA UTILITIES HFO DUAL LFO GAS Total output 4198.9 MW Plants 417 Engines 949 In Countries 4218 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  19. IN CONCLUSION 1. Africa shows huge growth in power demand 2. Africa needs flexible power plants 3. Power plants based on multiple units offer flexibility, reliability and efficiency 4. Africa is already a forerunner with flexible plants19 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012
  20. VISION – SMART POWER GENERATION20 © Wärtsilä | POWERGEN AFRICA 2012

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